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(2) When convinced of beholding so-called luminous clouds, In communicating these observations, the exact place at which to what points shall attention he especially directed, and what they have been made must be accurately described. simple measurements of place, time, form, &c., shall be carried Should a complete observation be impossible, owing to the out in order to aid most usefully in the inquiry?
time during which the luminous clouds are visible being too In answering this question we will 'first consider those short for caresul measurements and drawings or to any other methods of research in which the observer can obtain no instru- cause, the observer should nevertheless communicate briefly to mental aid, except only a watch, which should be a sufficiently the Society of Friends of Astronomy and Cosmic Physics that good timekeeper to estimate the time of observation to one he has seen what he believes from the foregoing considerations minute, when compared with the correct time within eight to to be luminous clouds from a certain place, in a certain direction twelve hours after the observation.
in the heavens, and within a certain quarter-hour. Such simple observations are the more useful, since it fre- The peculiar movements hitherto observed of the clouds in quently happens that in the well fitted up and prepared stations, question lead to the suggestion that perhaps a period consisting observation of the phenomena is prevented by bad weather, of several days exists, within which one and the same group of or else that the phenomena stretch over too large an extent of clouds is visible at the same hour from the same place, other the earth's surface to be included in an organized series of conditions of the heavens being favourable. Every communicaobservations. The farther the stations are apart, the more tion as to these phenomena will be valuable in the decision of valuable are the most simple methods. For instance, in this important point, which it has hitherto been impossible to order to get corresponding photographic observations from two settle, owing to the uncertainty of the weather and the fewness stations, 35 kilometres apart, such as Berlin and Nauen, the of the observers. most rigid exactness, both as to time and place, must be Those co-operating in our branch of research who are in observed.
possession of astronomical, photographic, or other physical If, however, observations are taken in East Prussia and in apparatus, will of course be able to give more exact details as to the Rhine province respectively, a from twenty to thirty times place, movement, and constitution of the luminous clouds. larger margin of difference as to time and place can be allowed Suggestions for these observations cannot be given so briefly than in the foregoing case, without in any way lessening the and simply ; but for the sake of full and complete agreement value of the result.
belween different observers, especially as to the point of time So, if without preparation and instruments to hand an ob. / selected for taking photographs and measurements, members of server believes he beholds luminous clouds, he must not imagine the Society of Friends of Astronomy and Cosmic Physics are that he can render no service to science by examining them invited to communicate with 0. Jesse, Steglitz bei Berlin, closely, for very possibly the most simple method may, taken Albrechtsstrasse 30. This course would also be advisable in in conjunction with other similar observations, prove to be of the close optical examination of the clouds with ard to the the greatest service.
peculiar changes in strength of light and the degree and kind of It is desirable, too, to look out for luminous clouds at all self-luminosity which they perhaps send out together with the seasons of the year, though, so far, they have only been seen in reflected sunlight.
In the northern hemisphere they have only been In the night from June 25–26 of this year the summer reseen from the end of May to the beginning of August, with appearance of the luminous clouds was observed very brightly greatest frequency and brightness in the month of July.
from Berlin and the neighbourhood. During these weeks, usually two stars are seen simultaneously More detailed particulars on the whole subject of inquiry are with the luminous clouds, a star of the first magnitude, Capella, contained in a small paper by W. Foerster, which has been sent and a star of the same constellation, of the second magnitude, B to all the members of the Society of Friends of Astronomy and Aurigæ.
Cosmic Physics. The brighter of the two stars, which is characteristic of summer nights, in the northern horizon, sets towards the end of
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL June soon after eleven, and towards the middle of July before ten, on account of the northerly direction of the meridian, and,
INTELLIGENCE. in North Germany, at a distance from the horizon of 10 to 12 OXFORD.— Mr. G. C. Inge, Magdalen College, has been apdiameters of the full moon. At almost as great a distance pointed to the Studentship offered to the University by the from this bright star, and at a not very different distance Managing Committee of the British School of Athens, from the from the horizon, the second magnitude star follows towards the Newton Testimonial Fund.
The death is announcel of Dr. Evan Evans, Master of PemBy estimating the distances and directions of these two stars, broke College, who filled the office of Vice-Chancellor of the an excellent means is afforded of determining the outlines of a University from 1878-82. group of luminous clouds.
It is only necessary to determine Convocation has granted £25 towards the cost of the antihow great the distance of a certain part of the outline of the quarian researches at Chester, which are throwing great light cloud group is from one or the other star, and in what direction upon the obscure period of the military occupation of Britain in this line lies with regard to one or the other star, or how far the the time of Agricola. Prof. Mommsen has appreciated the line in question is above or below the prolongation of the con- value of these researches. necting line of the two stars. A simple drawing of the course At a meeting of the Junior Scientific Club, Mr. A. Colefax, of the outlines and their situation with regard to the two stars is Christ Church, read a paper on the investigation of the change useful, even when it cannot be completed on the spot but must taking place in acidified solutions of sodium thiosulphate. The be finished from memory. The time at which the drawing was subject of hypnotism was treated by Mr. E. L. Collis, of Keble ; made should be noted within one half-minute.
and P. C. Mitchell had an exhibit, and offered some remarks If the group of clouds should be so far from the above-men concerning primitive man in the Torquay caves. tioned two stars as to make the determinations inexact, it is The University has published the official Calendar for 1892. advisable to determine the outlines of the clouds for a certain The arrangement and information contained differ little from time in the following way. Take up a position from which the
We learn that the number of undergraduate outlines of houses, trees, &c., can be seen close to the position members of the University has increased from 3u0 to 3212. of the clouds, and fix thus the relative position of these earthly The number of matriculations in 1890 were 771, as compared objects to the position of the clouds by a simple drawing, with 787 in the preceding year. The number of B.A. and describing the spot from which the observation is made in such M.A. degrees is very nearly the same as in 1889. a manner that the place occupied by the head of the observer can be found again. The lines drawn from the position of the observer to the outlines of the earthly objects, and the resulting
SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. localization of the outline of the clouds in the heavens can then American Journal of Science, November 1891.--The solube determined at once by means of simple instruments for tion of vulcanized india-rubber, by Carl Barus. Experiments measuring angles, or on succeeding nights by the aid of a good have been made by the author on the solubility of india-rubber star chart.
in different solvents at different temperatures. Elastic sheet It is necessary to verify the exact point of time of these ob- india-rubber, such as is used for rubber bands and tubing, is not servations by comparison of the watch used with the time at a fully soluble in CS, at 100° or 160°, but is quite soluble at 185, telegraph office, and correction of any errors should be made to and extremely soluble at 210°. It is also easily dissolved by the fraction of a minute.
liquids of the paraffin series at 200°. Various other substances
have been used as solvents, and many remarkable results and at the same time strongly reflect rays of the same periods as obtained. The importance of the paper may be gathered from those which they absorb. Thus in fuchsine the order of the the fact that in it is described “a method by which vulcanized colours going up the spectrum is blue, indigo, violet ; then ther: india-rubber of any quality or character whatever, as well as the is an absorption band, followed by red, orange, yellow. undecomposed or reclaimable part of rubber-waste, may be dis- The experimental laws relating to substances of this class may solved or liquefied in a reasonably short time, the solutions pos- be summarized as follows: (1) the rays which are most str sessing any desirable degree of viscosity or diluteness, from absorbed, when light is transmitted through the substance, are which india-rubber may be regained on evaporation of the most strongly reflected ; (2) when the incident light is plane solvents."- Report of the examination by means of the micro- polarized in any azimuth, the reflected light is elliptically scope of specimens of infusorial earths of the Pacific coast of polarized ; (3) when sunlight is reflected, the colour of the rethe United States, by Dr. Arthur M. Edwards. Seven new Aected light, when viewed through a Nicol's prism whose principal fluviatile fossiliferous deposits from Oregon, California, and section is parallel to the plane of incidence, is different from Washington are described. - The Tonganoxie meteorite, hy E. what it is when viewed by the naked eye. The phenomena of H. S. Bailey. An analysis of the meteorite gave the percentage absorption, anomalous dispersion, and the like, have formed the composition : Fe 9118, Ni 7-93, Co O'39, Po'io, and a trace of subject of numerous theoretical investigations by German mathecopper. The weight is 231 lbs., specific gravity 7'45, shape an maticians. It is not the object of the present paper to propose irregular triangular pyramid 9. inches long by 64 inches wide any new theory upon the subject, but to discuss and extend the by 4 inches deep. A fine figure showing numerous pittings on theory of von Helinholtz. The theory of von Helmholtz is an the surface of the meteorite accompanies the paper.—Proposed elastic-solid theory, which is based upon certain assumptions reform of mercurial barometer, by W. J. Waggener.-Colour specting the mutual reaction of ether and matter. The potential photography by Lippmann's process, by Charles B. Thwing. energy of the system may be conceived to consist of three distinct The results obtained seem to indicate-(1) that mixed colours portions, viz. W1, W., W3, of which W, is the ordinary expres. may be reproduced with a fair degree of accuracy ; (2) that an sion for the potential energy of an isotropic elastic solid; W, exposure sufficiently long to give a clear image of the red is is a homogeneous quadratic function of the displacements of the quite certain to obliterate the blue by over-exposure ; and matter ; and W, is a similar function of the relative displace(3) that an over-exposure may completely reverse the colours, ments of ether and matter, and is supposed to arise from the causing the original colours to appear on the reverse, and the mutual reaction of ether and matter. Having obtained the excomplementary colours on the film side of the plate. - New pression for the energy of the system, the equations of motion analyses of uraninite, by W. F. Hillebrand. From the analyses can be at once written down ; and it will be found, on in. it appears that the species may be broadly divided into two tegrating them, that the index of refraction, , of light of period groups, one characterized by the presence of rare earths and the T, is given by the equationalmost invariable presence of nitrogen, the other containing
ak??? little or no nitrogen and no rare earths. Varieties of the former
(1) group occur in more or less well defined crystals, whilst mem
Po 4πύρο bers of the latter group are usually devoid of crystalline form. – In this equation p is the density of the ether when loaded with The Tertiary silicified woods of Eastern Arkansas, by R. Ells- matter, po is the density of ihe ether in vacuo, and pı is the worth Call. The investigation has led to the following con. density of the matter ; k is the free period of the matter vibraclusions :-(1) The silicified woods of Eastern Arkansas are all tions, and a is a constant depending on the mutual reaction of of Tertiary age. (2) They are derived from the beds of Eocene
ether and matter. If we suppose that the value 1, of t, which clays that underlie the sands and gravels in which they com- makes the denominator vanish, corresponds to the double sodium monly occur. (3) They are silicified lignite ; the process of line D of the spectrum, whilst a value 12, which makes u = 0, silicification has occurred either while they were still in clays, or corresponds to the hydrogen line F, ua will be negative when ? most often after they were removed and buried in the sands or lies between D and F, and (!) accordingly represents a transgravels. (4) They possess as yet no taxonomic value in deter
parent medium (such as suchsine) which has a single absorption mining the relative ages of the members of the Tertiary series. - band in that portion of the spectrum. Moreover, the dispersion Occurrence of sulphur, orpiment, axd realgar in the Yellow- is anomalous, since the value of u when is a little greater than stone National Park, by Walter H. Weed and Louis V.
T1, is much greater than its value when 7 is a little less than 7... Pirsson.— Mineralogical notes, by L. V. Pirsson.
To explain selective reflection, I have provisionally adopted Sir cimens of cerussite, hæmatite, and cassiterite, gypsum, and W. Thomson's hypothesis, that the ether is to be treated as an pennine are described. -Peridot dykes in the Poriage sand- elastic medium, whose resistance to compression is a negative stones, near Ithaca, N. Y., by J. F. Kemp.-A new locality quantity, whose numerical value is slightly less than frds of its of meteoric iron, with a preliminary notice of the discovery rigidity. Under these circumstances, the amplitudes of the reof diamonds in the iron, by A. E. Foote. The existence Alected light will be given by Fresnel's sine and tangent formulæ, of black and white diamonds in the meteorite appears to be according as the incident light is polarized in or perpendicularly established by indifference to chemical agents and hardness. to the plane of incidence. When is a negative quantity, Carbon in the form of an iron carbide also occurs with the
these formulæ become complex quantities of the form 8-218//. diamonds. The meteorite was found in Cañon Diablo, AriThree figures accompany, the paper.. The South-Trap accompanied by a change of phase ; moreover, since the changes
and 4219/114, and this indicates that reflection is total, and is Range of the Keweenawan series, by M. E. Wadsworth.Geological facts noted on Grand River, Labrador, by Austin
of phase, f, fi, are different, according as the incident light is Cary.
polarized in or perpendicularly to the plane of incidence, it follows that if the former is polarized in any azimuth the re
flected light will be elliptically polarized. From these results it SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
appears that the colour of the reflected light is of a greenish
yellow when viewed by the naked eye ; but when it is viewed LONDON.
through a Nicol, whose principal section lies in the plane of Mathematical Society, November 12.- - Prof. Greenhill, incidence, a considerable portion of the yellow rays are resused F.R.S., President, in the chair.— The President announced the transmission by the Nicol, and the light under these circumrecent decease of Mr. H. M. Jeffery, F.R.S., who was elected stances is of a niuch richer green. Cauchy's formula for metallic January 14, 1875.—The following gentlemen were elected to serve reflection may be obtained from Fresnel's sine and tangent on the Council for the ensuing session : Prof. Greenhill, F.R.S., formulæ, by assuming that u (=sin i sin r) is a complex quantity President ; Dr. J. Larmor, Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., and of the form Rea; but the experiments of Jamin, and the calcuJ. J. Walker, F.R.S., Vice-Presidents; A. B. Kempe, F.R.S., lations of Eisenlohr, show that the real part of u? must be Treasurer; M. Jenkins and R. Tucker, Hon. Secs. ; other mem- negative, which requires that a should lie between 45° and bers, Messrs. A. B. Basset, F.R.S., E. B. Elliott, F.R., S. J.
90°. In fact, sor silver, Eisenlohr finds that a = 83o. Lord Hammond, C. Leudesdorf, A. E. H. Love, S. Roberts, F.R.S., Rayleigh, on the other hand, has shown that, if we attempt to Drs. A. R. Forsyth, F.R.S., J. W. L. Glaisher, F.R.S., and explain metallic reflection by introducing a viscous term into the M. J. M. Hill. — The following communications were made :- ordinary equations of motion of an elastic solid, physical conOn selective and metallic reflection, by A. B. Basset, F.R.S. siderations require that the real part of ushould be positive ; It is well known that most transparent substances, which pro- he has also shown that a similar objection lies against attemptduce anomalous dispersion, exercise a strong selective absorption, ing to explain metallic reflection on the electro-magnetic theory,
by taking into account the conductivity. If, however, we start Temperatures
100° 150° 250° 265° with von Helmholtz's theory, and introduce a viscous term into Duration of Aow ... 8h. 360s. 1145. 40*5s. 335. the equations of motion of the matter, it will be found possible | The same tube passed 5 c.c. of water at 20° in 34 seconds. The for the real part of h? to be negative, provided the free period of author divides the liquids he has experimented upon into two the matter vibrations lies between certain limits. We are thus classes, distinguished by being perfectly and imperfectly mobile. able to construct a mechanical model of a medium which re
Ethers and aldehydes are representatives of the former class, for presents the action of metals upon ethereal waves, and which
they appear to obey Graham's law that the duration of flow, or leads to the same formulæ for the amplitudes of the reflected rather the rate of diffusion, is inversely proportional to the waves as those given by Cauchy.—The contacts of systems of circles, by A. Larmor.-On a class of automorphic functions, by square root of the density. The values found for in this Prof. W. Burnside.
Note on the identity 41x2 - 1)/(x - 1) = class of liquids is practically constant. On the other hand, the Y? E pZ?, by Prof. G. B. Mathews. - On the classification of liquids imparfaitement mobiles, such as alcohols and benzines, binodal quartic curves, by H. M. Jeffery, F.R.S.-Researches furnish irregular values. - Mechanicaldetermination of the position in the calculus of variations ; discriminating conditions in iso
of the atoms of hydrogen in organic compounds, by M. Ġ. Hinperimetrical problems, by E. P. Culverwell.-Note on Clifford's richs. --Aniline black in dyeing by the dry method, by M. A. paper “On syzygetic relations among the powers of linear Gautier.-On a codeïne violet, "by M. P. Cazeneuve. On the quantics,” by Prof. Cayley, F.R.S.-Note on finding the G distribution of saccharine matters in the different parts of the points of a given circle with respect to a given triangle of edible Cape (Boletus edulis, Bull.), by M. Em. Bourquelot.-On reference, by J. Griffiths,
the existence of veins of leucite in a Mont Dore basalt, by M. Linnean Society, November 19.-Prof. Stewart, President, A. Lacroix. Leucite has not before been recognized in any of in the chair. -Mr. S. Jennings exhibited a collection of wild the volcanic rocks of the central plateau of France. The author flowers made by him during a recent tour through the Rocky fully describes the petrological characters of the specimens he Mountains, California, and Mexico.-Prof. G. B. Howes ex- has discovered, and also their peculiar mode of occurrence. hibited some dissections of fish crania made by his pupil Mr. Earthquakes, submarine eruption, and elevation of land at PanR. H. Burne, in which the parts of the skeleton were so tellaria, by M. A. Riccò. Earthquake shocks were felt at displayed that they might be studied in relation to the rest of Pantellaria on October 14. On October 18, the sea to the westthe head and to the leading cranial nerves.-Mr. E. F. Cooper north-west of the island, at a distance of about 5 kilometres, exhibited specimens of a new variety of Potamogeton from was seen in violent commotion, and a band of land about i kiloLoughborough, lately described and figured by Mr. Alfred metre long appeared, from which were ejected masses of heated Fryer (Journ. Bot., October 1891).-Mr. A. W. Bennett rock and vapour. On approaching the place of eruption, a exhibited and made remarks upon some specimens of Hydro. large number of dead fishes were found, and it was seen that dictyon utriculatum, Roth. (H. reticulatum, De Toni), and the band was composed of an immense number of black floating some drawings of anomalous Cypripedium and Disa.—Mr. masses of rock colliding together with great noise, and vaporizW. Carruthers, F.R.S., gave a graphic account of a recent ing the water over which they passed. On October 23 the visit to Sweden in search of original portraits of Linnæus, and position of the erupted island was determined as lat. 36° 50' N., detailed the results of his inquiries. His remarks were illustrated long. from Paris 9° 33' E. The island was then about 200 metres by an exhibition of engravings and photographs.- A paper was long by 50 metres wide. The interior of some of the masses of then read by Mr. Thomas Hick, on a new fossil plant from the rock was still hot enough to melt zinc. Lower Coal-measures. An interesting discussion followed, in which Mr. Carruthers, Mr. G. Murray, Prof. F. O. Bower, Prof.
PAGE Marshall Ward, and others took part.
Field Geology. By Prof. A. H. Green, F.R.S. .
98 Academy of Sciences, November 23.-M. Duchartre in the Science and Brewing chair. -On some manuscripts with figures of historical interest A Theory of Gravitation. By A. G. G. relating to artillery and mechanical arts towards the end of the Our Book Shelf:Middle Ages, by M. Berthelot. Some manuscripts from libraries “ Indischer Ozean : ein Atlas die physikalischen Verat Munich, Venice, and Paris have been examined, and appear hältnisse, und die Verkehrs-Strassen darstellend " to be of interest as marking a stage in the development of Lock : “Mechanics for Beginners” applied sciences. A few of the mediæval figures are reproduced : Hull: “The Physical Geology and Geography of one represents a diver in his costume ; two others show primitive
Ireland". cannon, and one a small-arm used in the fifteenth century.
Foster : “The Ouse" Preparation and properties of the phosphides of boron, by M. Letters to the Editor :Henri Moissan. By the use of boron phosphoiodide, iwo boron A Difficulty in Weismannism.-A. H. Trow; Prof. phosphides may be obtained. The compound PB combines Marcus Hartog with HNO3, H0 with incandescence, and inflames in an The Mexican Atlatl or Spear-Thrower.- Agnes atmosphere of chlorine in the cold. The compound P,B; is
103 much more stable, and is not acted upon in the cold by these two The Chromosphere Line Ångström 6676.9. - Rev. A. reagents.-On some variations of the glycolytic power of the L. Cortie, S.J.
103 blood, and on a new method of experimental production of Peculiar Eyes.- Jas. Shaw
104 diabetes, MM. R. Lépine and Barral.-M. A. Potier was elected Zoological Regions.-G. A. Boulenger
104 a member of the Academy in the place of the late M. Edmond Scientific Nomenclature.-H. St. A. Alder
104 Becquerel. - Résumé of a verbal report on a note by Prince “ The Darwinian Society.”—John S. Flett
104 Tourquistanoff, entitled “Le Calendrier vérificateur," by M. Some Notes on the Frankfort International ElecWolf.--Résumé of a verbal report on a note by M. de Cohorne, trical Exhibition. VI. (Illustrated.).
105 entitled “Le Régleur solaire," by M. Wolf.-Observations of Experiments in Aërodynamics. (Illustrated.) By the total eclipse of the moon of November 15, made at Burdeaux The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S.
108 Observatory, by M. G. Rayet. -Remarks à propos of the observa- Preliminary Notice of a New Branchiate Oligo. tion of M. Rayet as to the possibility of photographing the moon chæte. By Frank E. Beddard .
109 during a total eclipse, by M. A. Gautier. - Remarks on M. The Anniversary of the Royal Society Rayet's communication, by M. J. Janssen. - Researches on the Notes
113 motions of stars in the line of sight made with the Paris Our Astronomical Column :Observatory siderostat, by M. Deslandres. (For the last four Motion of Stars in the Line of Sight .
117 communications, see Our Astronomical Column.)-Remark on a The Variation of Latitude
117 communication by M. Markoff relative to linear differential Photography of the Eclipsed Moon
117 equations, by M. Painlevé. —On the flow of liquids in capillary Proposals for a Scheme of Co-operative Observatubes, by M. Albert Colson. The influence of temperature on tion of the so-called Luminous Clouds
117 tha rate of flow of viscous liquids is seen from the following com- University and Educational Intelligence
118 perison of the imes in which 5 c.c. of glycerine passed through Scientific Serials.
118 the tibe :
Societies and Academies
THURSDAY, DECEMBER 10, 1891.
the leaden chamber have been more carefully traced, and much definite information has been gained as to the nature of the interactions which result in the production of oil of
vitriol. For not a little of this information we are indebted GERMAN TECHNOLOGY FOR ENGLISH
to Prof. Lunge and his pupils. MANUFACTURERS.
The present edition of this work differs in many A Theoretical and Practical Treatise on the Manufacture
respects from its predecessor. The ten years which of Sulphuric Acid and Alkali. By George Lunge,
have elapsed since the appearance of the first edition Ph.D. Second Edition. Vol. I. Sulphuric Acid.
have seen many important changes in the manufacture (London : Gurney and Jackson, 1891.)
of acid and alkali ; and hence, with a view of bringing his The Alkali-maker's Hand-book. By George Lunge,
treatise within reasonable compass, Prof. Lunge has been Ph.D., and F. Hurter, Ph.D. Second Edition.
obliged to curtail much of the historical or merely re(London: Whittaker and Co., 1891.)
trospective portion of the work, and to omit matter which
deals with views and theories which may now be conin every manufacturing industry of civilized countries. sidered obsolete. In spite of all this, the book has greatly It has been said, indeed, that one could gauge the civiliza- increased in size, and nearly half the illustrations are tion of a country by the amount of oil of vitriol it con- new. A comparison of the two editions shows that every sumes. It is satisfactory, therefore, to know that Great page has been carefully overhauled, and much fresh inBritain produces annually nearly a million tons of this formation is given, even on points which appeared to be civilizing agent, or an amount but slightly less than that settled and accepted. The present edition is remarkably made by all the rest of the world.
free from press errors. We have only detected two : on It is, however, a remarkable and not very creditable fact p. 108, calcium "bisulphate,” should read “ bisulphite"; that no English or Scotch man has been at any particular and on p. 899 we read that SO3 is formed when limestone pains to give his fellow-men an adequate description of is burnt in oxygen, especially at increased pressures ; of the details of manufacture of this civilizing agent. Of course “limestone” is a lapsus calami for “ brimstone." course a certain number of books of a kind have appeared ; but it has been left to a German Professor to give us the “The Alkali-maker's Hand-book," as it is now called, first complete monograph on the subject. No one is more has an accepted position in the laboratory literature of competent than Prof. Lunge to write authoritatively the chemical works of this country. The book owes its concerning the manufacture of sulphuric acid.
For origin to a suggestion, made by Mr. Stroof, manager of eleven years previous to his election to the Professorship of the Griesheim Alkali Works, to the German Society of Technical Chemistry at the magnificently equipped Poly- Alkali-makers, that a standard manual should be pubtechnic School which the forethought and patriotism of lished, with a view of securing uniformity in analytical the Swiss Government have caused to be erected at Zürich, methods, tables of specific gravity, &c., to be employed Dr. Lunge was the manager of a large alkali-works in the by buyers and sellers for the valuation of chemicals, and north of England'; and he has added to the experience thus by manufacturers for controlling and superintending their gained by numerous visits to the other alkali manufactur- various processes, in order to avoid disagreements, and ing districts of Great Britain, and to those of Belgium, to secure exact comparison of results. A small comFrance, Germany, and Austria. His work, however, is mittee of the Society was appointed, and Prof. Lunge not wholly based on the results of personal observation ; was commissioned to collect and sift the materials for it reflects, in fact, the existing state of chemical literature such a manual. The present work is the outcome of on the subject, for practically every important memoir or this action. The great danger of a book of this kind is communication, wherever published, bearing on the that it is apt to get stereotyped, in the extended and manufacture, properties, or uses of sulphuric acid, is figurative sense of that word ; and that, owing to the referred to and judiciously criticized. Moreover, the natural conservatism of manufacturers, who are loth to author's position, as director of one of the most modern disturb arrangements which are found to satisfy comand in many respects one of the best-appointed labora- mercial necessities, there is the possibility that it may fail tories in the world, gives him unique advantages in the to reflect the state of quantitative analysis of the time. compilation of such a work ; for, surrounded as he is by So long, however, as the work remains under the direca band of earnest and enthusiastic workers, eager to aid tion of Dr. Lunge and Dr. Hurter, there is very little him in elucidating the theory of established chemical chance of such a fate overtaking it.
The present manufactures or in investigating the validity of new pro- edition gives abundant evidence that care is being taken cesses, he is able to throw light on many obscure reactions to make the book a faithful record of the condition of by the systematic researches which he initiates, and of contemporary quantitative analysis. The work is conwhich the results, so far as they relate to sulphuric acid or veniently arranged and well printed. We would take collateral matters, are set forth in this book. It has been exception, however, to the character of the illustrations : frequently observed that, although iron and oil of vitriol these compare most unfavourably with those in Dr. are among the most important of our staple products, we Lunge's larger work. Simple outline drawings, like that know comparatively little of the many chemical reactions of the nitrometer on p. 113, would be far preferable to the which are concerned in their formation. The remark has, ill-drawn, ill-cut, and ill-printed designs which disfigure the however, lost much of its force within recent years, and book. Much of the value of the book depends, of course, more especially in the case of sulphuric acid. During on the care and accuracy with which the tables of the last few years the various changes occurring within chemical contents are compiled. We do not regard, however, the value 122 as the atomic weight of antimony, Everybody knows how this has come about. The foreign and we strongly protest against the continued use of chemists and manufacturers have looked all round, not 197'18 as the atomic weight of platinum. We are aware
merely in their own countries, but wherever they could of the reasons which have led to the adoption of this value, practical knowledge thus gained they have brought to
find improved methods and apparatus ; and upon
the but not even a “ Potash Convention " has the right to play
bear the scientific training they had received at their fast and loose with a stoichiometric constant to the extent Universities and Polytechnic schools. Thus they have of nearly 3 units from the truth. Similar tricks were played already, in many fields formerly remunerative to British in the old days with the atomic weights of sodium and man- manufacturers, distanced the latter, immensely aided ganese for commercial purposes. Let the Potash Convention though these be by their long occupation of the ground, agreeamong themselves to adopt any correction they please of coal and freight, and their superior command of capital,
and by permanent natural advantages, such as cheapness on their analytical results with a view of rendering them
&c. ; and this is likely to go on to an increasing extent if more accurate ; but they have no right to tamper with an many British chemical manufacturers decline to profit atomic weight in order to compensate for the imperfec- from a scientific study of their respective branches." tions of their quantitative methods. For table 22, showing the volumes of water at different temperatures, we No one who has had the opportunity of comparing should have preferred to use the more accurate table of German chemical works with those of this country can be Rossetti, which gives the mean results of the observations blind to the truth of these remarks. In certain branches of Kopp, Pierre, Despretz, Hagen, Matthiessen, Weidner, of manufacture we are now absolutely distanced by the and Kremers, and thereby tends to eliminate errors due Germans, and in branches, too, which by priority of start to the employment of a special method, such, for and by every natural advantage ought to have been our example, as the dilatometrical method. We may also exclusive possession. In the case of some of these we point out that the table of solubilities of certain gases in can hardly hope to recover our lost ground. Attempts water is not based on the most modern data. Bunsen's have not been wanting, but it has to be admitted that values for oxygen have been superseded by the more British pluck and British capital have been hopelessly accurate numbers of Winckler, Dittmar, and Roscoe and beaten by German energy and German capital plus Lunt, Sondén and Petterson ; and the original statement, German foresight and enlightenment. In some of these based apparently on the work of Carius, that hydrogen is industries we may still hope to have a part, but it can only equally soluble in water at all temperatures between oo be a secondary one ; and if things go on as hitherto, we and 20%, has been shown to be erroneous by Bohr and must be content to be as the hewers of wood and the Bock and Timofejew.
drawers of water. As we sow so shall we reap; and as we There is a passage in the preface of Prof. Lunge's larger have sown little, it is but little that we may expect to work which may serve to indicate the difference with
garner. which the scientific aspect of his business is regarded in during the last twenty years, and especially in those
The development of industrial chemistry in Germany the English and Continental chemical manufacturer. In presenting his book to English manufacturers, Dr. Lunge branches which depend upon the higher and more reconventures to express the hope that they will not think it
dite branches of the science, has been amazing. In the too "scientific.” He counsels them not to despise the manufacture of organic products the Germans and Swiss purely chemical detail which they will find in it. There practically command the markets of the world ; nor is is, it may be thought, a certain element of humour in there the least indication that their monopoly in the case these remarks. But Prof. Lunge is very much in earnest. of such products as demand scientific training and skill He very well knows that we are still ruled by the rule of will be or can be assailed by us at present. thumb in these things; the “practical man ” still domi- Some months ago the writer was required to inspect nates, and nothing but the inevitable adverse dividend and report upon the best examples of modern chemical will move him out of the way. To what consequences laboratories to be met with on the Continent, with special the neglect of a scientific treatment of a practical subject reference to the work of instruction in chemical research, leads, Prof. Lunge illustrates from his personal ex- and in the higher branches of chemical teaching. The perience. He tells us that he left his native country for advice he received was most significant, and illustrates Great Britain rather more than five-and-twenty years very strikingly the attitude of the German chemical ago, because industrial chemistry was but little developed manufacturer towards the science of his business “ If in Germany :
you want to see how organic chemistry should be worked
at," said Prof. Kekulé, “ go to some of our manufactories : “ The manufacture of sulphuric acid, soda-ash, and
The men whom we have bleaching-powder was at that time quite insignificant in they show us the way now. Germany, and not very considerable in France as com- trained in our academic laboratories have bettered their pared with Great Britain ; nor could the technical appli- instruction and teach their teachers." Precisely the same ances, the yields, or even the purity of the products in counsel was given by Prof. Victor Meyer : “Do you wish the two former countries vie with those of the latter."
to see how chemical research can be organized ? Then How different matters are now is notorious :
go to Ludwigshafen.” And to Ludwigshafen we went.
The mental impression of that spectacle of “organized “The manufacture of chemicals has made enormous research” on the banks of the Rhine will not soon be strides forward, both in quantity and quality, in France,
effaced. The sight, indeed, would constitute a useful and even more so in Germany. Many of the chemicals of these countries outstrip those of English works in
object-lesson to the legislators who have sought to grapple purity; and their plant and their processes are frequently with the subject of secondary education by handing it superior to those used in the majority of English works. over to the country gentlemen. The very existence o