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A French ship entered the port of Havana, and the Frenchmen on board took possession of the city. The Spaniards ransoned it from being burnt, for 700 ducats.

The city Arequipa, in the valley of Quilca in Peru, 20 leagues distant from the South Sea, was founded by the Spaniards, by order of Francisco Pizarro.?


1537. The Supreme Council of the Indies in Spain made some orOrdinances dinances for the provinces in New Spain ; among which were es preclines, the following : That the Prelates should see the children of the

mixed race between Spaniards and Indians instructed in the Christian doctrine, and good manners; that the Viceroy should not permit the Indian youth to live idly, but require that they learn some trades; that the College, founded by the Franciscan Friars at Mexico, for teaching Indian boys the Latin Grammar, should be finished ; and that the Indians, who understood not Spanish, appearing before any Court, should be allowed a Christian friend of their own to assist them, and save them from

injustice.3 California. Cortes, with three ships, discovered the large peninsula of


a man of goodly stature and of great courage, and given to the studie of Cosmographie, encouraged divers gentlemen and others, being assisted by the king's favour and good countenance, to accompany him” in this voyage of discovery; and that “his perswasions tooke such effect, that within short space many gentlemen of the Innes of court, and of the Chancerie, and divers others of good worship, desirous to see the strange things of the world, very willingly entered into action with him.” This indefatigable author wrote most of his relation from the mouth of Master Thomas Butts, one of the gentlemen adventurers “ to whom," says Hakluyt," I rode 200 miles onely to learn the whole trueth of this voyage from his own mouth, as being the onely man now alive that was in this discoverie." When these adventurers were reduced to such extremities, as to be ready to cast lots, whose turn it should be to be devoured next, there arrived a French ship, of which they made themselves masters, and left theirs to the French, after distributing among them a sufficient quantity of provisions. Some months after their arrival in England, a complaint was brought against them by the French for the forcible seizure of their vessel; but the king, learning the direful necessity, which had induced them to this act of violence, indemnified them out of his own purse, and allowed them to pass with impunity. These adventurers appear to have been ignorant of the immense store of fish on all the banks about Newfoundland ; whence it is concluded, that this fishery must have been in use 32 years at least, without the knowledge of the English.

1 T. de Bry, P. 5. Table 6. Alcedo, Art. HAVANA.

2 Alcedo, Art. AREQUIPA. This city has been destroyed at several times by earthquakes: in 1582, 1600, 1604, 1687, 1725, 1732, and 1738.

3 Herrera, d. 6. lib. 3. c. 20.

4 Harris' Voy. i. 273. Venegas, California, i. 1–4. This name was given to the peninsula at its first discovery, and is supposed to have had its origin in some accident; for its etymology cannot be traced. The Spaniards, in honour of Cortes, afterwards called the Gulf of California, Mar de Cortes. In the Map, inserted in Venegas' History of California, it is called, “ The Gulph of California, or Cortes's Red Sea.” Robertson, ii. 394 ; but he puts this discovery in 1536. Encyc. Methodique, Geog. Art. CALIFORNIA.

Buena Esperanza, a city in Paraguay, was founded by Pedro 1537. de Mendoza, on the south shore of the river La Plata.

Esperanza. ALMAGRO, abandoning the Chili expedition, returned with his 1538.

. army to Peru. Having previously received royal letters patent Almagro appointing him governor of 200 leagues of territory, situated to appointed the south of the government granted to Pizarro, and his friends governor; assuring him that Cuzco was within the limits of his jurisdiction, he now took possession of that ancient capital. After several ineffectual negotiations, he fought a battle with the brother of Pizarro, by whom he was taken, tried, and beheaded, as a dis- is beheadturber of the public peace.2

The city Santa Fe de Bagota, the capital of Nuevo Reyno de Bagota. Granada, was founded by Gonzalo Ximenes de Quesada, conqueror of the kingdom.3

Pizarro sent Valdivia, with a large number of Spaniards, to Expedition discover and conquer the country of Chili; and they discovered to Chili. considerable territory, principally on the sea coast towards the southeast, to upward of 40° south latitude.



FERDINAND DE Soto, governor of Cuba, had projected the 1539. . conquest of Florida, and had already received the title of Mar- Expedition quis of Florida from Charles V. Nearly a thousand men had of Sota to been raised in Spain for the expedition, among whom were many gentlemen of quality. Ten ships were fitted out to carry them with all necessary stores; and they sailed from San Lucar for Cuba in April, the preceding year.

On the 18th of May, this year, Soto sailed from Havana, on the Florida expedition, with 9 vessels, 900 men beside sailors, 213 horses, and a herd of swine. Arriving on the 30th of May at the bay of Espiritu Santo on the western coast of Florida, he landed 300 men, and pitched his camp; but, about break of day the next morning, they were attacked by a numerous body of natives, and obliged to retire.5 The Apalaches

, a nation of Apalaches Indians in Florida, were now first discovered by Soto.6

Francisco de Ulloa, in an expedition undertaken at the ex- Gulf of pense of Cortes, explored the Gulf of California to the mouth of California. the Rio Colorado.?

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2 Alcedo, T. Art. Chile. Herrera, d. 6. lib. 5. c. 1. See A. D. 1535.
3 Alcedo, Art. FE, SANTA.

4 Harris' Voy. i. 273; where the enterprise of Valdivia is placed in this and the following year.

5 Herrera, d. 6. lib. 7. c. 9. Univ. Hist. xl. 382. Belknap, Biog. Art. Soro. Prince, 1539. Bibliotheca Americ. 37. Purchas, v. 1528—1556. See A. D. 1542, 1543.

6 Alcedo, Art. APALACHES. 7 Humboldt's Essay on N. Spain, i. p. xlvii. Humboldt says, that Cortes


1540. The viceroy Mendoza sent out a number of men by land

under the command of Francisco Vasquez Coronado, as also a Enterprise number by sea under the command of Francisco Alarcon, for to explore the purpose of finding out the straits known by the name of

Arian, and of exploring the coast to 50° north latitude. Alarcon. went no farther than to the 36th degree, when, his ships being in bad condition, and his crew sickly, and the coast trending to the northward or northwestward, which course would carry him still farther from his troops, then at the distance of ten days

march from him, he returned. Cartier's Cartier, on his return from Canada, advised to make a settlevoyage to

ment in that country. Although his advice had been generally slighted, yet individuals entertained just sentiments of its importance. Among the most zealous for prosecuting discoveries and attempting a settlement there, was John François de la Roche, lord of Roberval, a nobleman of Picardy. King Francis the First, convinced at length of the expediency of the measure, resolved to send Cartier his pilot again, with Roberval, to that country. He, accordingly, furnished Cartier with five ships for the service, appointing him captain-general and leader of the ships, and Roberval his lieutenant and governor in the countries of Canada and Hochelaga. When the ships were ready to sail, , Roberval was not prepared with his artillery, powder, and munitions ; but Cartier, having received letters from the king, requiring him to set sail immediately, he sailed with the 5 ships on the 23d of May, and, after a very long and boisterous passage,

arrived at Newfoundland. Having waited here awhile in vain Aug. 23.

for Roberval, he proceeded to Canada ; and on the 23d of AuSt. Croix. gust arrived at the haven of St. Croix.

Arrives at

spent more than 200,000 ducats (i. e. upwards of 43,0001. sterling) in his Cali-
fornian expedition; and that formal possession of the peninsula was taken by
Sebastian Viscaino, who deserves to be placed in the first rank of the navigators
of his age. ii. 226.

1 Forster, Voy. 448. Herrera, d. 6. lib. 10. c. 11-15.
2 See A. D. 1535.

3 It appears, that ten of the natives were carried to France by Cartier, in his voyage of 1535; and that all of them, excepting one girl, were now dead. “And albeit his Majestie [king Francis I.] was advertized by the sayd Cartier of the death and decease of all the people which were brought over by him, (which were tenne in number) saving one little girle about tenne yeeres old, yet he resolved to send the sayd Cartier his Pilot thither againe, with John Francis de la Roche, Knight, Lord of Roberval, whome hee appointed his Lieutenant and Governour in the Countreys of Canada and Hochelaga, and the sayd Cartier Captain generall and leader of the shippes, that they might discover more than was done before in the former voyages, and attaine (if it were possible) unto the knowledge of the Countrey of Saguenay, whereof the people brought by Cartier made mention unto the King, that there were great riches, and very good countreys."

After an interview with the natives, Cartier sailed up the river, 1540. and pitched on a place about four leagues above St. Croix, to lay up three of his ships for the winter; the other two he sent to France, to inform the king of what they had done, and of his disappointment in the expected arrival of Roberval. At the new harbour there was a small river, and on the east side of its entrance, a high and steep cliff. On the top of this cliff he built Builds a a fort, and called it Charlesbourg. Below, the ships were fort at drawn up and fortified. After the fort was begun, Cartier went

bourg. up the river with two boats furnished with men and provisions, with the intention of proceeding to Hochelaga'; leaving the viscount of Beaupre to govern at the fort.?

Camelos, a large province of the kingdom of Quito, was dis- Camelos. covered by Gonzalo Pizarro, who gave it this name on account of the cinnamon trees found in it. Campeche, in Yucatan, was Campeche. founded by Francisco de Montejo.3


This year is remarkable for an extensive discovery in South 1541. America.' In the preceding year, an arduous enterprise had Enterprise been undertaken by Gonzalo Pizarro. He had been appointed of G. Pizargovernor of Quito by his brother Francisco, who instructed him to. to attempt the discovery and conquest of the country east of the Andes, abounding, as the Indians said, with cinnamon and other valuable spices. He set out from Quito with 200 Spaniards, and 300 Indians to carry their provisions. After struggling with many difficulties, and sustaining severe hardships, they at length reached the banks of the Napo, a large river that empties into the Maragnon, or Amazon. Here they built a bark, and manned it with 50 soldiers ; and Pizarro, leaving the bark with the sick men and treasure under the command of Francisco Orellana, went with a company by land along the river's side 200 leagues. The conipany in the boat, borne rapidly down the stream, were soon far before their countrymen, who followed slowly by land.

Orellana, availing himself of his separation and distance from Orellana's Pizarro, formed the bold scheme of becoming an independent along the discoverer, by following the course of the great river to the Amazon.

1 This fort was made“ to keepe the nether fort, and the ships, and all things that might passe as well by the great as by this small river.” . Chalmers says, Cartier built this fort with the design rather to explore the great river of St. Lawrence, than to take formal possession of the country. The first settlement appears to have been made at no great distance from Quebec and the little river of Charles. The translator of Forster says, “ there is still a place called Charlesbourg about this spot.” It is inserted in Sanson's Map of Canada, in L'Amerique en Cartes.”

2 Charlevoix, Nouv. France, i. 21. Hakluyt, iii. 232—236. Hazard's Collections, i. 19—21. Memoires de l'Amerique,

i. 30; ii. 416_419. Belknap, Biog. Art. CARTIER. Forster, Voy. 441, 442. Chalmers, b. 1.

3 Alcedo, Art. CAMELOS, and CAMPECHE.

Aug. 6.

Arrives at the ocean.


1541. ocean, and surveying the vast regions through which it flowed.

Committing himself fearlessly to the Napo, he at length reached the great channel of the Amazon. Having made frequent descents on both sides of the river, and passed with invincible fortitude through a long series of dangers and sufferings, he reached the ocean on the 6th of August, after a voyage of nearly seven months. This voyage, while remarkable as one of the most adventurous of that age, is worthy of being recorded, as the first, which led to any certain knowledge of the immense regions

that stretch eastward from the Andes to the ocean. Pizarro. Pizarro, not finding Orellana on his return, was reduced to

great extremity for want of provisions; and of the 200 Spaniards who left Quito, not more than ten returned to that city.

The reduction of Chili was completed. With the addition of this conquest, seven great kingdoms, inhabited by a vast number of wealthy and warlike nations, had now, since the discovery of America, been compelled to submit to the Spanish yoke. "St. Jago de la Neuva Estremadura, the capital of Chili, was founded

by. Pedro de Valdivia.2 Volcano at St. Jago de Guatemala was principally destroyed by the erupGuatemala tion of a volcano, attended with a terrible storm, and succeeded

by an inundation. It was the capital of the audience of Guatemala, and one of the noblest cities of New Spain. Six hundred Indians and a great number of Spaniards perished. The city, for greater security, was now removed, together with the episco

pal see and king's council, to the distance of two miles.* Pizarro as

Dissensions between Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro, sassinated.

on account of the disproportionate division of their labours and expenses, had given rise to two parties, which excited great disturbances and tumults, and caused the death of Pizarro. Thirteen conspirators in Chili went with drawn swords, and assassinated him at his own palace, at noon day, at the



63 years."

1 Herrera, d. 6. lib. 9. c. 2–6. Harris, Voy. i. 272, 273. Robertson, b. 6. The two first of these authors pronounce the great river, which Orellana descended, to be the Amazon. Herrera says, Orellana sailed 1800 leagues down this river, including all the windings—" navegaron por el mil y ocho cientas leguas, contando las bueltas que haze.”

2 Herrera, d. 7. lib. 1. c. 4. Europ. Settlements, i. 67. Univ. Hist. xxxix. 208. See A. D. 1551.

3 Herrera, d. 7. lib. 1. c. 4. Univ. Hist. (xxxix. 147.) says, beside the hurricane and volcano, there was one of the most dreadful earthquakes ever felt in any part of the globe.

4 Purchas, i. 814.

5 Herrera, d. 6. lib. 10. c. 4–6. Vega, 612_615. Robertson, b. 6. Alcedo, Art. Peru. John de Rada was at the head of the conspirators, 19 of whom went to the house of Pizarro. The veteran, with no other arms than his sword and buckler, made a desperate resistance, until, scarcely able to lift his sword, and incapable of parrying the numerous weapons of his assailants, he received a deadly thrust full in his throat, sunk to the ground, and expired.

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