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FROBISHER, with 15 sail of ships, made another voyage to 1578. the northernmost parts of the continent of America, with the Third voydesign of forming a settlement in the country. The adventurers age of Fxocarried with them the frame of a strong house, to be set up there ; but, on their arrival, they found it necessary to relinquish the design. Leaving that inhospitable region, their fleet was
Aug. 31. separated by a furious storm on the very night after their embarkation; but every ship at length arrived in England. Forty persons died on the voyage.
Francis Drake, on an enterprising voyage,” having gone through Drake's the Straits of Magellan, rifled the town of St. Jago in Chili, and voyage other places on the western coast of South America.3 In some world. of the harbours of this coast, he seized on ships which had not a single person on board, so unsuspicious were the Spaniards of an enemy there. Having at length taken an immensely rich Plunder at prize, and all his treasure being embarked in one vessel ; to avoid S. America, the danger of being intercepted by the Spaniards in an attempt to return by the Magellanic Straits, he determined to sail to the Moluccas, and return home by the Cape of Good hope. Sailing first to the north to obtain a good wind, he discovered a harbour, which he called Drake's Port. He also took possession of the circumjacent country, between 38 and 42° north latitude, and called it New Albion.4 “ This possession was taken with N. Albion
1 Hakluyt, iii. 39–44; 74–93. Harris' Voy. i. 578, 579. Anderson, ii. 143. It was the plan of the voyage, that all the ships should return at the close of the summer, laden with gold ore, excepting three, the three captains of which, with 40 mariners, 30 miners, and 30 soldiers were to“ tarry in the country.” “ They fraught their shippes with the like pretended gold ore out of the mines," as on the last voyage, “but after great charges, it proved worse than good stone, whereby many men were deceived, to their utter undoings.” Stow, Chronicle, 685.
He sailed from Plymouth, in England, 13 December 1577, with a fleet of 5 ships and barks, and 164 men, “gentlemen and sailers ;” and completed his voyage round the world 3 November 1580. This was the second circumnavigation of the globe. Purchas [v. 1180.] A. D. 1625, says, “ The reliques of the shippe,” in which this voyage was made, “or some bones at least of that glorious carkasse, yet remayne at Deptford consecrated to Fame and Posteritie.” At a feast on board this ship, queen Elizabeth knighted “ this noble mariner,” after his arrival in England. 3 Harris' Voy. i. 20. Hakluyt, iii
. 735. The inhabitants of St. Jago, consisting of not more than nine households, abandoned the town on the approach of the English. Spanish plunder was, according to Anderson, the principal object of the voyage. On the complaint of the Spanish ambassador, queen Elizabeth caused this spoil, or at least a great part of it, to be sequestered for the use of the king of Spain; but, at the same time, asserted the absolute freedom of her subjects to navigate the Indian seas, equally with the subjects of that king. Anderson, ii. 150. The conduct of Drake still gave umbrage, and had influence toward a rupture between England and Spain. “ Nec minora belli semina tentatus Anglis novus orbis, et in patriam perlatæ quas eripuerant Hispanis opes.” Grotii Annales, p. 99. See Camden, Eliz. 254.
4 Harris' Voy. i. 19—23. Hakluyt, iii. 440-442, 730—742. Purchas, i. 779.
1578. the best right in the world, the principal king formally investing
him with his principality.”i
Queen Elizabeth granted letters patent to Sir Humphrey GilQ Eliza
bert, authorizing him to discover and take possession of all remote tent to Sir and barbarous lands, unoccupied by any Christian prince or H. Gilbert. people. She vested in him, his heirs, and assigns for ever, the
full right of property in the soil of those countries, of which he should take possession, to hold of the crown of England by homage, on payment of the fifth part of the gold or silver ore found there ; conferred complete jurisdiction within the said lands, and seas adjoining them ; declared that all who should settle there should enjoy all the privileges of free citizens and natives of England, any law, custom, or usage to the contrary notwithstanding ; and prohibited all persons from attempting to settle within 200 leagues of any place which Sir Humphrey Gilbert, or his associates, should have occupied during the space of six years. Gilbert soon after prepared to put to sea with a considerable fleet; but, upon some dissension among the gentle
men adventurers, he was deserted by his associates, and left with His adven-' but a few of his firm and faithful friends. With these he advensuccessful. tured to sea, but, losing one of his ships in a violent storm, he
returned without effecting his object.? 1579.
MR. Cotton, a merchant of Southampton in England, emEnglish
ployed captain Whitburn in a ship of 300 tons, to fish for cods fishing roy on the great bank at Newfoundland; but the excess of cold foundland.obliged him to put into Trinity harbour, at that island, where by
ture is un
Belknap, Biog. i. 37. Forster, Voy. 452. Biblioth. Americ. 53. Two reasons are assigned for his giving it this name; one, on account of the white banks and cliffs which lie toward the sea ; the other, that it might have some affinity, in name, with England, “which sometime was so called."
1 European Settlements, i. 244. “ At our departure hence our Generall set up a monument of our being there, as also of her Majesties right and title to the same, namely a plate, nailed upon a faire greate poste, whereupon was ingraven her Majesties name, the day and yeere of our arrival there, with the free giving up of the province and people into her Majesties hands, together with her highnesse picture and armes, in a peice of sixe pence of current English money under the plate, whereunder was also written the name of our Generall.” Hakluyt.
2 Hakluyt, i. 677–682; ii. 135—137; Hazard's Collections, i. 24–28 ; British Empire, Introd. viii-xiv; where this patent is inserted entire. Smith's Virginia, 4. Belknap, Biog. i. 198. Forster, Voy. 289. Biog. Britann. Art. GILBERT. Robertson, b. 9. Haies, in Hakluyt, having mentioned the adverse occurrences that impeded the enterprise of Gilbert while on shore, and his
adventuring with few of his assured friends to sea," subjoins, “where, having tasted of no lesse misfortune, he was shortly driven to retire home with the losse of a tall ship, and (more to his griefe) of a valiant gentleman Miles Morgan." Oldys thought he had not only reason to believe, that this misfortune " was by a sharp encounter they had with the Spaniards, however tenderly touched at that time by this author, perhaps to avoid their triumph, but that Ralegh was in this very engagement, and his life in great danger thereby.” Life of Ralegh, p. xiii.
fish and other commodities he cleared the expense of the voy- 1579. age.
Two towns were founded in the Straits of Magellan by order Port of of Philip II ; but the colonists and founders perished through Hunger. want, and the place has from that time been called Port of Hunger.
N. Mexico discovered.
New Mexico, between 28 and 29° north latitude, was dis- 1580. covered by Augustin Ruys, a Spanish Franciscan missionary.3
The French trade to Canada was renewed, after an interrup- 1581. tion of near fifty years. The outrage of Cartier and his company, French in carrying off an Indian king, was the cause of its interruption. trade to Two years after the present renewal of it, the French had three ships, one of 180 tons, one of 100, and one of 80, employed in the Canada trade.4
EDWARD FENTON, an Englishman, with a fleet of four sail, 1582. embarked for the East Indies and China by the west ; but he English proceeded no farther than to the coast of Brazil, to 33° south voyage to latitude, 5
Francisco Gali, in a voyage from Macao to Acapulco, dis- Discovery covered the northwest coast of America under 570 30''north on the N. latitude. He coasted part of what was afterwards called, The Archipelago of the Prince of Wales, or that of King George.6
By virtue of the patent, granted by queen Elizabeth five years 1583 before, Sir Humphrey Gilbert again undertook a voyage to
W. . foundland.
1 Univ. Hist. xxxix. 248. Whitburn repeated the voyage, and was at Newfoundland when Sir Humphrey Gilbert arrived there in 1583.
2 Alcedo, Art. MAGELLANES.
3 Encyclop. Methodique, Geog. Art. MEXIQUE (noveau). Charlevoix, Nouv. France, i. p. xxv. Fastes, Chron. Charlevoix says, that in 1582 Antoine de Espejo, a Spaniard, made discoveries to the north of New Spain, additional to those of Ruys, and gave to all that grand country the name of New Mexico.
4 Hakluyt, iii. 187, 292. See A. D. 1535. Carlisle says, “ This outrage and and injurious dealing (of Cartier] did put the whole countrey people into such dislike with the French, as never since they would admit any conversation or familiaritie with them, untill of late yeeres the olde matter beginning to grow out of minde, and being the rather drawen on by gifts of many trifling things, which were of great value with them, they are within these two or three yeeres content againe to admit a traffique, which two yeeres since was begunne with a small barke of thirtie tunnes, whose returne was found so profitable, as the next yeere following by those Marchants who meant to have kept the trade secret unto themselves from any others of their owne countrey men, there was hired a shippe of fourscore tunnes out of the Isle of Jersey, but not any one mariner of that place, saving a shipboy. This shippe made her return in such sorte, as that this yeere they have multiplyed three shippes, to wit, one of ninescore tunnes, another of an hundreth tunnes, and a third of fourscore tunnes.”
5 Hakluyt, iii. 757–768. 6 Humboldt, N. Spain, ii. 249. « Sir Francis Drake only went as far as 48o."
1583. America. His misfortune in the first voyage involved him iu
debt, and he could only meet the demands of his creditors by
grants of land in the New World. Voyage of There being no prospect that the country would be thus setSir H. Gil. tled, or that the conditions of his patent would be fulfilled, he bert to New
was obliged to sell his estate before he could make another attempt. Resuming the enterprise at length, with his characteris
tic resolution and perseverance, he sailed from Plymouth on the June 11. 11th of June, with two ships and three barks, carrying about
260 men, for Newfoundland. One of the barks, of 200 tons, was built, victualled, and manned, by his brother-in-law Sir Walter Raleigh ; but, on account of a contagious sickness which infected the whole ship’s company, this bark soon returned to
Plymouth. Discovers On the 30th of July, Sir Humphrey discovered land in about
51° north latitude; but, finding nothing but bare rocks, he shaped
his course to the southward, and on the 3d of August arrived at Arrives at St. John's harbour, at Newfoundland. There were then in the New found- harbour 36 vessels, belonging to various nations, which refused
him entrance; but, on sending his boat with intelligence, that he had no ill design, and that he had a commission for his voyage from queen Elizabeth, they submitted, and he sailed into the port. On the 5th of August, he took possession of the island and of the parts adjacent. Having pitched his tent on shore in sight of all the shipping, and being attended by his own people, he summoned the merchants and masters of vessels to be present at the ceremony.
When assembled, his commission was read and interpreted to the foreigners. A turf and twig were then delivered to him; and proclamation was immediately made, that, by virtue of his commission from the queen, he took possession of the harbour of St. John, and 200 leagues every way around it, for the crown of England. It was proclaimed, that, from that time forward, they should take this land as a territory appertaining to the queen of England, and that he himself was authorized, under her majesty, to possess and enjoy it, and to ordain laws for its government, agreeable, as nearly as might be convenient, to the laws of England; under which all people coming thither hereafter, either to inhabit, or for the purpose of traffic, should
1 « Among whom,” says Haies, “we had of every faculty good choice, as shipwrights, masons, carpenters, smithes, and such like, requisit to such an action: also minerall men and refiners. Besides, for solace of our people, and allurement of the Savages, we were provided of Musike in good varietie : not omitting the least toyes, as Morris dancers, hobby horse, and Maylike conceits to delight the Savage people, whom we intended to winne by all faire meanes possible. And to that end we were indifferently furnished of all pettie haberdasherie wares to barter with those simple people."
2 Oldys says, Sir Walter Ralegh had set out in this bark to a company his brother Gilbert, in the quality of vice admiral.
be subjected and governed. He then proposed and delivered 1583. three laws, to be in force immediately. By the first law, public worship was established according to the church of England; by Delivers the second, the attempting of any thing prejudicial to her majesty's title was declared treason; by the third, if any person should utter words to the dishonour of her majesty, he should lose his ears, and have his ship and goods confiscated. When the proclamation was finished, obedience was promised by the general voice, both of Englishmen and strangers. Not far from the place of meeting, a pillar was afterwards erected, upon which were “infixed the armes of England,” engraved in lead. For the farther establishment of this possession, several parcels of land were granted by Sir Humphrey, on fee farm, by which the occupants were assured of grounds convenient to dress and dry their fish, of which privilege they had often been debarred, by the preoccupancy of those who came first into the harbour. For these grounds they covenanted to pay a certain rent and service to Sir Humphrey Gilbert, his heirs or assigns for ever, and yearly to maintain possession of them, by themselves or their assignees. A tax, on provision, was next levied on all the ships, and was readily paid ; the admiral receiving, besides, presents of wine, fruit, and other refreshments, chiefly from the Portuguese.
This formal possession, in consequence of the discovery by the Cabots, is considered by the English as the foundation of the right and title of the Crown of England to the territory of Newfoundland, and to the fishery on its banks.
Gilbert, intending to bring the southern parts of the country within the compass of his patent, the date of which had now nearly expired, hastened his preparations to return to England. Purposing, before his departure, to make farther discoveries on the coast toward the south, he embarked from St. John's harbour with his little fleet, and sailed for the Isle of Sable by the Aug. 20. way of Cape Breton. After spending eight days in the naviga- Isle of sa tion from Cape Race toward Cape Breton, the distance between ble. the capes being 87 leagues, the ship Admiral was cast away on some shoals before any discovery of land, and nearly 100 souls perished. Of this number was Stephen Parmenius Budeius, a
ship lost. learned Hungarian, who had accompanied the adventurers, to
29. His chief
1 Camden, the contemporary historian, recorded the enterprise of Gilbert, with a just reflection upon the difficulty of conducting colonies into distant regions at private expense : “Verum postquam regionem illam (Newfoundland] Anglici juris esse voce præconis publicasset (Sebastianus enim Cabota auspiciis Henrici VII. anno mccccxcvii. primus aperuerat) et terras sociis viritim assignasset ; naufragiis et rerum defectu afflictus, incæpto desistere coactus, serò didicit, et alios doceat, majoris esse difficultatis, Colonias privatorum opibus in disjunctas regiones deducere, quàm ipse, et alii credulo errore, et suo damno sibi persuaserunt.” Annales, A. D. 1583. VOL. I.