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1705. The corporation of lay commissioners with ecclesiastical juris- Petition of diction, in Carolina, was considered by the inhabitants as a high Carolina

against lay cominission court, like that of James II. This, with other arbi- commis-? trary and oppressive measures, induced the dissenters in that sioners. province to prepare a petition to the house of lords for relief.

The petition was sent by Joseph Boone, with instructions to him to represent the languishing and dangerous situation of the province to the lords proprietors. His application to them proving ineffectual, he presented the petition to the house of lords, “ praying that august body to commisserate their distress, and intercede with her majesty for their relief.” Several merchants in London joined the petitioners. The house of lords resolved, That in Resolve of their opinion the act of assembly, entitled, An act for the Estab- the house of lishment of Religious Worship in the province according to the gainst the Church of England, so far as it relates to the establishing a act for a commission for the displacing of the rectors and ministers of the s churches there, is not warranted by the charter granted to the proprietors, as not being consonant to reason, repugnant to the laws of the realm, and destructive to the constitution of the church of England : and that the act of assembly, entitled, An act for the more effectual preservation of the government of the province by requiring all persons that shall hereafter be chosen members of the commons house of assembly, and sit in the same, to take the oaths and subscribe the declaration appointed subscrip. by this act, and to conform to the religious worship in this prov- tion, and ince, according to the Church of England, and to receive the conformity sacrament of the Lord's Supper according to the rites and usages of the said, church, is founded on falsity in matter of fact, is repugnant to the laws of England, contrary to the charter of the Proprietors, is an encouragement to atheism and irreligion, destructive to trade, and tends to the depopulation and ruin of the province.

Some of the proprietors themselves refusing to approve of the Referred to acts, the case was farther referred to the lords of trade and plan- the lords of tations ; who found all the charges brought against the provincial government and the proprietors were well grounded, and represented farther to her majesty, that the making of such laws was an abuse of the powers granted to the proprietors by the charter, and will be a forfeiture of it. The queen approved of their representation ; declared the laws null and void ; and ordered Laws deher attorney and solicitor general to inform themselves fully con- clared void cerning what may be most effectual for proceeding against the

le queen. charter by way of quo warranto, that she might take the govern

trade and plantations

by the

1705. ment of the colony into her own hands. Here, however, the

matter was dropt for the present. No effectual measures were taken for restoring dissenters to their equal rights. The religious establishment, according to the Church of England, was maintained ; but it was mildly administered. A free toleration was enjoyed by all dissenters; the law excluding them from a seat in the legislature being soon after repealed. This state of things, with but little variation, continued for 70 years, as long as the province

remained subject to Great Britain." Proportion When this legal establishment was obtained, the white populaof churches. tionn of South Carolina was between 5000 and 6000; the

episcopalians had only one church in the province, the dissenters

had three churches in Charlestown, and one in the country.2 Virginia act The assembly of Virginia passed an act, making the French

100 refugees, inhabiting the Manakin town and the parts adjacent, a refugees; distinct parish by themselves; exempting them from the payment

of public and county levies; and leaving them at their own liberty to agree with and pay their minister as their circumstances would admit. Their settlement was above the Falls of James

river; and their parish was to be called and known by the name for the sup. of “King William Parish in the county of Henrico.” The same

j. assembly passed an act, laying an imposition upon skins and furs,

for the better support of the college of William and Mary. As an encouragement to the frontier plantations of the colony, the assembly passed an act, That no county on the land frontiers shall hereafter be divided, unless there shall be left in the upper

county, after the division, at least 800 tythable persons, and unto encour. less the whole country, as it stood before the division, be obliged age the

equally to contribute to the building of a descent church, court house, and prison, in such frontier county, after the form and manner then generally used within this colony. The same as

in favour of the Frencb

port of W. and M. col

lege;

frontiers.

1 Hewatt, i. 169–179. Ramsay, Hist. S. Carolina, ii. 244. Trott, Laws Brit. Plantations, Art. CAROLINA. Humphreys, c. 6. Annals of Queen Anne's Reign, 223-226; where it appears, that the Carolina Petition was read to the house of lords on the 2d of March, 1705-6.-It is to the honour of the Society for propagating the Gospel, that it disapproved of the acts of the provincial assembly, and resolved not to send any missionaries to Carolina, until the clause relating to lay commissioners was annulled. Ib.

2 Ramsay, Hist. S. Carolina, ii. 2. Dr. Ramsay says, that most of the proprietors and public officers of the province, and particularly the governor, Sir N. Johnson, were zealously attached to the church of England ; that, believing an established church essential to the support of civil government, they concerted measures for endowing the church in the mother country, and advancing it in South Carolina to a legal preeminence; and that, preparatory thereto, they promoted the election of members of that church to a seat in the provincial legislature, and succeeded by surprise so far as to obtain a majority. Hewatt says, “In the lower house the bill passed by a majority of one vote."

3 Trott, Laws Brit. Plantations, and Laws of Virginia. An act similar to the first of these had been passed in 1700. The present act stated, that “a considerable number of French Protestant Refugees have been lately imported into"

French in

sembly passed an act, directing the building of an house for the 1705. governor of this colony and dominion.

M. de Subercase, the last year succeeded M. de Brouillan in French ravthe government of Acadie. Resuming the design which Iber- age

age New

To foundland. ville and Brouillan had some years before in a great measure effected, he made an expedition to chase the English from Newfoundland. His enterprise was so far successful, that the trade of the island, for this year, was almost ruined.?

A recent misfortune of the Canadians, in the loss of a large Manufacand richly laden ship, proved eventually a signal benefit. It tures of the compelled the French colonists to apply themselves to the raising Canada. of hemp and flax; which, by permission of the French court, they manufactured into linens and stuffs, to the great advantage of the colony.3

The harbour of New York was so entirely unfortified, that a N. York. French privateer entered it, and put the inhabitants of the city into great consternation.

Brookline, in Massachusetts, was incorporated.5

The castle on Castle Island, in Boston harbour, was named Castle WilCastle William. 6

The winter of this year was remarkable in Pennsylvania for a great snow. great snow.?

Michael Wigglesworth, minister of Malden, died, at the age Deathjof M: of 74 years.8

worth.

Brookline.

liam.

1 Laws of Virginia.

2 Charlevoix, Nouv. France, ü. 298, 299. Univ. Hist. xl. 155; but this English history places the event in 1704. I follow Charlevoix, who expressly says, “M. de Subercase partit le quinziéme de Janvier 1705.” That was the time when he commenced his march from Placentia, where, according to agreement, he found auxiliary troops from Quebec. The entire number of troops under Subercase was 450; all of whom were equipped for a wintry march. “ Subercase .... à la tête de quatre-cent cinquante hommes bien armés, soldats, Canadiens, flibustiers, et sauvages, tous gens déterminés et accoûtumes à marcher en raquettes. Chaque homme portoit des vivres pour vingt jours, ses armes, sa couverture, et une tente tour à tour par chambrée.” Rebou. Petit Havre, and St. John's were taken by the French; and all the coast of Carbonierre and Bonavista was desolated. Charlevoix affirms too indefinitely, that this campaign entirely ruined (ruina entiérement] the commerce of the English in Newfoundland. Humphreys (Hist. Acco. 40.) says, there was a handsome church built at St. John's “ before the French, in 1705, burnt this town and the church.”

3 Charlevoix, Nouv. France, ii. 300, 301. Univ. Hist. xl. 155-157. The ship lost was the Seine, which was taken, the preceding autumn, by the English; who thus received some indemnification for their losses at Newfoundland. The Seine was bound to Quebec, having on board the bishop of that city, and a great number of ecclesiastics and laymen of large fortunes. The whole cargo was estimated at near a million of livres.

4 Smith, N. York, 110.

5 Sewall, MS. Diary. Dr. Pierce's Century Sermon gives an account of its settlement.

6 Sewall, MS. Diary. * 7 Proud, i. 466 ; " in general about one yard deep."

8 He was graduated at Harvard College in 1651, and was afterwards a mem

lina.

1706. Spaniards de The Spaniards, considering Carolina as a part of Florida, to French in which they laid claim on the ground of prior discovery, detervade Caro

mined to assert their right by force of arms. Sir Nathaniel Johnson, at that time governor of Carolina, receiving advice of the project for invading the colony, with instructions to put the country in the best posture of defence, perforined bis trust with such skill and vigour, as were equally becoming a military commander and a civil magistrate. He set all hands to work on the fortifications; appointed a number of gunners to each bastion ; and held frequent musters, to train the men to the use of arms. A storehouse with ainmunition was prepared. A sinall fort, called Fort Johnson, with several great guns, was erected on James Island. Trenches were cast up at White Point and at other places. A guard was stationed on Sullivan's Island, with orders to kindle a number of fires opposite to the town, equal to the number of ships that might appear on the coast.

When a few months had elapsed, the captain of a Dutch privateer, formerly belonging to New York, that had been fitted out from Charlestown for cruising on the coast, returned with advice that he had engaged a French sloop off the bar of St. Augustine; but that, on seeing four ships advancing to her assistance, he had made all possible sail for Charlestown. Scarcely had he delivered the news, when five separate smokes appeared on Sullivan's Island. The drums were instantly ordered to beat, and all the inhabitants to be put under arms. Letters were sent to all the captains of the militia in the country, to fire their alarm guns, raise their companies, and march, with all possible expedition, to the assistance of the town. The enemy's feet, coming to Charlestown bar in the evening, did not venture to attempt a passage, intricate and dangerous to strangers, but hovered all night on the coast. Anchoring the next morning near James Island, they employed their boats all that day in sounding the south bar; and this delay gave time for the militia of the country to march into the town. The governor, in the mean time, proclaimed martial law at the head of the militia, and gave the necessary orders. He also sent to the Indian tribes that were in alliance with the colony, and procured a number of them to his assistance. The next morning, the whole force of the province was collected together, with the governor at its head.

ber of the corporation. “He was the author of the Poem, entitled The Day of Doom, which has been so often printed; and was very useful as a physician.” Sewall, MS. Diary. The 5th edition of the poem, with a short discourse on Eternity, was printed in 1701. Allen, Biog.

Hast die gesome De als

The day following, the enemy's four ships and a galley went 1706. over the bar, with all their boats out for landing their men ; and, with a fair wind and strong tide, stood directly for the town. When they came in sight of the fortifications, they cast anchor a little above Sullivan's Island. The governor calling a council of war, it was agreed to put some great guns on board of such ships as were in the harbour, and employ the sailors in their own way. Lieutenant colonel William Rhett, a man of ability and spirit, received a commission to be vice admiral of this little feet, and hoisted his flag on board the Crown galley. The enemy, at this juncture, sent up a flag of truce to the governor, to summon him to surrender. The messenger, on being demanded the purport of his message, told the governor, that he was sent by M. le Feboure, admiral of the French fleet, to demand a surrender of the town and country, and their persons prisoners of war; and that his orders allowed him no more than one hour for an answer. Governor Johnson replied, that there was no occasion for one minute to answer that message ; and sent back the messenger with a declaration of his resolution to defend the country to the last drop of his blood. The next day, a party of the enemy burned some houses on James Island ; and another party burned two vessels in Dearsby's Creek. A party that landed on Wando Neck, having begun to kill hogs and cattle, captain Cantey, with 100 men, was ordered to pass the river privately in the night, and watch their motions. Coming up with them before break of day, and finding them in a state of security, he surrounded them, and surprised them with a sharp fire, which completely routed them. A considerable part of the enemy was killed, wounded, and drowned; the remainder surrendered prisoners of war. Animated by this success on land, the Carolinians determined to try their fortune at sea. Rhett accordingly set sail with his fleet of six small ships, and proceeded down the river ; but the enemy, perceiving the fleet standing toward them, precipitately weighed anchor, and sailed over the bar.

Some days after, on advice that a ship of force was seen in The invadSewee Bay, and that a number of armed men bad landed from ers repulsed

& defeated her, with information also from some prisoners, that the French expected a ship of war with 200 men to their assistance, the governor ordered captain Fenwick to pass the river, and march against them by land, while Rhett, with the Dutch privateer and a Bermuda sloop armed, should sail round by sea, with orders to meet him at Sewee Bay. Fenwick came up with the enemy, and briskly charged them; and, though they were advantageously posted, they gave way after a few vollies, and retired to their ship. Rhett coming soon after to his assistance; the French ship struck, without firing a shot; and this gallant officer returned

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