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as high as he could reach. The proposal was eagerly agreed 1532. to, and a red line was drawn on the walls of the chamber, to mark the height to which the treasure was to rise. Atahualpa immediately sent messengers to Cuzco, Quito, and other places, where there was most gold amassed ; and his orders for the collection were promptly executed.

The ransom of Atahualpa was now brought in ; and it ex- 1533. ceeded 1,500,000 pounds sterling. After the division of this Ransom of immense treasure among the Spaniards, the Inca demanded his the Inca. liberty ; but it was denied. Pizarro, resolved on his death, easily found pretexts for procuring it. The charge consisted of various articles : That Atahualpa, though a bastard, had dispossessed the rightful owner of the throne, and usurped the regal power ; that he had put his brother and lawful sovereign to death; that he was an idolater, and had not only permitted, but commanded the offering of human sacrifices; that he had a great number of concubines; that since his imprisonment he had wasted and embezzled the royal treasures, which now belonged of right to the conquerors; and that he had incited his subjects to take arms against the Spaniards. After all the formalities of a trial, observed in the criminal courts of Spain, Atahualpa was pronounced guilty, and condemned to be burnt alive. Astonished Yet he is

condemned; at his fate, he endeavoured to avert it by tears, by promises, and by intreaties that he might be sent to Spain, where a monarch would be his judge. But Pizarro, unmoved, ordered him to be led instantly to execution. Valverde, at this critical moment attempting his conversion, promised mitigation of his punishment, on his embracing the Christian faith. The horror of a tormenting death extorted from him the desire of baptism. “The ceremony was performed; and Atahualpa, instead of being burnt, and put to was strangled at the stake." Pizarro, to complete the scene of death.

i Vega, P. 2. lib. 1. c. 28. Robertson, b. 6.

2 Europ. Settlements, i. 141. Vega says, that the sum total of the ransom amounted to 4,605,670 ducats; and that there were 40 or 50,000 pieces of eight to a man. Dr. Robertson says, that after setting apart the fifth due to the crown, and 100,000 pesos as a donative to the soldiers which arrived with Almagro, there remained 1,528,500 pesos to Pizarro and his followers, and that 8000 pesos, « at that time not inferior in effective value to as many pounds sterling in the present century,” fell to the share of each horseman, and half that sum to each foot soldier. Pizarro and his officers received dividends proportioned to the dignity of their rank. ---It is an astonishing fact, that when there was a dissatisfaction at the delay of completing the ransom within the limited time, which, however, was excused by the Inca on account of the distance of Cuzco, three Spaniards only were sent to that capital, with directions to take possession both of the city and treasures, though Cuzco was guarded by an army of 30,000 of the natives. Two hundred men's loads of gold were brought away, without the least opposition, in massy plates from the temple of the Sun. Harris' Voy. i. 792.

1533. shameless guilt, gave him a magnificent funeral, and went into

mourning Quito sub

Sebastian de Belalcazar, governor of St. Michael, marched dued. with some Spanish soldiers through a mountainous country, and,

though frequently and fiercely attacked by the natives, surmounted every obstacle by his valour and perseverance, and entered

Quito with his victorious troops. About the same time, AlvaExpedition rado, a distinguished officer in the conquest of Mexico, who had of Alvara- obtained the government of Guatemala, made an expedition do.

into the same kingdom. He embarked with 500 men, above 200 of whom served on horseback, and, landing at Puerto Viego, coinmenced his march toward Quito; but, in passing the snowy ridge of the Andes and the deserts, 60 of his men were frozen to death, and before he reached the plain of Quito, a fifth part


Vega, P. 2. lib. 1. c. 34, 36. Herrera, d. 5. lib. 3. c. 4. Purchas, lib. 7. c. 12. Robertson, b. 6. Europ. Settlements, i. 143, 144. Vega gives this description of the obsequies : “ Enterraronle à nuestra usança, entre los Christianos, con pompa, puso Luto, Piçarro. y hicole honradas Obsequias.”—Montesquieu, having established the principle, “ That we should not decide by political laws things which belong to the law of nations," adduces this historical example as an instance of its cruel violation by the Spaniards.. “ The Ynca Athualpa could only be tried by the law of nations; they tried him by political and civil laws; and, to fill up the measure of their stupidity, they condemned him, not by the political and civil laws of his own country, but by the political and civil laws of theirs." Spirit of Laws, b. xxvi. c. 21, 22. Had the Spanish historians of South America been contemporary with the Spanish conquerors, we might have suspected them of a confederacy to varnish over the entire actions of the Conquest with the gloss of religion. The extorted consent of the wretched Inca to an ablution, whose meaning he neither understood, nor regarded, is ascribed by Garcilasso de la Vega to the infinite mercy of God. The Catholic historian believed, doubtless, that by means of this rite the murdered Inca received as great a recompense for the loss of his life, as his subjects for the loss of their country; which, Acosta assures us, “ was recompensed to them by the gain which heaven was to their souls.”—“But now," says Vega, “ to consider that an idolater, who had been guilty of such horrid cruelties, as Atahualpa had been, should receive baptism at the hour of his death, can be esteemed no otherwise than an effect of the infinite mercy of God toward so great a sinner as he was, and I am ;” “Atahuallpa, muriesse bautiçado, devemos dar Gracias a Dios Nuestro Señor, que no desecha de su infinita Misericordia, los Pecadores tan grandes, com él, y como Yo.” Atahualpa, who ever since the arrival of the Spaniards had been impressed with a persuasion, that the end of his empire was approaching, was greatly depressed at the sight of a comet; and said to Pizarro, who asked the cause of his depression: “ When I saw myself first in chains, I thought there would be little distance between my imprisonment and my grave, of which I am now fully certified by this comet.” Alsted, a German author [Thesaurus Chronologiæ, p. 492.), takes notice of this comet, and relates several calamitous events which followed it. “ 1533. Arsit cometa xiphias seu ensiformis. Sequuti sunt terræmotus in Germania, mutationes in Anglia, et contentio inter Čarolum V. cum Gallo super ducatu Mediolanensi.” This expositor of omens ought to have added, The termination of the empire of the Incas.

2 Herrera, d. 5. lib. 3. c. 5. & lib. 7. c. 14. Herrera represents Belalcazar as the founder of Quito. Alcedo says, it was founded by the Indians and the court of their kings, and rebuilt by Sebastian de Belalcazar in 1534; and, in 1541, endowed by the emperor Charles V. with the title of very noble and very loyal city.

of the men and half of their horses died. No expedition in the 1533. New World appears to have been conducted with more persevering courage ; and none with the endurance of greater hardships. Among those who were frozen to death in passing the Andes, was the first woman, says Vega, who ever came to Peru.'

Carthagena, the capital of Terra Firma, was founded by Pedro de Heredia.?

tier to Can


PIZARRO forced his way into Cuzco, and took possession of it, 1534. in the most solemn manner, for the king of Spain. This was the imperial city of the Incas, situated in a corner of the Peruvian empire, about 400 miles from the sea. The spoil of it was immense.

Although the misfortune of Verrazzano had suspended the First voyenterprises of the French for discoveries in the New World ; age of Caryet, on a representation made by Philip Chabot, admiral of ada. France, of the advantages that would result from establishing a colony in a country from which Spain derived her greatest wealth, these enterprises were renewed. James Cartier of St. Malo, by commission from the king, sailed in April from that port, with April 20. two small ships and 122 men ; and on the 10th of May came to Newfoundland, and entered the bay of Bona Vista. The earth being covered with snow, and the shores with ice, he was constrained to enter a haven, about five leagues toward the southeast, which he called St. Catherine's. Returning to the northward, he sailed almost round Newfoundland. In 490 30' north latitude, he discovered and named the Baye des Chaleurs, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Having sailed to the 51st degree of latitude, in the fruitless hope of passing to China, he returned, in April, to France, without making a settlernent.


CARTIER, by royal commission, sailed a second time from 1535. France with three ships, accompanied by a number of young men Cartier's of distinction, who were desirous of making their fortunes under second voy


1 Vega, Peru, P. 2. lib. 1. c. 36. Robertson, b. 6. 2 Alcedo, Art. CARTAGENA. 3 Herrera, d. 5. lib. 6. c. 3. Alcedo, Art. Cuzco. Robertson, b. 6. 4 Charlevoix, Nouv. France, i. p. xx. Introd. & 8, 9. Hakluyt, iii. 186, 201— 212. Purchas, i. 749; v. 1605. Thevet, c. 74, 75. This author, who was “the French king's cosmographer," says of Canada, “ decouverte de nostre temps par un nommé Jacques Quartier, Breton-homme expert & entendu a la marine." Lescarbot, liv. 3. Champlain, liv. 1. c. 2. Univ. Hist. xxxix. 407. Belknap, Biog. i. 34. Prince, 1534. Forster, Voy. 437, 438. Brit. Empire, Introd. 47. Cartier, in his account of this voyage, describes many capes and islands, as seen and named by him before he reached the Gulf of St. Lawrence; but their names are principally changed, or lost. The haven, which he called St. Catherine's, is, in some maps, called Catalina. The Baye des Chaleurs, or Heats, was so named on account of the sultry weather; the Gulf of St. Lawrence, from his entering it on the day of that festival. VOL. I.


rence; takes pos

the coun

try; and


1535. his guidance. Discovering now the river of Canada, which

gradually obtained the name of St. Lawrence, he sailed up this He sails up noble stream 300 leagues to a great and swift fall; formed the St. Law. alliances with the natives; took possession of the territory; built

a fort; and wintered in the country, which he called New France. session of In sailing up the St. Lawrence, he discovered Hazle or Filbert

island, Bacchus island, since called the Isle of Orleans, and a calls it New river which he called St. Croix, since called Jacques Cartier's

river, where he laid up bis ships. From this river, before bis final departure, partly by stratagem and partly by force, he

carried off Donnacona, the Indian king of the country. He at Montreal. this time visited Hochelaga, which he called Montreal. This

was a large Indian settlement, where the French were well received; but they were soon infected with the scurvy, of which 25 of their number died. The next spring, Cartier, taking with

him Donnacona and several of the natives, returned with the First at- remains of bis crew to France. This was the first attempt of tempt for a the French to make a settlement in America. settlement.

Cartier expatiated to the king on the advantages that would probably result from a settlement in this country, principally by means of the fur trade ; but the fallacious opinion, then prevalent among all the nations of Europe, that such countries only as produced gold and silver were worth the possession, had such influence on the French, that they slighted the salutary advice of Cartier, and would hear no more of the establishment of a colony

in Canada. Mendoza's Don Pedro de Mendoza, with 12 ships and 2000 men, made to La Plata. an expedition up the river de la Plata, to discover, conquer, and

inhabit the circumjacent regions; and died on his return home. The people whom he left built a large town, called Nuestra

Sennora de Buenos Ayres, the capital of the government; and, Ayres built. with the aid of the natives, discovered and conquered the coun

try, until they came to the mines of Potosi, and to the town of Asuncion, la Plata.

la Plata. They soon after built the town of Asuncion, on the east shore of the river Paraguay, where they intermarried with the natives.3


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i Thevet, c. 74, 75. Charlevoix, Hist. Nouv. France, i. 9—13. Hakluyt, iii. 187, 212–232. Forster, Voy. 438–441. The adventurers, who accompanied Cartier, are thus described by Charlevoix : “ Jeunes Gentilshommes, qui voulurent le suivre en qualité de Voluntaires.”- In a specimen of “the language of the country,” in Cartier's second voyage in Hakluyt, Canada signifies town.”

2 Thevet, and the above authorities. Cardenas, Hist. Florida. Alcedo, Art. CANADA. See A. D. 1540. At St. Croix they built a fort, and set up a cross in it, “ upon Holyrood day.”

3 Herrera, d 5. lib. 9. c. 10. Hakluyt, iii. 787, 788. Purchas, i. 849, 850. De Bry, P. vii. Harris' Voy. i. 273. Univ. Hist. xxxix. 203. Encyc. Methodique, Geog. and Alcedo, Art. Buenos Ayres and AsUNCION DEL PARAGUAY. 1 Herrera, d. 5. lib. 6. c. 12. & lib. 7. c. 6. Alcedo, Art. LIMA. Herrera, under A. D. 1534, says Pizarro was then resolved to build a city in the valley of Lima; but he fixes the date of its foundation 6th January, 1535—“ fue el dia de la Epifania del año siguente, 1535.” Vega (P. 2. lib. 2. c. 17.) places this article in 1534, but it was probably Old Style. He also says, the first settlement was in the valley of Saussa, 30 leagues from Rimac within land. Lima is a corruption the ancient appellation of the valley in which it is situated. Herrera calls it “ el valle de Lima."


A Spanish settlement had been begun in the interior part of 1535. Peru. * For the better accommodation of trade and commerce, Pizarro now transplanted this colony to a place near the sea, Lima foundselected for a new settlement, over against the valley of Rimac; and here he founded a city, which he designed for the capital of his government, to which he gave the name of Civdad de los Reyes. It has since been known and celebrated under the name of Lima.

Diegro Amagro invaded Chili. At the close of the year, he Almagro began his march for that territory, with an army composed of imbales 500 Spaniards and 15,000 Peruvians under the command of Paulu, a brother of Inca Manco, the nominal emperor of Peru, who had succeeded the unhappy Atahualpa ; but he met with formidable opposition from the natives, and was at length recalled from his expedition by an unexpected revolution in Peru.2

A voyage was made from England to Newfoundland by 120 1536. persons, 30 of whom were gentlemen of education and character. April. The first land that they made was Cape Breton, whence they English, sailed northeastward to the island of Penguin, and then to New- Newfoundfoundland ; but, after suffering the extremity of famine, in which land. many perished, and the survivors were constrained to support life by feeding on the bodies of their dead companions, they returned to England.3


Charlevoix, Paraguay, i. 42. Mendoza sailed from Cadiz in August 1535. By a storm in the river La Plata he lost eight of his ships, and sailed with the rest for Spain; leaving behind the greatest part of his men. In a short time not 500 of them remained alive, and at length but 200, who went in the ship boats far up the Paraguay, leaving their mares and horses at Buenos Ayres. “ It is a wonder,” says Lopez Vaz, " to see that of 30 mares and 7 horses, which the Spaniards left there, the increase in 40 years was so great, that the countrey is 20 leagues up full of horses.” Buenos Ayres received its name from its salubrious air. The Islands of St. Gabriel were a little above this place. See A. D. 1526.

“ The Asuncion Indians bestowed their daughters in marriage upon them, and so they dwelt all together in one towne.” They were here 20 years before any intelligence of them reached Spain; “ but waxing olde, and fearing that when they were dead, their sons, which they had begotten in this countrey, being very many, should live without the knowledge of any other Christians, they built a ship, and sent it into Spain with letters to the king, giving an account of all that had occurred; and the king sent three ships with a bishop and several priests and friars, “ and more men and women to inhabite, with all kind of cattell.”

2 Alcedo, Art. Chile. Robertson, b. 6.

3 Hakluyt, i. 517—519 ; ii. 129–131, where there is an entire account of the voyage. Forster, Voy. 290, 291. Hakluyt says, “ One Master Hore of London,

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