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The exciting current is led into the field magnet by the exposed perpendicularly to a stream may be increased to novel employment of the two endless metallic
cords seen any extent by imparting to the lamina a sufficiently high to the left of Fig. 33, which saves the necessity of using velocity in its own plane. The immense importance of a standard to carry contact brushes, and the smallness this principle was clearly recognized by Mr. Wenham in of the power spent in exciting the field magnet, com- his valuable paper upon Aight ; 1 and a few years later the pared with the power developed by the machine, is seen whole subject was discussed by the greatest authority from the dwarf-like character of the direct current exciting upon such matters, the late Mr. W. Froude, with dynamo in Figs. 33 and 34.1
characteristic insight and lucidity.” This three-phase alternate current dynamo of Mr. The theoretical problem of determining the resistance Brown's, on account of the simplicity and solidity of its from the first principles of hydrodynamics is not free from design, the slow speed of its rotation, and the entire difficulty, even in the case of two dimensions, where a absence of the experimental makeshifts which are sup- long rectangular lamina is exposed obliquely to a stream posed to be characteristic of an electrician, but which are whose direction is perpendicular to the longer sides. The in reality evidences of the rapid development of his formula o resulting from the theory of Kirchhoff, viz. tools, appeals especially to the mechanical engineer. It is therefore probable that the employnient of so
a sin a
. (1) well constructed a dynamo at Lauffen, and so smoothly
4 + i sin a running a motor at Frankfort, will bring home to the where p is the density of the Auid, and V is the total mechanical engineer that he can now avail himself, for velocity of the stream flowing at the angle a with the the practical transmission of power, of that silent carrier plane of the lamina, shows that when a is small the reelectricity—a carrier which, while it can communicate sistance is nearly proportional to sin a. Moreover, (1) a great force almost instantaneously to a vast distance agrees with the experiments of Vince.* through a thin wire, travels itself so leisurely that, in its
It will be seen that the laws of resistance were fairly steady flow, it experiences no extra difficulty whether it well established many years ago, at least in their main goes up hill or down dale, overhead or underground, in outlines. Nevertheless, there was ample room for the a straight line or round a succession of sharp corners. systematic and highly elaborate experiments recorded in
the memoir whose title stands at the head of this article. EXPERIMENTS IN AERODYNAMICS.2 THE subject of this memoir is of especial interest at
the present time, when the skill of a distinguished inventor is understood to be engaged in attacking the many practical difficulties which lie in the way of artificial fight upon a large scale. For a long time the resistance of fluids formed an unsatisfactory chapter in our treatises on hydrodynamics. According to the early suggestions of Newton, the resistances are (1) proportional to the surfaces of the solid bodies acted upon, to the densities of the Auids, and to the squares of the velocities; 60 while (2)“ the direct impulse of a fluid on a plane surface is to its absolute oblique impulse on the same surface as the square of the radius to the square of the sine of the angle of incidence.” The author of the work 3 from which these words are quoted, in comparing the above statements with the experimental results available in his time (1822), remarks :-“(1) It is very consonant to experiment that the resistances are proportional to the squares of the velocities. . . . (2) It appears from a comparison of all the experiments, that the impulses and resistances are very nearly in the proportion of the surfaces. . . . (3) The resistances do by no means vary in the duplicate ratio of the sines of the angle of incidence." And he subsequently states that for small angles the resistances are more nearly proportional to the sines of incidence than to their squares.
It is probable that the law of velocity tended to support in men's minds the law of the square of the sine. For, if both be admitted, it follows that the resistance, normal to The work appears to have been executed with the skill the surface, experienced by a plane when immersed in a and thoroughness which would naturally be expected of stream of fluid, depends only upon the component of the the author, and will doubtless prove of great service to velocity perpendicular to the surface. That the effect those engaged upon these matters. The scanty reference should be independent of the component parallel to the to previous knowledge, which Prof. Langley holds out plane seems plausible, inasmuch as this component, if it some promise of extending in subsequent publications, existed alone, would exercise no pressure ; but that such makes it rather difficult to pick out the points of greatest a view is entirely erroneous has been long recognized by novelty. The main problem is, of course, the law of practical men, especially by those concerned in naviga obliquity, and this is attacked with two distinct forms of tion.
apparatus. The general character of the results, exhibited From the law of the simple sine, enunciated by Robi- graphically on p. 62, will be made apparent from the acson, it follows at once that the pressure upon a lamina companying reproduction, in which are added a curve D,
1 We are indebted to Industries and the Electrician for some of the Report of Aëronautical Society for 1866. illustrations used in this article.
2. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng., 1871 (discussion upon a paper by Sir F. Knowles). 2 "Experiments in Aerodynamics." By S. P. Langley. “ Smithsonian 3 See Phil. Mag., December 1876. Also Basset's "Hydrodynamics," Contributions to Knowledge." (Washington, 1891). 3 "System of Mechanical Philosophy," by John Robison, vol. ii., 1822. 4 Phil. Trans., 1798.
vol. i. p 131.
corresponding to (I), and E, representing the law of sin’a. question the level is supposed to be maintained with the In each case the abscissa is the angle a, and the ordinate aid, e.g., of screw propulsion, the necessary maintenance is the normal pressure, expressed as a percentage of that ex- being secured by an aëroplane slightly tilted (a) upwards perienced when a = 90°. of Prof. Langley's curves, A re- in front. The work required to be expended in order to lates to a square plane 12 inches x 12 inches, B to a recto maintain a given weight depends upon the area of plane, angle 6 x 24 inches, and C to a rectangle 30 x 4.8 inches, the inclination, and the speed. Penaud's results show the leading edge (perpendicular to the stream) being in each that, if skin friction could be neglected, the necessary work case specified first, so that the theoretical curve D cor- might be diminished indefinitely, even with a given area responds most nearly to C. It will be seen at a glance of wing. For this purpose, it would only be necessary to that at small angles the pressure is enormously greater increase the speed and correspondingly to diminish a. than according to the law of sin’a. The differences But when skin friction is taken into account, the work between A, B, C, anticipated in a general manner by can only be reduced to a minimum, and to do this with Wenham and Froude, are of great interest. They with a given area of wing requires a definite (large) demonstrate that in proportion to area a long narrow velocity, and a definite (small) inclination. The accurate wing is more efficient as a support than a short wide one, determination of the tangential, as well as of the normal, and that in a very marked degree.
force experienced by an inclined plane is thus of essential Up to a certain point there is no difficulty in giving a importance in the question of flight. theoretical account of these features. When a rectangular The work of Penaud seems to be so little known that lamina is exposed perpendicularly, there is one point, i.e. it has been thought desirable to recapitulate some of his the centre, at which the velocity of the stream is annulled. theoretical conclusions, But we owe to Penaud not At this point the pressure attains the full amount, 1pV?, merely sound theory, but the actual construction of a due to the velocity of the stream, while at every other successful flying machine, in which horizontal Aight is point the pressure is less, and falls to zero at the maintained by a screw propeller. In these models the boundary. If the lamina is sloped to the stream, as in energy is stored by means of stretched india-rubber, a B and C, there is still a median plane of symmetry ; and method available only upon a small scale. It is probable at one point in this plane, but now in advance of the that the principle of the rocket might be employed with centre, the full pressure is experienced. In strictness, advantage ; and even upon a large scale the abolition of there is only one point of maximum pressure, whatever all machinery would allow of considerable extravagance may be the proportions of the lamina. But if the rectangle in the use of explosive material. This method is espe. be very elongated, there is practically a great difference cially adapted to the very high speeds which on other in this respect according to the manner of presentation, grounds are most suitable. although the small angle a be preserved unchanged. For In the chapter on “The Plane Dropper,” some striking when the long edges are perpendiculer to the stream (C), experiments are described, illustrating the effect of a forthe motion is nearly in two dimensions, and the region ward movement in retarding the fall of a horizontal plane. of nearly maximum pressure extends over most of the Prof. Langley seems hardly to recognize that there is length. But the case is obviously quite different when nothing really distinctive in this arrangement when he it is the short dimension that is perpendicular to the says: stream, for then along the greater part of the length there
“It is, of course, an entirely familiar observation that is rapid flow, and consequently small pressure.
we can support an inclined plane by moving it laterally, It will naturally be asked whether any explanation can deriving our support in this case from the upward combe offered of the divergence of C from the theoretical ponent of pressure derived from the wind of advance ; curve D. This is a point well worthy of further experi- but, so far as I am aware, this problem of the velocity of ment. It seems probable that the cause lies in the fall of a horizontal plane moving horizontally in the air suction operative, as the result of friction, at the back of has never been worked out theoretically or determined the lamina. That the suction is a reality may be proved experimentally, and I believe that the experimental inwithout much difficulty by using a hollow lamina, AB vestigation whose results I am now to present is new.” (Fig. 2), whose interior' is connected with a manometer. But, apart from the complications which attend the
establishment of a uniform régime, there is no essential difference between the two cases. The hydrodynamical forces depend only upon the magnitude of the relative velocity and upon the inclination of this relative velocity to the plane. All else is a question merely of ordinary elementary mechanics.
It is interesting to note that Prof. Langley's experience has led him to take a favourable view of the practicability of flight upon a large scale Such was also the opinion of Penaud, who (in 1876) expresses his
conviction "that, in the future more or less distant, B В
science will construct a light motor that will enable us to solve the problem of aviation." But sufficient maintaining power is not the only requisite ; and it is probable
that difficulties connected with stability, and with safe If there be a small perforation at any point C, the mano- alighting at the termination of the adventure, will exercise meter indicates the pressure, positive or negative, exer- to the utmost the skill of our inventors. cised at this point, when the apparatus is exposed to a
RAYLEIGH. blast of air.
When once the law of obliquities is known, the problem of aërial maintenance presents no further theoretical
PRELIMINARY NOTICE OF A NEW difficulty. It was successfully treated many years ago by
BRANCHIATE OLIGOCHÆTE. Penaud,' and somewhat later by Froude, whose interest
: THE term “ Annélides
abranches sétigères" applied been published. In perhaps the simplest form of the restrial and fresh-water Annelids, now known as the See Report of Aëronautical Society for 1876.
Oligochæta, is no longer applicable to that group. * Edinburgh Proceedings, R. E. Froude, 1891.
Several Oligochæta have been described as possessing
gills, which, though for the most part differing in struc- number of papers which have been published in the Proture from the gills of the Polychæta, must be branchial in ceedings two-thirds are on the physics and dynamics of dead function. The most remarkable instance hitherto known matter and one-third on biological subjects. is Alma nilotica, lately redescribed by Levinsen (Vidensk. “As stated by Sir George Stokes in his Presidential Address at Meddel. naturh. For. Kjöbnhavn, 1889) under the name
the last anniversary meeting, a revision of the whole body of of Digitibranchus niloticus. The posterior segments of the Statutes of the Royal Society had been entered upon, a this Annelid possess four to five branchial processes on
Committee had recently reported to the Council, and its report each side of the dorsal middle line of the body. It can
had been left to the new Council then entering on office to take not yet be regarded as an absolute certairty that this Council now concluding its term of office has accordingly given
such action in the matter as might be judged proper. The species belongs to the Oligochæta at all ; but in any case
much time to the subject, and has completed the work of reprocesses of the body-wall, containing each a capillary enacting the Statutes with such amendments as have seemed loop, and therefore probably branchial in function, have desirable. The only questions upon which there was effective been recently described by Prof. A. G. Bourne (Quart. difference of opinion were those connected with the election of Journ. Micr. Sci., vol. xxxi.) in a new genus of Naids-- Fellows, which were referred to by Sir George Stokes as having Chatobranchus. These processes, though doubtless elicited considerable difference of opinion in the reporting branchial in function, are rather suggestive of the para- Committee. The Council, after much anxious consideration, podia of marine Annelids, since they inclose, partially or
resolved to make no change of the existing Statutes in this entirely, the dorsal setæ. I have lately had the oppor- respect. tunity of examining this Annelid, through the kindness
" There have been no changes during the past session in the of Mr. Sowerby. The “ Victoria regia tank” at the constitution of the staff employed in the offices and Library ; Botanical Society's Gardens, which produced the cele- copyists have been engaged to work under the superintendence
but in the Catalogue Department, two lady assistants and two brated “Fresh-water Medusa” and other remarkable of Miss Chambers, who succeeded in July of last year to the forms, furnished me with Chatobranchus, and with a new post rendered vacant by the death of the late Mr. Holt, and and interesting form of branchiate Oligochæte, which I who continues to give every satisfaction in the discharge of her propose to call Branchiura Sowerbii.
duties. In its general aspect this worm recalls a Tubifex ; the “In January of the present year a communication was received setæ, in their shape, and in their arrangement, resemble from our Fellow, Prof. G. S. Brady, intimating that his brother, those of Tubifex. But here the resemblance ends. The the late Mr. Henry Bowman Brady, whose decease I have last sixty segments or so of the body (there are from 130- already mentioned, had bequeathed to the Society all his books 170 segments altogether) are provided with a paired ihat they should be kept together as a distinct collection.
and papers relating to the Protozoa, with the recommendation
In series of long tentacle-like processes-a pair to each segment--lying the middle ventral and dorsal lines; towards of £300 was made, the interest or principal or both to be
case this recommendation should be adopted, a further bequest the middle of the series these processes exceed in length applied, at the discretion of the Council, to the purchase of the diameter of the body ; anteriorly and posteriorly they works on the same or kindred subjects, to be added to the diminish, and finally become mere wart-like protuber-collection. The Council have accepted both these bequests, ances. The processes in question are supplied with and a case marked with an engraved plate has been set aside in blood from the main vascular trunks. They are in con- | the Library for the accommodation of the Brady collection. tinual movement, each branchia moving quite independ- “His Excellency Robert Halliday Gunning, M.D., LL.D., ently by means of the contraction of simple muscular F.R.S. E., who in 1887 founded certain scholarships and prizes for fibres. The writhing movements, as well as the structure the promotion of original scientific work and proficiency in of these organs, is much like that of the tentacles and cirri scientific education in connection with the Royal Society of of certain Polychæta. Apart from the individual con- Edinburgh, the University of Edinburgh, and other institutions tractions of these branchiæ, the tail end of the worm in that city, called the Victoria Jubilee Prizes, desires to institute perpetually jerks from side to side, particularly when the given to the Royal Society a sum of £1000, to be ultimately
foundations of a similar kind in London. He has accordingly creature is in any way disturbed. I do not know whether invested in such manner as the President and Council, in their the worm usually rests in the mud with the tail protruding absolute and uncontrolled discietion, may think fit, and to be and waving about, like many other aquatic Oligochæta ; held in trust always for the purpose of forming a fund the annual but it is probable, from the limitation of the branchiæ to income of which shall be applied triennially towards the prothe tail end, that it does. I found three specimens, motion of physical science and biology in such manner as to the which were slowly crawling about.
President and Council of the Royal Society may appear most FRANK E. BEDDARD. desirable. The President and Council, for the time being, are
given full power to make such rules and regulations as they think fit with regard to the application of the income of the
fund, which shall always be kept distinct from and not in any THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE ROYAL way immixed with the general funds of the Royal Society. SOCIETY.
“A very important resolution for the advancement of natural MONDAY being St. Andrew's Day, the anniversary knowledge has been adopted during the past year by the Royal held in their
, which, after the first apartments in Burlington House. The report of the
year, an expenditure to the extent of £ 5000 a year is to be auditors of the Treasurer's accounts having been read, and devoted. Sixteen appointments have already been made 10 the Secretary having read the list of those Fellows who scholarships of £150, to be held for two years, with possible have been elected and those who have died since the renewal for a third year. The Commissioners require of each last anniversary, the President, Sir William Thomson, candidate for an appointment satisfactory evidence of proficiency delivered the anniversary address. After an account in a three years' course of University or high class College of the scientific work of those Fellows who had died study, and of capacity for experimental work. To the tenure of within the year, the President proceeded :
each scholarship the duty is assigned of advancing science by
experimental work in physics, mechanics, chemistry, or any " The Royal Society, since the last anniversary meeting, has application of science tending to benefit our national industries. been, as always, active both in the proceedings of its ** A Committee of the British Association, appointed for the ordinary meetings, which have been full of scientific interest, purpose of reporting on the best means of comparing and reand in the conduct of the important affairs committed to its ducing observations on terrestrial magnetism, has strongly Council. During the past year nineteen memoirs have been recommended the re-establishment of a magnetic Observatory at published in the Philosophical Transactions, containing a the Cape of Good Hope. A conference on the subject was held total of 1020 pages and 60 plates. Of the Proceedings, six between the Committee and Dr. Gill, the Astronomer-Royal of numbers have been issued, containing 893 pages. Of the large the Cape of Good Hope, last June, during his recent visit to England, which has resulted in an application to the Admiralty County Council and the Royal Society, for this great work, may to carry this recommendation into practical effect in connection be successful in bringing out practically useful results. with the astronomical Observatory of the Cape of Good Hope belonging to the Admiralty). This application is at present
Prof. Stanislao Cannizzaro (Copley Medal). under the consideration of the Admiralty.
“Stanislao Cannizzaro, Senator of Italy, and Professor of "A fundamental investigation in astronomy, of great im- Chemistry in the University of Rome, bas rendered invaluable ser. portance in respect to the primary observational work of astro
vice to the philosophy of modern chemical science. The work of nomical Observatories, and of exceeding interest in connection Avogadro, in 1811, and afterwards that of Ampère, had already with tidal, meteorological, and geological observations and
thrown much light on the relative weights of ihe molecules of peculations, has been definitively entered upon during the past elementary bodies, and on the proportion in which those weights year, and has already given substantial results of a most pro- enter into chemical combination. But it is to Cannizzaro that mising character. The International Geodetic Union, at its
we owe the completion of what they had left untinished last meeting in the autumn of 1890, on the motion of Prof.
He pointed out the all-important difference, hitherto overlooked, Foerster, of Berlin, resolved to send an astronomical expedition between molecular and atomic weights, and showed (1) how 10 Honolula, which is within 9of the opposite meridian to the atomic weights of the elements contained in a volatile comBerlin (171° west from Berlin), for the purpose of making a
pound can be deduced from the molecular weights of such twelve months' series of observations on latitude corresponding compounds ; (2) how the atomic weights of the elements the to twelve months' analogous observations to be made in the vapour-densities of whose compounds were unknown can be Royal Observatory, Berlin. Accordingly, Dr. Marcuse went ascertained by help of their specific heats. By these investigafrom Berlin, and, along with Mr. Preston, sent by the Coast tions the series of atomic weights of the elements, the most and Geodetic Survey Department of the United States, began important of all chemical constants, and the relation which these making latitude observations in Honolulu about the beginning weights bear to the molecular weights of the elements, have of June. In a letter from Prof. Foerster, received a few weeks been placed on the firm basis on which they have ever since ago, he tells me that he has already received from Honolulu a rested. It is to Cannizzaro that science is indebted for this first instalment of several hundred determinations of latitude, fundamental discovery, and it is this which it is proposed to made during a first three months of the proposed year of obser recognize by the award of the Copley Medal. vations; and that, in comparing these results with the corresponding results of the Berlin Observatory, he finds beyond Prof. Charles Lapworth, F.R.S. (Royal Medal). doubt that in these three months the latitude increased in Berlin by one-third of a second, and decreased in Honolulu by almost
"Prof. Lapworth is the author of some of the most original and exactly the same amount. Thus, we have decisive demonstra suggestive papers which have appeared in the geological literature tion that motion, relatively to the earth, of the earth's instan. of this country for the last twenty years. Special reference may taneous axis of rotation is the cause of variations of latitude be made to his researches on graptolites, and to his patient inwhich had been observed in Berlin, Greenwich, and other great vestigation by these means of the exceedingly complicated strucObservatories, and which could not be wholly attributed to errors ture of the Silurian uplands of the south of Scotland. He has of observation. This, Prof. Foerster remarks, gives observa
been able not only to supply the key which has given the solution tional proof of a dynamical conclusion contained in my Pre
of the stratigraphical difficulties of that region, but also to sidential Address to Section A of the British Association at
furnish theoretical geology with an array of new facts from which Glasgow, in 1876, to the effect that irregular movements of
to philosophize as to the mechanism of mountain-making. Of the earth's axis to the extent of half a second may be produced not less importance are his detailed studies of the structure of by the temporary changes of sea-level due to meteorological order of stratigraphical sequence in that region of complex dis
the North-west Highlands, and his demonstration of the true causes. "It is proposed that four permanent stations for regular and
turbance As a stratigraphist he has attained the highest rank, continued observations of latitude, at places of approximately and he has likewise made himself a chief palæontological equal latitude, and on meridians approximately 90° apart, authority on the structure and distribution of the Graptolitidæ. should be establisherl under the auspices of the International
For some years past he has been engaged in a laborious study of Geodetic Union. The reason for this is that a change in the Silurian and Cambrian rocks of the middle of England, the the instantaneous axis of rotation in the direction perpendi- detailed publication of which is awaited with much interest by çular to the meridian of any one place would not alter its latitude, geologists. but would alter the latitude of a place 90° from it in longitude
Prof. Rücker, F.R.S. (Royal Vedal). by an amount equal to the angular change of the position " In conjunction with Prof. Reinold, Prof. Rücker carried out of the axis. Thus two stations in meridians differing by 90° an important series of researches (extending over ten years) on would theoretically suffice, by observations of latitude, to deter. the electric resistance and other physical properties of liquid mine the changes in the position of the instantaneous axis ; but films, in the course of which the iact was established that the differential results, such as those already obtained between black part of a soap film in equilibrium has a uniform or nearly Berlin and Honolulu, differing by approximately 180° in longi- uniform thickness of 11 or 12 micromillimetres, and that there is tude, are necessary for eliminating errors of observation an abrupt augmentation across its border to a thickness of about sufficiently to give satisfactory and useful results. It is to be 30 or 40 micromillimetres in passing to the coloured portions. hoped that England, and all other great nations in which science This, considered in connection with the well-known sudden is cultivated, will co-operate with the International Geodetic opening out of the little black areas in an ordinary soap-bubble, Union in this important work.”
proves a minimum of surface-tension for some thickness between The celebration of the hundredth anniversary of the birth io and 50 micromillimetres, which in the ordinary soap-bubble, of Faraday, recorded in our columns at the time, was next re- unmodiñed by Reinold and Rücker's electric current, is tem. ferred to.
porarily balanced in virtue of the abrupt change of thickness, a "A matter of great importance in respect to the health of the proposition of fundamental importance in the molecular theory, community was submitted to the Royal Society by the London implying the existence of molecular heterogeneousness. County Council, in a letter of date May 1, 1891, asking for * In theoretical calculations connected with the compounding information and suggesting investigation regarding the vitality of dynamos and motors to produce constant potential difference, of microscopic pathogenic organisms in large bodies of water, constant current, or constant speed, electricians did not see their such as rivers which are sources of water-supply and which are way to obtain results of a sufficiently simple character to be of exposed to contamination. After some correspondence, it was use in practice, if they employed a function of the current which agreed, between the County Council and the Council of the fairly represented the magnetism. They were, therefore, comRoyal Society, to enter upon an investigation, the expense pelled to assume in such calculations that the magnetism was a of which was to be defrayed partly by the London County linear function of the current, although it was well known that Council and partly by the Royal Society out of the this was very far from being true when the current was large. Government Grant' for Scientific Research. When we Prof. Rücker, however, developed a simple method of attacking consider how much of disease and death is due to con- such problems, and showed how the magnetic saturation of the taminated water, we must feel that it is scarcely possible iron might be taken into account, and a comprehensive solution to over-estimate the vital importance of the proposed investi. of the general problem of compounding dynamos and motors gation. Let us hope that the alliance between the London obtained in a workable form. Prof. Rücker's paper containing his investigation, and which will be found in the Proceedings of winds to the breathing of a certain plant, which turned the Physical Society, is a most valuable contribution to the to the sun and blew its breath after it. The earlier pages theory of direct-current dynamos and motors.
of the Transactions were full of chronometers and of the “Prof. Rücker has, with the co-operation of Prof. Thorpe, work leading up to the invention which gained the reward completed a magnetic survey of the British Isles (1884-89),
of £10,000. Excellent work was done with the grant of which, independently of its great value in investigations of the distribution of the earth's magnetism, and the changes to which
£4000 administered by this and allied Societies; and he it is subject, is specially remarkable for
the exhaustive discussion believed its future achievements would at least equal of the observations in reference to regions of local magnetic
those of the past. The next fifty years would probably disturbance, and their relation to the geological constitution of
produce, in the science of dead matter, and in the science the earth's crust in the neighbourhood. Prof. Rücker has of living matter too, discoveries compared with which followed up this discussion by a paper on 'The Relation those of the last 300 years would ultimately appear to be between the Magnetic Permeability of Rocks and Regional small indeed. Magnetic Disturbances,' read before the Royal Society. The The President proposed the health of “The Medalhigh estimate that has been formed of the value of this mag. lists,” and spoke in eulogistic terms of the services in netic survey is perhaps most easily appreciated from the very respect of which the medals had been awarded. large sums that the Government Grant Committee have recom
The Italian Ambassador briefly responded in the name mended should be contributed to aid in the completion of this
of Prof. Stanislao Cannizzaro. work of international importance.
Prof. Rücker, in responding for the other medallists,
said : Prof. Victor Meyer (Davy Medal). “ Prof. Victor Meyer, formerly the successor of Wöhler at
Islanders as we were, the Royal Society prided itself on the Göttingen, and who now occupies the chair of Bunsen at fact that some of its medals could be awarded to distinguished Heidelberg, is eminent as an original worker and discoverer in scientific workers outside these islands. This year no less than almost every branch of chemical science. His methods of four foreign Fellowships and two medals testified to our respect determining the vapour-densities of substances have been of the and esteem for colleagues abroad. We respected them for many greatest service to chemists, not only as convenient and generally things—for the thoroughness with which they grasped all that applicable modes of ascertaining atomic and molecular weights, the scientific movement meant and involved; for the foresight but also as serving to throw light on the molecular con
and courage with which-beginning at the beginning—they had stitution of elements and compounds under varying conditions
provided for their students laboratories and workshops such as of temperature and pressure. A striking example of the value no English lad could enter at home. We respected them for of these methods is seen in their application by their author to
the sound educational methods which had led them to use these the study of the molecular dissociation of the element iodine, appliances, so as to point the student to the research laboratory one of the most masterly investigations of recent years, and
rather than to the examination room as the goal of his ambition. which is universally recognized as of the very highest signifi.
We respected them because these methods have produced their cance and importance. Not less noteworthy are Victor Meyer's natural results, and year by year a crop of new scientific facts services to organic chemistry. His work on the nitroso-bodies,
was reaped not only from the laboratories of their Colleges, but and his brilliant discovery of thiophene, the initial member of a
from the workshops of their manufacturers. We respected and class of substances hitherto unknown, his subsequent synthetical esteemed most of all the men who had thus led or who were thus formation of it, and the remarkable series of researches on its leading their countrymen aright-veterans, such as Cannizzaro, derivatives, in part carried out with the aid of his pupils, stamp
who, amid the turmoil in which the foundations of modern him as an investigator of exceptional power and distinction.” Italy were laid, found time to lay the foundations of
chemistry anew; investigators, such as Victor Meyer, who, The Society next proceeded to elect the Officers and when Bunsen retired from the laboratory where so many Council for the ensuing year. The following is a list English chemists learnt or perfected their art, was judged of those elected :-President: Sir William Thomson. by all to be a worthy successor to Bunsen himself. While Treasurer : John Evans. Secretaries : Prof. Michael fully admitting that we had something to learn from the Foster, The Lord Rayleigh. Foreign Secretary: Sir
work and methods of our foreign colleagues, we might claim Archibald Geikie. Other Members of the Council: notoriously lagged behind. In the multiplication of centres of
that our progress bad lately quickened where at one time we Captain William de Wiveleslie Abney, William Thomas scientific work, Scotland was formerly the only part of these Blanford, Prof. Alexander Crum Brown, Prof. George islands which compared with Germany. This was no longer so. Carey Foster, James Whitbread Lee Glaisher, Frederick
Every large town in England and Wales and the chief towns of Ducane Godman, John Hopkinson, Prof. George Downing Ireland had now University Colleges. Their scale was modest Liveing, Prof. Joseph Norman Lockyer, Prof. Arthur indeed when compared with what a paternal Government was Milnes Marshall, Philip Henry Pye-Smith, William providing for Strasburg, or a democracy for Zürich; but they Chandler Roberts-Austen, Prof. Edward Albert Schäfer, were full of intellectual energy and of scientific work. Hardly Sir George Gabriel Stokes, Bart., Prof. Sydney Howard a month passed without the publication of papers on researches Vines, General James Thomas Walker.
conducted in the laboratories of some of them. Almost every In the evening the Fellows and their friends dined year they were represented in the list of Fellows newly elected together at the Whitehall Rooms, Hôtel Métropole. The
into the Society. "Out of the last eight recipients of the Royal company numbered over 230. The chair was occupied in both capacities, spent many years within the walls of one or
Medals, five had, either as learners or as teachers, or, in turn, by the President.
other of our provincial Colleges. But he must not be understood After the loyal toasts, Dr. John Evans proposed “Her as claiming for English science only that it was making good Majesty's Ministers and the Members of the Legislature,” confessed educational deficiencies. There were sciences which, a toast to which Sir J. Fergusson responded.
either in their origin or their development, were peculiarly our In response to
The Royal Society," proposed by Mr. own. One of these was geology. Crowded up between our four Forwood, M.P. (who referred to the fact that Sir William seas was an epitome of the past history of the world such as he Thomson's discoveries “ had rendered it possible to steer believed no other country possessed in an equally small area. vessels on our fog-bound coast with an accuracy never Thus geologists were a natural product of our soil.
But before attained to "), the President said that the Royal there was one particular in which he thought the President, more Society had always been distinguished for the promotion
than most, would appreciate Prof. Lapworth's audacity
and suc. of investigations leading to such results as Mr. Forwood
cess. Though a Southerner, he had made a foray into Scotland, had named. In illustrating this, he spoke of the history
and had returned laden with spoil. It was true that he, too, of the construction of the sextant and the development confess that his track was marked by disturbances : but speaking
had crossed the horder, and he deeply regretted that he must of the dynamical theory of the trade winds. A curious
for Prof. Lapworth and on his behalf—though without consultinterest attached to some of the earlier Transactions of ing him-he must admit that his offences were venial and that he the Society, such as a paper which attributed the trade was most to blame. He turned the most sundamental institution