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Don Pedro de Alvarado, in assisting to suppress an insurrec- 1541. tion of Indians, was thrown down a precipice by a horse, which fell from a high rock against him; and he died soon after of his Death of
Roberval returns to
Cartier, having explored the St. Lawrence, viewed the falls 1542. on that river, and had interviews with the natives, returned to Cartier rethe fort. Finding, on his return, that the Indians had discon- turns to tinued their visits and traffic at the fort, and shown signs of hostility ; that his provisions were spent ; and that Roberval had not arrived; he prepared to return to France. Meanwhile Roberval had been engaged in the prosecution of his design of reinforcing Cartier, and carrying forward the projected settlement of Canada. Whatever had retarded his embarkation, he at length furnished three ships, chiefly at the king's cost, and, having sailed Canada. from Rochelle with three ships and 200 persons, had arrived at St. John's harbour in Newfoundland. While there, Cartier and his company arrived at the same harbour from the St. Lawrence. He informed Roberval of his intended return to France; yet commended the country of Canada, as very rich and fruitful. Though the viceroy had brought a sufficient supply of men, military stores, and provisions, to dispel the fearful apprehensions of the adventurers, and had commanded Cartier to return with him ; yet Cartier, persisting in his purpose, eluded him in the night, and sailed for Bretagne. Roberval proceeded up the St. Lawrence, four leagues above the island of Orleans, where, finding a convenient harbour, he built a fort, and remained through the winter. In the following spring, he went higher up the river, and explored the country ; but he appears soon after to have Abandons abandoned the enterprise. The colony was broken up; and for the enterhalf a century the French made no farther attempt to establish themselves in Canada.2
Soto, on his Florida expedition, had marched several hundred Soto's miles, and passed through the Indian towns of Alibama, Talisee, marches in and Tescalusa, to Mavila, a village enclosed with wooden walls, standing near the mouth of the Mobile. The inhabitants, disgusted with the strangers, and provoked by an outrage committed on one of their chiefs, brought on a severe conflict, in which 2000 of the Battle with natives and 48 Spaniards were slain. A considerable number of the natives. Spaniards died afterwards of their wounds, making their entire loss 83. They also lost 45 horses. The village was burnt in
1 Herrera, d. 7. lib. 2. c. 11. Vega, lib. 2. c. 16.
2 Hakluyt, iii. 232—236, 240. Purchas, i. 750; v. 1605. Charlevoix, Nouv.
1542. the action. After this engagement, Soto retreated to Chicaza,
an Indian village of two houses, where he remained until April of this year. His army, now resurning its march through the Indian territory, was reduced to about 300 men and 40 horses. Soto, having appointed Lewis de Moscoso his successor in command, died at the confluence of Guacoya and Mississippi. To prevent the Indians from obtaining a knowledge of his death, his body was put into an oak, hollowed for that purpose, and sunk in the river. Soto was 42 years of age, and had expended 100,000 ducats in this expedition.'
On the news of Alarcon's failure in his voyage for the dis
covery of the Straits of Anian, orders were given in Spain for Cabo Men, another expedition to search for those Straits, and to explore the docino.
western coasts of America. The command of this expedition was given to Rodriguez de Cabrillo, a Portuguese in the service of Spain. Cabrillo discovered land in 42° north latitude, on the American coast; and, in honour of the viceroy who had employed him, called it Cabo Mendocino. Having proceeded to the 44th degree, he was compelled by the sickness of his crew, the want of provisions, and the turbulence of the sea, to return.?
The small remains of Soto's army, consisting of 311 men, End of arrived at Panuco on the 10th of September; and the great Soto's ex- expedition to Florida terminated in the poverty and ruin of all pedition
who were concerned in it. Not a Spaniard was now left in
Calota, a city of the province and government of Popayan, was founded on the shore of the river Magdalena, near its source, by Juan Moreno.
1514. ORELLANA, having contracted with the king of Spain for the Orellana's government of as much territory as he could conquer in the last voyage, provinces about the river Amazon, by the name of New AndeMay 11, luzia, sailed from San Lucar with four ships and 400 men, and
arrived at the mouth of a river, which he supposed to be the Napo, that he had formerly descended. Ascending this river 1544. about 100 leagues, he built a brigantine, and staid here about three months, during which time 55 of his men died. Proceeding higher up, he met with various disasters; and, after much fruitless research for the main branch of the river, he fell sick, His death. and, relinquishing his design, died of his temper and of grief.
1 Herrera, d. 7. lib. 7. c. 1-3. Cardenas, La Florida, Introd. Vega, La Florida, lib. 1. Hist. de la Conqueste de la Florida. Purchas, v. 1552. Belknap, Biog. Art. Soto. Univ. Hist. xli. 391, 392. Alcedo, Art. FLORIDA.
2 Venegas, California, i. 162. Forster, Voy. 413. Humboldt, ü. 249. Cabrillo died 3d June, 1513, at the island of San Bernardo. They found, that from Cabo Mendocino to the harbour de la Nadividad, “ the whole was one continued land, without the intervention of a strait, or any other separation.” See A. D. 15.10.
3 Herrera, d. 7. lib. 7. c. 1-4, where there is an entire account of Soto's expedition ; also in Purchas, v. 1528—1556; and in Harris' Voyages, lib. 8. c. 16, an account of it, written by a Portuguese who went on the expedition; also, Belknap, Biog. Art. Soro, and Roberts' Florida, 33—78.
4 Alcedo, Art. CALOTA.
Don Lewis, the eldest son of Diego Columbus, acceded to a 1545. compromise with the emperor of Spain, by which he transferred L. Columall his hereditary rights, for a grant of the province of Veragua and the island of Jamaica.2
The silver mines of Potosi were first registered in the king of Potosi. Spain's books. They had been accidentally discovered a short time before, by an Indian, named Hualpa. Coming to a steep place, while pursuing some wild goats up the mountain, he laid hold of a shrub, which, yielding to his weight, came up by the roots, and discovered a large mass of silver. On the disclosure of this discovery, the mines were wrought to immense advantage.3 The town of Potosi was founded this year. 4
A PESTILENCE prevailed through the entire kingdom of Peru. 1546. It began at Cuzco; and, spreading over the country, swept off Pestilence. an immense number of people.
A battle was fought between Blasco Nuñes Vela, the first Viceroy viceroy of Peru, and Gonzalo Pizarro. The viceroy lost his life, killed. and was buried in a chapel on the north side of the valley or entrance to the city of Quito, where the battle was fought.6
Civil dissensions among the Spaniards in Peru induced the 1547. Emperor Charles V. to send to that country Pedro de Gasca, a
1 Vega, p. 2. lib. 3. c. 4. Herrera, d. 4. lib. 6. c. 3; & d. 7. lib. 10. c. 8, 9. One of the ships, carrying 70 men and 11 horses, turned back on account of contrary winds, and was heard of no more. See A, D. 1541.
2 Edwards' W. Indies, b. 2. c. 1. Alcedo, Art. DOMINGO. He was viceadmiral of the Indies in 1540, when, pleading his rights at court, he was declared captain-general of Hispaniola. About a century afterwards, the rights that were now conveyed to the family of Columbus, reverted to the crown of Spain.
3 Herrera, d. 8. lib. 2. c. 14. Vega, P. 2. lib. 4. c. 38. Alcedo, Art. Potosi. Univ. Hist. xxxix. 193. Anderson, 1545. Raynal, lib. 7. c. 30. Beside the mass of silver, Hualpa observed large lumps of the metal in the earth, adhering to the roots of the plant. Hastening to his house at Porco, he washed the silver, and used it; and when it was exhausted, repaired to his treasury. A contidential friend of Hualpa disclosed the secret to a Spaniard, living at Porco, and the mine was immediately wrought. The first register of the mines of Potosi was in April, 1545; and Hualpa's mine was called The Discoverer, because it marked the channel to other mines in that mountain.
4 Alcedo. The population of Potosi, formed by the people who had collected for the working of the mine, amounted, in 1802, to 30,000 souls.
5 Herrera, d. 8. lib. 2. c. 15. 6 Alcedo, Art. ANAQUITO.
1547. very respectable ecclesiastic, with the commission of President.
On his arrival, he restored harmony, and established the royal authority. The next year, he divided the lands in Peru. He is celebrated for his wisdom and prudence, and good conduct, by which a new empire, containing 1300 leagues in length, was
recovered and restored to the emperor Charles V.! Paraguay
The bishoprick of Paraguay was erected. The numerous tribes of Indians in this region seem to have been dispersed and destroyed, immediately afier the discovery by the Spaniards; and the Jesuits soon transplanted many thousands to their settlements on the Uraguay and Parana.2
Ferdinand Cortes died in Spain, aged 62 years.3 1548. The English fishery on the American coast had now become New and an object of national importance, and legislative encouragement. land fishery. The parliament of England passed an act prohibiting the exaction
of First act of
money, fish, or other rewards, by any officer of the Admiralty, parliament under any pretext whatever, from the English fishermen and respecting mariners, going on the service of the fishery at Newfoundland.
This was the first act of parliament, relating to America.
Platina was discovered by the Spaniards between Mexico and the isthmus of Darien ; and the first specimen of it was carried to England, the following year.“
The civil war in France had exceedingly retarded the progress of colonization, from the time of Roberval's first enterprise for the settlement of Canada. The same nobleman at length,
1 Vega, P. 2. lib. 5. c. 1, 2; & 6. c. 13. Herrera, d. 8. lib. 2, 3. Robertson, b. 6. Vega gives him this high encomium :—“ digno de eterna Memoria, que con su buena Fortuna, Maña, Prudencia, y Consejo, y las demás sus buenas partes, conquisto, y ganò de nuevo un Imperio de mil y trecientas leguas de largo ; y restituiò al Emperador Carlos Quinto, con todo el Tesoro, que del traia.”
2 Alcedo, Art. PARAGUAY. See Note XII.
Hakluyt, í. 521 ; iii. 131, 132, where the Act "made in An. 2. Edwardi sexti” is inserted entire. “By this acte,” says Hakluyt, " it appeareth, that the trade out of England to Newfoundland was common and frequented about the beginning of the raigne of Edward the 6. namely in the yeere 1548, and it is much to be marveiled, that by the negligence of our men, the countrey in all this time hath bene no better searched.” The preamble of the act begins : “ Forasmuch as within these few yeeres now last past, there have bene levied, perceived and taken by certaine of the officers of the Admiraltie, of such Marchants, and fishermen as have used and practised the adventures and journeys into Iseland, Newfoundland, Ireland, and other places commodious for fishing, and the getting of tish, in and upon the Seas or otherwise, by way of Marchants in those parties, divers great exactions, as summes of money, doles or shares of fish, and such other like things, to the great discouragement and hinderance of the same marchants and fishermen, and to po little dammage of the whole common wealth, and thereof also great complaints have bene made, and informations also yerely to the kings Majesties most honourable councell: for reformation whereof” &c. See Chalmers, i. 9. Anderson, ii. 83. Forster, Voy. 292.
5 Chronological View of Hist. of Chemistry.
aceompanied by his brother and a numerous train of adventurers, 1548. embarked again for the river St. Lawrence; but they were never heard of afterward. This disastrous event discouraged the people Roberval and the government of France to such a degree, that for 50 years Canada, no measures were taken for supplying the few French settlers, and is lost. who still remained in Canada.
The city of St. Salvador, the first European settlement in St. SalvaBrazil, was founded by Thome de Sonsa, a Portuguese, who dorin Bra; was appointed governor general of Brazil. An expedition was fitted out, consisting of 3 ships, 2 caravels, and 1 brigantine, on board of which were 320 persons in the king's pay, 400 degredados, or banished men, and colonists who made up the whole number 1000. In this expedition six Jesuits embarked, the first who ever set foot in the New World; and by them Christianity was now introduced into the Brazilian country.
The controversy, that gave rise to the Separation from the 1550. Church of England, began about this time; and now commenced Era of the the era of the English Puritans.3
The city Concepcion was founded by Pedro de Valdivia at Concepthe bay of Penco. It was afterwards repeatedly destroyed by the natives, and rebuilt.4
The plough was introduced into Peru.5
A ROYAL and pontifical university was erected in Mexico by 1551. the emperor Charles V, with the same privileges as that of Sala- University. manca.6
1 Charlevoix, Nouv. France, i. 22. “ Avex eux tomberent toutes les esperances, qu'on avoit conçûës de faire un Etablissement en Amérique.” Univ. Hist. xxxix. 408. Forster, Voy. 443. See A. D. 1540, 1542.
2 Histoire Impartiale des Jesuites, i. 385—387. Southey, Brazil, c. 8. Univ. Hist. xxxix. 217-223. St. Salvador afterward became populous, magnificent, and incomparably the most gay and opulent city in all Brazil.
3 Neal, History of the Puritans, i, c. 2. Burnet, Hist. Reformation, iii. b. 4. See NOTE XIII.
4 Alcedo, Art. CONCEPCION, and Chile. It was destroyed by earthquakes in 1730 and 1751; and in 1764, the inhabitants established themselves in the valley of Mocha, three leagues south of Pencho, where they founded New Concepcion.
5 Vega, p. 2. b. 2. The historian of Peru was carried that year, to see oxen at plough in the valley of Cuzco; and great numbers of Indians flocked from all parts with astonishinent, to behold “this prodigious novelty.”
6 Alcedo, Art. Mexico. That author, who published his work in 1787, says, of this university, “its cloisters are composed of more than 225 doctors and masters, with 22 professors of all the sciences, with a grand library.” To these he subjoins, as in the same connexion, a most ancient royal college of San Ildefonson—" a superb edifice, containing within it two other colleges, having above 300 students ;” a college also for the natives of Valladolid and Havana; another for the Indians of rank, founded by Charles V; another for the Indians and the Seminary of Los Infantes, with various other colleges; and, beside the university, public professorships, amounting altogether to the number of 43. There were, besides, several free schools and academies, and charitable institutions, and 13 hospitals.