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1703. about 1400 of the Apalachians, who put themselves under the m protection of the English. Culture of Sir Nathaniel Johnson, about this time, introduced the raising silk in Ca. of silk into Carolina ; but the planters fixed on rice for their

staple commodity. State of

Virginia contained, at this time, 60,606 souls ; of which numVirginia. ber 25,023 were subject to tithes, and 35,583 were women and

children. The number of militia of that colony was 9522. The colony contained 25 counties; and was divided into 49 parishes, 34 of which had incumbents, and 15 were vacant.3

The commission of governor Dudley, formerly president of New England, extended to New Hampshire, and included the province of Maine as pertaining to Massachusetts. The exposed situation of Maine requiring attention, he had orders from Eng

land to rebuild the fort at Pemaquid, but could not prevail on the June 20. Massachusetts assembly to bear the expense of it. This year he Gov. Dud- held a conference with delegates from the tribes of Norridgwock, ley holds a

ference Penobscot, Pigwacket, Penacook, and Amariscoggin, who aswith the E. sured him, that they had not the most distant thought of breaking

the peace; that the union was “firm as a mountain, and should continue as long as the sun and moon.” But while they made these assurances, they were strongly suspected of hostile intentions. Whether such suspicions were well founded, or not, in the space of about six weeks after, a body of 500 French and Indians, in various parties, attacked all the settlements from Casco to Wells, and killed and took 130 persons, burning and destroying all before them.


1 Univ. Hist. xl. 431. Hewatt does not mention this circumstance; but he observes, that this expedition “ filled the savages with terror of the British arms, and helped to pave the way for the English colony afterwards planted between these rivers ” [Alatamaha and Savannah].

2 Hewatt, i. 157. Coxe, in his Carolana (90.), says : “ Silk hath already been experimented, in South Carolina, by Sir Nathaniel Johnson and others, which would have return’d to great account, but that they wanted hands, labourers being not to be hired but at a vast charge.” After mentioning “ the plants which produce hemp and flax," as “ very common in this country,” he says [92.], " Besides we have a grass, as they call it Silk Grass, which makes very pretty stuffs, such as come from the East Indies, which they call Herba Stuffs, whereof a garment was made for Queen Elizabeth, whose ingredient came from Sir Walter Raleigh's colony, by him called Virginia, now North-Carolina, a part of this province, which, to encourage colonies and plantations, she was pleas’d to wear for divers weeks.”

3 Beverly, 433. The militia were 7159 foot, 2363 horse = 9522. Virginia contained 2,164,242 acres of land, beside the Northern Neck, lying between Potowmac and Rappahannock rivers. In the above estimate of the number of inhabitants the French refugees are not included. See Atlas Geog. Amer. v. 712, 713.

4 Penhallow, Ind. Wars. Belknap, N. Hamp. i. 310, 330, 331. British Emp. ii. 87. Hutchinson [ii. c. 2.) has erroneously placed Dudley's conference at Casco in 1702; and has omitted this remarkable devastation, which is related by Penhallow, in his “ Wars of New England." In six weeks after the confer

The assembly of New York passed an act to enable the min- 1703. ister and elders of the French Protestant church in the city of New York to build a larger church for the worship of Almighty N. York. God.

A violent hurricane in Virginia did much damage to the ships Hurricane. and plantations of the colonists.?

A duty of £4 was laid on every negro imported into Massa- Duty on chusetts; and both the vessel and master were made answerable n for its payment.3

Colchester, in Connecticut, was confirmed to the settlers by a Colchester. patent of the legislature.4 Canterbury was incorporated.5

The French founded the town of Kaskaskias.

imported negroes.


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1704. In the night after the 28th of February, a body of 300 French Deerfield and Indians, commanded by Hertel de Rouville, made a violent ne assault on the town of Deerfield, in Massachusetts. The sentinel French & was asleep; and the snow of such depth as to admit an entrance over the pickets of the fort, in the centre of the town. The assailants, availing themselves of these advantages, fell instantly on the unguarded inhabitants; and, in a few hours, slew 47, and took 112 prisoners.? Setting fire to the town, they left it in a conflagration, and proceeded with the captives to Canada. On

ence, “ the whole eastern country was in a conflagration, no house standing, nor garrison unattacked.” Penhallow.

1 Trott, Laws of New York.
2 Atlas Geog. Americ. y. 708.
3 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iv. 196.

4 Trumbull, i. 400. The legislature, in 1698, enacted, that a plantation should be made at this place, then called Jeremy's farm. The settlement began about 1701. The Rev. John Bulkley, Samuel Gilbert, Michael Tainter, Samuel Northam, John Adams, Joseph Pomeroy, and John Loomis, were among the principal planters.

5 Ibid. 405. The settlement of this tract, divided from Plainfield, appears to have commenced about 1690. The principal settlers from Connecticut were major James Fitch and Solomon Tracy from Norwich, Tixhall Ellsworth and Samuel Ashley from Hartford ; “ but much the greatest number was from Newtown, Woburn, Dorchester, Barnstable, and Medfield, in Massachusetts.”

6 American State Papers, xi. 35.

7 The slain were “ 38 beside nine of the neighbouring towns." Williams. The door of the principal garrisoned house is still preserved entire, and may be seen in a dwelling house, near Deerfield church, with several deep marks of the tomahawk, made at the time of entrance. In Hoyt's Indian Wars, printed in 1824, there is an engraved “ View of the Old-House in Deerfield which escaped the conflagration when that town was destroyed in 1704, now owned by Col. Hoyt.”

8 Williams, Redeemed Captive. Hutchinson, ii. 137–139. Fairfield, MS. Journal. On information from colonel Schuyler of Albany of the designs of the enemy against Deerfield, the government, on the application of Mr. Williams, minister of the town, had ordered 20 soldiers as a guard. On the night of the


1704. ihe 30th of July, the French and Indians furiously assailed the

town of Lancaster; killed a few, and obliged the rest of the Lancaster. inhabitants to retreat into garrison; burned the church and six

other buildings; and destroyed many cattle. Expedition

Colonel Benjamin Church having, by governor Dudley's order, of colonel planned an expedition to the eastern shore of New England,

sailed from Boston in May, with 550 soldiers under him, to carry it into effect. In this expedition, which lasted through the summer, Church destroyed the towns of Menis and Chignecto; did considerable damage to the French and Indians at Penobscot,

and Passamaquoddy; and even insulted Port Royal.? Tonnage The legislature of Rhode Island imposed a tonnage duty on all duty.

vessels, not wholly owned by the inhabitants of that colony3 Regulation The American colonies experiencing great inconveniences of coins. from the difference in the value of the same coin, queen Anne,

to remedy the evil by a general medium, published a proclamation “ for settling and ascertaining the current rates of foreign coins in her majesty's plantations in America.”4 The English

28 February, and until about two hours before day, the watch kept the streets, and then incautiously went to sleep. The enemy, who had been hovering about the town, perceiving all to be quiet, first surprised the garrison house. Another party broke into the house of Rey. Mr. Williams, who, rising from his bed, discovered near 20 entering. Instantly taking down his pistol from his bed tester, and cocking it, he put it to the breast of the first Indian who came up; but it missed fire. Three Indians then seized him, and bound him as he was in his shirt. Having kept him nearly an hour, they suffered him to put on his clothes. Some of the party took two of his children to the door, and murdered them; as also a negro woman. His wife, who had lain in but a few weeks before, and his surviving children, were carried off with him for Canada. In wading through a small river the second day, Mrs. Williams, unequal to the labour, fell down; and soon after, at the foot of a mountain, the Indian who took her slew her with his hatchet at one stroke. About 20 more prisoners, giving out on their way, were also killed. The army, with the prisoners, was 25 days between Deerfield and Chambly, depending on hunting for support. The whole journey to Quebec was at least 300 miles. Most of the prisoners who arrived at Canada, were, at different periods, redeemed. In 1706, Mr. Williams and 57 others were redeemed, and returned home. One of his daughters (Eunice) became assimilated to the Indians, to one of whom she was afterward married. No solicitations could prevail with her to leave her family; or to renounce the Roman Catholic religion, which was, with much artifice, instilled into her mind, at an age and in circumstances favourable to the seduction. She repeatedly visited her relations in New England; but she uniformly persisted in wearing her blanket, and counting her beads. Two of her brothers were, after their return, worthy and respectable ministers; one at Waltham, the other at Long Meadow, in Springfield.

1 Harrington, Century Sermon.

2 Hutchinson, ii. 143—145. Belknap, N. Hamp. i. 334. Church's History, 158–193. Church had 14 small transports, was provided with 36 whale boats, and was convoyed by the Jersey man of war, of 48, the Gosport, of 32, and the Province snow, of 14 guns. The inhumanities recently committed on the inhabitants of Deerfield rousing the spirit of this veteran warrior, he took his horse and rode 70 miles, to wait on governor Dudley, and offer his service in behalf of his country.

3 Chalmers, 354.
4 Smith, N. Jersey, 281–283; where the proclamation is entire.

parliament passed an act for encouraging the importation of naval 1704. stores from the American plantations. 1

The legislature of the province of Maryland, then under the Maryland immediate goveroment of the crown, passed an act to oblige all act against persons, who then had, or who should afterwards have, any office pope or place of trust within that province, to take the Oaths of Allegiance and Abjuration. The same legislature passed an act to prevent the growth of Popery within the province.3

The church of England was established in South Carolina. The church An act was passed by the provincial legislature for the more of England

established effectual preservation of the government of that province, by in S. Carorequiring all persons that shall hereafter be chosen members of lina. the commons house of assembly, and sit in the same, to take the oaths and subscribe the declaration appointed by this act, and to conform to the religious worship in the province according to the church of England; and to receive the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, according to the rites and usages of the said church. Another act was passed by the same legislature for the establishment of religious worship in the province of Carolina, according to the church of England ; and for the erecting of churches for the public worship of God; and also for the maintenance of ministers, and the building convenient houses for them. Twenty lay commissioners were constituted a corporation for the exercise of ecclesiastial jurisdiction, with full power to deprive ministers of their living at pleasure.

According to the act for erecting churches, the province was, Act extends not long after, divided into 10 parishes ; 7 in Berkeley, 2 in to French Colleton, and I in Craven county. Money was provided for refugees. building churches; lands were granted for glebes and church yards; and salaries, payable from the provincial treasury, were fixed and appointed for the rectors. The French refugees were noticed in the act. The French settlement on Santee river, in Craven county, was erected into a parish; and the church in James Town, in that settlement, declared to be the parish church. Another parish was erected in the Orange Quarter, for the use of the French settlement there, to be called The parish of St. Dennis. Eight churches were soon after built, and supplied

1 English Statutes, iv. 181. Salmon, Chron. Hist. i. 336.

2 Trott, Laws of Maryland, No. 4. In 1716 the general assembly renewed this act; and, judging the oaths required by the statute of the first year of George I. for the security of his majesty's person and government, and the succession of the crown, “ equally necessary,” required them to be taken.

3 Ibid. This act was repealed in 1718, on the ground that sufficient provision was made to prevent the growth of popery “as well in this province as through all his majesty's dominions,” by an act of parliament made in the 11th and 12th years of William III. Ibid. No. 27–31. VOL. I.


First news.

1704. with ministers by the Society for propagating the gospel; and the

settled salaries were faithfully paid by the country.

The Boston News-Letter, a weekly gazette, was first pubpaper in lished this year by Bartholomew Green. This was the first

newspaper published in America.?

Peregrine White, the first Englishman born in New England, died at Marshfield, in the 84th year of his age.3 William Hubbard, one of the ministers of Ipswich, died, at the age of 83



i Hewatt, i. 169—172. Trott, Laws Brit. Plantations, Art. CAROLINA. Kennett, Biblioth. Americana, 192. Grimké Public Laws of S. Carolina. Humphreys, c. 6. The act for the preservation of the government was “ ratified in open assembly" on the 6th of May; the act for the establishment of religion, on the 4th of November. Upwards of 170 of the chief inhabitants of the colony, and several eminent merchants trading thither, signed a Petition against lay commissioners. Annals of Queen Anne's Reign. See 1705.

2 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. v. 208. Judge Sewall [MS. Diary) mentions, that he went to Cambridge, April 24, and that he “ gave Mr. Willard (president) the first News-Letter that ever was carried over the river.” The News-Letter “ was continued by Green and his successors, until the year 1776, when the British troops evacuated Boston.” Thomas, Hist. Printing, i. 284.

3 Prince, Chron. 76. Ninety years afterward (1794) a gentleman sent president Stiles several large apples from an orchard in Marshfield, planted by Peregrine White. Thirty years still later (1824), Mrs. Hayward, of Plymouth, a descendant of Peregrine White, sent me a fair apple from a tree planted by her ancestor,

4 Hutchinson, ii. 147. Mr. Hubbard was in the first class of graduates at Harvard College, 1612. He was an eminent minister and writer. His principal work was a History of New England, which he left in manuscript. "Falling into the Mather family, it doubtless contributed much to the Magnalia. Governor Hutchinson, who was allied to that family, made great use of that MS. History, and acknowledges his obligations to it. The manuscript, fairly written in upwards of 300 folio pages, was kept in the archives of the Historical Society, and was used in the first edition of these Annals; but it has since been printed. It was published by the Historical Society, encouraged by a very liberal subscription of the legislature to it for the use of the Commonwealth ; and it makes the Vth and VIth volumes of the second series of the Society's Collections. The writer did not give his authorities on the pages of his history ; but, had the MS. been published in his life time, he might have indicated the sources from which it was derived—especially Winthrop. The extracts from Winthrop are so transposed by Hubbard, to suit the subjects of his respective chapters, that it was not easy to collate them while his history was in manuscript. A collation has been made by the indefatigable Editor of Winthrop; and it has been my aim, in this edition, to restore to the original author what belonged to him as an authority. See Savage's Edit. Winthrop, i. 297, and Preface of the Editors of Hubbard. Dunton, in his Journal in Massachusetts, speaks of Mr. Hubbard as “ a man of singular modesty ; learned without ostentation ;" and as having done “ as much for the conversion of the Indians, as most men in New England." The late Dr. Eliot, who wrote the “ Ecclesiastical History of Massachusetts and the old Colony of Plymouth," published in the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, says of Hubbard : “ He was the best writer in New England while he lived ; learned, judicious, and capable of giving a proper arrangement to facts." Ib. vii. 263. Governor Hutchinson gives him the character of “a man of learning, and of a candid and benevolent mind, accompanied with a good degree of catholicism." See Eliot and Allen, Biog. Dict. Farmer and Moore, Coll. ii. 183–185.

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