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1660. Cambridge. By the act of indemnity, which was brought over
the last of November, it appeared that Whalley and Goffe were go to New
not excepted with those to whom pardon was offered; and they Haven.
soon after went to New Haven, where they remained in conceal
ment. Marlbo- A tract of land, six miles square, having been granted to some rough in
of the inhabitants of Sudbury; it was now incorporated by the corporated.
name of Marlborough.2 Brookfield
Several of the inhabitants of Ipswich, on petition to the genesetted. ral court of Massachusetts, obtained a grant of land, near Qua
baug pond, six miles square; which was soon after settled, and
named Brookfield.? Removals Differences concerning baptism terminated in the removal of to Hajley, and North
one part of the churches and towns of Hartford, Wethersfield, ampton. nd Windsor, to plantations higher on Connecticut river. Some
of the people who removed, settled Hadley; others removed to Northampton. A new church was formed at Hadley, of which Mr. John Russell, who had been in the ministry at Wethersfield, but removed with the dissatisfied brethren, was the first
pastor." Woolwich. Woolwich, in the province of Maine, was settled.5
1 Hutchinson, i. 215, 216. Chalmers, b. 1. 249. Stiles, Hist. of Three of the Judges of king Charles I. 23—26. Some of the principal persons in the govern. ment of Massachusetts were now alarmed. The governor summoned a court of assistants 22 February 1661, to consult about securing the fugitives; but the court did not agree to it. Finding it unsafe to remain longer where they were, they left Cambridge 26 February, and arrived at New Haven 7 March. A few days after their removal, a hue and cry was brought by the way of Barbadoes ; and the governor and assistants issued a warrant 8 March to secure them. To avoid all suspicion of their sincerity, they sent Thomas Kellond and Thomas Kirk, zealous royalists, to go through the colonies, as far as Manhattan, in search of them; but deputy governor Leet favouring their concealment, and Mr. Davenport, minister of New Haven, and a few other confidential persons, actually aiding it, they effectually eluded discovery.
2 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iv. 46. Its Indian name was Okommakamesit; and it appears to have begun to be settled by the English about the year 1654. 3 Coll
. Mass. Hist. Soc. i. 258. The court required these conditions : “ Provided they have 20 families there resident within three years, and that they have an able minister settled there within the said term, such as the court shall approve; and that they make due provision in some way or other for the future, either by setting apart of lands, or what else shall be thought mete for the continuance of the ministry among them.” The Indian proprietor, Shattoockquis, gave a deed of the land to the English 10 November 1665. See a copy of it, ibid.
4 Trumbull, b. 1. c. 13. Pres. Stiles' Literary Diary. Hubbard (c. 41.] says, the removal “was orderly and peaceably.” Noah Webster Esq. who has obligingly furnished me with information on this and other articles of our history, writes : « The original agreement or association for removal is on record-dated at Hartford April 18, 1659. John Webster is the first signer, and about 30 names follow. Mr. Russell and his people signed another instrument, and his name at the head of the list is followed by about 30 of his congregation.” John Webster (who was an ancestor of my correspondent) may be considered as the founder of Hadley. He was repeatedly chosen governor of Connecticut.
5 Sullivan, 169. Mills were now erected there.
The township of Norwich, in Connecticut, having been pur- 1660. chased of the natives ; the reverend James Fitch, with the principal part of his church and congregation, removed from Norwich. Saybrook, and planted that town.
The town of Huntington, on Long Island, was received as a Huntingmember of the Connecticut jurisdiction.”
There were, at this time, in New England ten Indian towns, Towns of of such as were called Praying Indians.3 The first Indian church praying In
dians. in New England was now embodied at Natick.4
About this time' a few adventurers emigrated from Massachusetts, and settled around Cape Fear.5
Hugh Peters, formerly a minister in Salem, suffered death Death of with the king's judges in England.“
ernor of Vir
1661. CHARLES II, in his instructions to Sir William Berkeley, gov- Instructions ernor of Virginia, required him to call an assembly as soon as to the govmight be, and to assure it of the royal intention to grant a general
ginia. pardon and oblivion of all persons, those only excepted, who were attainted by act of parliament, provided that body should repeal all acts made during the rebellion, derogatory from the obedience which the colonies owed to the king and government of England ; to transmit an account of all tobacco shipped from that colony, that every one might be punished, who should transgress the act of navigation; and to transmit his opinion of the practicability of establishing an iron work. The laws of England, which seem to have been observed by consent of the settlers of
1 Trumbull, i. 236. The township is about nine miles square. In June 1659, Uncas and his two sons, by a formal deed, made it over to Thomas Leffingwell and 34 other proprietors; who, at this time, gave Uncas and his sons about £70, as a farther compensation, in addition to a former benefit, on account of which Uncas had given Leffingwell a deed of a great part, if not of the whole town.
2 Trumbull, i. 237.
5 Chalmers, b. 1. 515, 516. These emigrants, from the unpropitious soil and climate, and the want of a good fishery, for some years experienced the miseries of want. On their solicitation of aid from their countrymen, the general court ordered a universal contribution for their relief. Dr. Williamson says, the New England colony, which settled this year on Old town creek, were driven away by the Indians; that they deserted their habitations before the autumn of 1663, leaving many hogs and neat cattle in the hands of the Indians.
6 Bentley, Hist. Salem, in Mass. Hist. Soc. vi. 253. Hume, Hist. England, vi. c. 63. Hume says, “ No more than six of the late king's judges, Harrison, Scot, Carew, Clement, Jones, and Scrope, were executed.” See A. D. 1641, the year in which Mr. Peters went to England, after which he never returned.
7 'Chalmers, b. 1. 245. The iron work" is proposed,” says the king, “ to be undertaken by ourself.”
1661. Virginia, were now expressly adopted by an act of the assembly
of that colony ; excepting so far as a difference of condition ren
dered them inapplicable.? Society for
The corporation for propagating the gospel in New England, propagating being dead in law, was revived by a new charter from Charles II. the gospel
by the name of “ The Society for the propagation of the Gospel among
the heathen natives of New England, and the parts adjaMay.
The king appointed the great officers of state a committee Committee " touching the settlement of New England.” Complaints being England.
made to the king against Massachusetts, he commanded the
governor and council “to send persons to England, to answer Complaints these various accusations.” Charles II. had not yet been proto the king
claimed by the colony. The governor, on receiving intelligence Massachu- of the transactions that were taking place in England to the
prejudice of the colony, judged it inexpedient longer to delay that solemnity. Calling the court together, a form of proclama
tion was agreed to; and Charles was acknowledged to be their Aug. 8. sovereign lord and king, and proclaimed “to be lawful king of proclaimed. Great Britain, France, and Ireland, and all other territories there
to belonging.' An address to the king was also agreed to, and
ordered to be sent to England." Mandamus The government of New England received a letter from the
king, signifying his pleasure, that there should be no farther king respecting
prosecution of the quakers who were condemned to suffer death quakers. or other corporal punishment, or who were imprisoned and ob
noxious to such condemnation ; but that they be forthwith sent over to England for trial. The Massachusetts general court, after a due consideration of the king's letter, proceeded to declare, that the necessity of preserving religion, order and peace, had induced the enactment of laws against quakers “in reference
1 Jefferson, Virg. Query xiv.
2 Humphreys, Hist. Soc. Propagat. Gospel in Foreign Parts, 6. Brown, Hist. Propagat. Gospel, i. 65. See A. D. 1649.
3 Chalmers, b. 1. c. 10. 244, 253, 254. Hubbard, c. 66. Hutchinson, i. 216 -219. Minot, Mass. i. 40. Hazard, ii. 593-595. The order of the court for proclaiming the king was passed 7 August. “ It is ordered that the king's majesty that now is shall be proclaimed here, in the form hereafter expressed, in Boston on the eighth day of this instant August presently after the Lecture.” The Form is subjoined in Hazard. The court published an order the same day, “ forbidding all disorderly behaviour on the occasion ; declaring, that no person might expect indulgence for the breach of any law ;” and “ in a particular manner, that no man should presume to drink his majesty's health," which, the order says, “ he hath in an especial manner forbid.” This last prohibition, whatever was its origin, was very prudential. Had what was forbidden been enjoined, it might have proved too severe a test of the loyalty of the colonists; especially, if what Chalmers says were strictly true, that king Charles and New England « mutually hated, contemned, and feared eath other, during his reign; because the one suspected its principles of attachment, the other dreaded an invasion of privileges."
to their restless intrusions and impetuous disturbances, and not 1661. any propensity or inclination in us to punish them in person or estate, as is evident from our gradual proceedings with them, releasing some condemned, and others liable to condemnation, and all imprisoned were released and sent out of our borders; that “all this notwithstanding, their restless spirits have moved some of them to return, and others to fill the royal ear of our sovereign lord the King with complaints against us, and have by their unwearied solicitations, in our absence, so far prevailed as to obtain a Letter from his Majesty to forbear their corporal punishment or death; although we hope and doubt not, but that if his Majesty were rightly informed, he would be far from giving them such favour or weakening his authority here, so long and orderly settled : Yet, that we may not in the least offend his Penal laws Majesty, This Court doth hereby order and declare, that the against execution of the laws in force against Quakers as such, so far pended. as they respect corporal punishment or death, be suspended until this Court take further order.” Upon this order of the court, 28 Quakers were released from prison, and conducted out of the jurisdiction of Massachusetts.
On receiving intelligence of farther complaints against the Mass. gencolony of Massachusetts, and orders from the king that persons sends
1 Hubbard, c. 65. Neal, N. Eng. i. 334, 335. Hazard, ii. 593—596. The Mandamus, given at Whitehall 9 September 1661, had this superscription : " To our trusty and well beloved John Endicott Esq. and to all and every other the Governor, or Governors, of our plantations of New England, and of all the Colonies thereunto belonging, that now are, or hereafter shall bee; and to all and every the Ministers and officers of our said plantations and Colonies whatsoever, within the Continent of New England.”- -To vindicate the errors of our ancestors, were to make them our own. If it is allowed, that they were culpable; it is not conceded, that, in the present instance, they stood alone, or that they merited all the censure, bestowed on them. Laws, similar to those of Massachusetts, were passed elsewhere against the quakers, and particularly in Virginia. “ If no execution took place here (Virginia), as it did in New England, it was not owing to the moderation of the church, or spirit of the legislature.” Jefferson, Virg. Query XVII. The prevalent opinion among Christians, at that day, that toleration is sinful, ought to be remembered ; nor may it be forgotten, that the first quakers in New England, beside speaking and writing what was deemed blasphemous, reviled magistrates and ministers, and disturbed religious assemblies; and that the tendency of their tenets and practices was to the subversion of the commonwealth, in that period of its infancy. See A. D. 1662. In reviewing the conduct of our revered ancestors, it is but just to make allowance for the times in which they lived, and the occasions of their measures.
It is readily conceded, however, that severe treatment of sectaries generally serves to increase their zeal, and their numbers, and that it is therefore as repugnant to sound policy, as to the benevolent spirit of Christianity. The great and learned Grotius, in reference to the treatment of the sectaries in Holland, says, with equal candour and discrimination : “ Nec illos plane damnaveris, qui prava et moribus noxia docentes exilio, aut honorum facultatumque ademtione mulctaverunt. Sed contra eventus fuit. Quin ipsa invitant pericula ” &c. Annales, 16, 17. It is hardly needful to subjoin, that, whatever are the religious theories of the Quakers or Friends at this day, their deportment in society excites respect, and conciliates esteem.
agents to England.
should be sent over to make answer, governor Endicot called together the court again, on the 31st of December. The court appointed Simon Bradstreet, one of the magistrates, and John Norton, one of the ministers of Boston, as agents for the colony; gave them instructions; and sent an address by them to the king?
Charles II. made a grant of all the Caribbee islands to Francis lord Willoughby.?
The tract of land at Kennebeck river, owned by Plymouth colony, was sold to Antipas Boies, Edward Tyng, Thoinas Brattle, and John Winslow.3
The Indian translation of the New Testament, by John Eliot, was finished this year, and printed. It was dedicated to Charles the Second.4
Ezekiel Rogers, first minister of Rowley, died, in the 70th year
of his age.
April 20. The charter of Connecticut was granted by king Charles II, Charter of with the most ample privileges, under the great seal of England. cut granted. It ordained, among other provisions, that there should be annually
two general assemblies, one holden on the second Thursday in May, and the other on the second Thursday in October; and that the assembly should consist of the governor, deputy governor, and 12 assistants, with two deputies from every town or city. John Winthrop was appointed governor, and John Mason deputy governor, until a new election should be made. The governor and company were authorized to have a common seal, to appoint judicatories, make freemen, constitute officers, establish laws, impose fines, assemble the inhabitants in marshal array for common defence, and to exercise martial law in all necessary
It was ordained by the charter, that all the king's subjects,
1 Hutchinson, i. c. 2. 1661. Hubbard, c, 66.
4 Gookin, Hist. Coll. in Mass. Hist. Soc. i. 174-176. Thomas, Hist. Printing. It was printed at Cambridge by Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson, 4to. with marginal notes.
5 Mather, Magnal. b. 3. c. 13. He was born in England, educated at Cambridge, became the chaplain of Sir Francis Barrington, and afterward received the benefice of Rowley. His ministry there was attended with great success; but his nonconformity obliged him to leave that field of labour, and come to New England. See A. D. 1639. He brought from England a good library, which was consumed by fire. The books with which he had afterwards“ recruited his library,” he gave to Harvard college. The time of his death, according to the Magnalia, was “ Jan. 23. 1660 ; but in New Style it was 1661.
The tardy justice of our age erected a monument to Rogers in 1805.” Savage,