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such gigantic concerns as Meister, Lucius, and Prüning, excess of the corresponding one for England and Wales.” and the Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik, with their
“There is thus far evidence that diphtheria as a cause of thousands of workmen, their splendidly equipped labora- death is increasing in the country as a whole, and that tories, and their scores of well-trained investigators, the this increase is very conspicuous in our greatest urban product of the most advanced chemical instruction that community” (p.5). It is significant that, "concurrently the most eminent teachers in the world can impart, is a (pp. 80-81) with the diminution of enteric fever, owing to sufficient indication of what “the scientific treatment of a advance of knowledge in the principles of health, and with practical subject " leads to.
the resulting intelligent administration of our sanitary Some days after his visit to Ludwigshafen, the writer laws, we find that the diphtheria death-rate is increasing met Prof. von Baeyer at Munich, and the talk was of in our midst.” “But it is, above all, in our large towns and Höchst and Ludwigshafen, and the influence which these cities that this enlightened sanitary policy has been most and many such places must have on the industrial position marked during the past twenty years ; . . . and yet, of Germany. “And do you know to whom we owe all whereas when, in the past, sanitary defects abounded in this?” asked Baeyer. There was but one answer : “To our large centres of population diphtheria was essentially Liebig.” “You are right. It is to Liebig and the a disease of rural districts, that disease is now invading Giessen laboratory.” What the Augustinian cell at our more cleanly towns and cities to an extent unknown Wittenberg was to German theology, the little University in the annals of their more faulty past." laboratory was to German chemical science.
Now, what is this increase of diphtheria in general, and
the “formidable” increase in the London mortality from “ The foundation of this school,” says Hofmann, who was himself one of its products, "forms an epoch in the
diphtheria in particular, due to? Although Dr. Thorne history of chemical science. It was here that experi
abstains from supplying a direct answer to this question, mental instruction, such as now prevails in our labo- an attentive reader, after perusal of the enormous body of ratories, received its earliest form and fashion ; and if at facts which Dr. Thorne produces, will be in a position to the present moment we are proud of the magnificent draw his own conclusions. This increase is certainly temples raised to experimental science in all our [Ger
not to be explained by the better recognition and more man] schools and Universities, let it never be forgotten
correct classification of the disease (in the earlier returns that they all owe their origin to the prototype set up by Liebig half a century ago.'
of the Registrar-General certain forms of scarlatina, true
diphtheria, and certain non-diphtheritic forms of croup Bureaucracies, being human institutions, have occa
are not well distinguished, in the later returns the dissionally been known to err, but that bureaucrat whoćby
tinction is carefully carried out), nor can this increase, recalling the two Prussian students who had dared to
obviously, be due to any new condition as to soil, water, seek the instruction in Hesse-Darmstadt which they failed
and air. Dr. Thorne passes in review, and illustrates by to get in their own State-raised the storm of indignation
numerous examples, collected by the most competent which found eloquent expression in the famous letters sanitary officers and inspectors, and minutely described in that roused Germany and Austria to a sense of what
the Reports of the Medical Officer of the Local Governscience could do for their material interests, has deserved
ment Board, the various conditions that have been, or a better fate than oblivion.
T. E. THORPE.
were suggested as having been, connected with the origin and spread of various diphtheria outbreaks in this country;
and a careful perusal of the immense body of facts reDIPHTHERIA.
corded in this volume must impress the reader, not only Diphtheria : its Natural History and Prevention. with the great caution with which Dr. Thorne draws his
Thorne Thorne, M.B., F.R.S., &c. (London: Mac- conclusions, but with the admirably impartial way in millan and Co., 1891.)
which he tells his story, and in which he pays due regard TH HE volume before us is a republication of the Milroy to every detail, be it for or against. The one fact which
Lectures, delivered by Dr. Thorne Thorne before above all others stands out prominently, and which it the Royal College of Physicians in London, 1891 ; and all behoves everyone connected with our present system of must heartily congratulate the author on the ability with compulsory school attendance carefully to consider, is which he discusses a complex and vastly important sub- the unmistakable influence of "school attendance” on ject, and at the same time must be grateful to him for diphtheria. Not the fact that diphtheria spreads from a having, by republication in a handsome form, made these child affected with diphtheria to another child with which lectures accessible to a larger public.
it is brought in contact, either at school or at play or Diphtheria is an infectious disease which was known otherwise-a fact only too well known and unfortunately before the Christian era, and was fully recognized and often enough actually illustrated; but the fact that well described by Bretonneau in 1821. In this country it “school influence"—that is, an influence affecting has of late years undergone, both as to its diffusion and children aggregated in a confined space-has an immortality, a remarkable increase. While in former years portant bearing on the generation of true diphtheria. diphtheria was considered a purely “rural " disease, of This “school influence' tends to foster, diffuse, and laie years its repeated occurrence in large towns has enhance the potency of diphtheria ; and this, in part at raised it to an “urban” disease ; so much so that," while least, by the aggregation of children suffering from that the metropolitan (death) rate (from diphtheria) for 1861– sore throat which commonly is prevalent antecedent to, 70 was lower than that for the country generally, it and concurrently with, definite diphtheria” (p. 219). Dr. exceeded it during the two next periods, and the rise Thorne devotes a considerable portion of chapter iii. to which has taken place in the rate for 1881-89 is far in the consideration and discussion of this important subject,
and brings forward evidence, collected by himself before life insurance companies, and a number of other persons and after 1878, and by a number of well-known health interested in higher mathematics. At present an extenofficers and co-workers (Mr. W. H. Power, Dr. David
sion of membership is in progress.” Page, Dr. Jacob, Dr. Bruce Low, and others), which
Then it goes on to say :conclusively proves and confirms Dr. Thorne's proposi- “ The Society is about to undertake the publication tion, first enunciated by him in 1878. Over and over of a periodical review of pure and applied mathematics. again has it been shown (chapter iii.) that, in schools the American Journal of Mathematics, the Annals
The idea is not to enter into any competition with frequented by children some of whom were affected with of Mathematics, or any other similar journal, but it is simple sore throat, outbreaks of true diphtheria have proposed to publish, primarily, historical and critical occurred, for the explanation of which no antecedent articles, accounts of advances in different branches of case of diphtheria, nor any of the generally assumed in mathematical science, and reviews of important new
publications; also résumés of lectures before the Society, sanitary conditions, could be brought forward. It is on short contributions from members and correspondents, these grounds that Dr. Thorne justly insists on a con
and general mathematical news and intelligence. Such a tinued and careful inspection of the throats of the children, periodical, if circulated extensively, will do much to incite and on immediate separation from school of any child an interest in mathematical studies, and to maintain the affected with sore throat.
interest of those who, having pursued such studies, are The part that milk plays in the dissemination of
now perhaps at a distance from others of like tastes and diphtheria is fully discussed, and illustrated by a number training. It will appeal to many that our mathematical
journals do not reach.” of epidemics that have been recorded in the Reports of the Medical Officer of the Local Government Board ; have been sanctioned by Profs. Newcomb, Woolsey
We have allowed the Society to state its aims: these and the important relation of diseases of the lower animals, particularly of cows and cats, is also described Johnson, and Craig (associate editor of the American and illustrated by epidemics in chapter iv. Last, but not Journal of Mathematics). We wish the Society every
success in their endeavour “to promote a long-needed least, Dr. Thorne considers the question of prevention and isolation. By his office as Assistant Medical Officer spirit of active co-operation, and to establish a bond of
union between American mathematicians." of the Local Government Board, and from an experience
The Bulletin contains extending over many years, he stands in the unique Numeration,” by Prof. Woolsey Johnson.
article on “ Octonary
The conposition of the very best authority, whose conclusions and recommendations deserve carefully to be studied by
cluding paragraph is as follows:
As there is no doubt that our ancestors originated the managers and owners of schools, by hospital authorities, by sanitary officers and Boards of Health, by the owners
decimal system by counting on their fingers, we must, in
view of the merits of the octonary system, feel profound of dairies, and by all those to whom the health of the regret that they should have perversely counted their community ought to be of paramount importance. thumbs, although Nature had differentiated them from
the fingers sufficiently, she might have thought, to save
the race from this error.” THE NEW YORK MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY.
The rest of the number is taken up with reviews of Bulletin of the New York Mathematical Society, a
several books, viz. “ The Teaching of Elementary GeoHistorical and Critical Review of Mathematical
metry in German Schools” (review of Schotten's “Inhalt Science. Vol. I. No. 1, October 1891. (New York: for
und Methode des planimetrischen Unterrichts,” by Prof. the Society.)
Ziwet) ; Bertrand's “Calcul des Probabilités" (by Prof. E
of mathematics is so diligently and successfully G. Eneström, of Stockholm); and notices of works on prosecuted across the Stream, there was no Society to
West African longitudes and South American longitudes bring together all such persons as were willing “to (by the treasurer, H. Jacoby). There are several short encourage and maintain an active interest in mathe
notes and a translation of Picard's demonstration of matical science.” The “Organization of the New York the general theorem upon the existence of integrals of Mathematical Society” gives a list of 174 members, ordinary differential equations (by the secretary, T. S. mostly Professors of Mathematics or Astronomy. The Fiske). President is Mr. Emory McClintock, a Vice-President of From this account it will be seen that there are no the Actuarial Society of America, who is also a member mathematical memoirs read before the Society in this of the London Mathematical Society, and a contributor part, but that such papers have been communicated of some excellent memoirs to the American Journal of we learn from the fact that three are printed in the Jlathematics. The constitution embraces six articles, and
current number of the American Journal of Mathethere are ten by-laws. These are apparently founded matics, viz. one by C. Steinmetz (February 6, 1891), and upon the rules which have been drawn up for other
two by the President (March 6, 1891). similar Societies. The date of the pamphlet (i.e. the “Organization, &c.," cited above) is June 1891. From a
OUR BOOK SHELF. circular we gather that the Society has only recently Delagoa Bay: its Natives and Natural History. By inaugurated the present state of affairs, for this document Rosa Monteiro. With Twenty Original Illustrations states :
after the Author's Sketches and from the Natural “ The New York Mathematical Society has consisted Objects by A. B. and C. E. Woodward. (London: in the past of most of the professors and instructors of
George Philip and Son, 1891.) mathematics at the several College; situated in New | BOTANISTS and zoologists alike will remember the York and the vicinity, the actuaries of a few of the larger services rendered to science by the late J. J. Monteiro,
in conjunction with his wife, both in western and eastern though we have worked out many problems, picked out tropical Africa, and his modest volumes on Angola and at random, we failed to find any errors. the River Congo, dedicated to his partner in the pleasures We may mention that, in working through the papers, and dangers of life in a tropical climate, and his zealous | the beginner will occasionally come across examples aid in the collecting of objects of natural history. He was which appear to be far above the average standard ; but one of the three almost contemporaneous discoverers of these, on trial, will always be found very simple, and are that very remarkable plant the Welwitschia mirabilis, placed there with the intention of encouraging boys to the others being Welwitsch and Baines; and he sent look up methods they have not reached, and so to find some of the finest specimens of it in existence to this that "a little research enables them to do a new sort of country.
question.” After the loss of her husband, Mrs. Monteiro returned Teachers and taught alike should find this book a to Delagoa Bay, and spent five years in solitude, in the useful adjunct to the text-book they have in use. W. cottage built for her under happier circumstances, devoting her time to collecting insects, birds, and other natural objects, and studying the lise history of insects and their relations to plants. The present book is an
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. unpretentious narrative of her life and labours during that [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions experiod, and a record of her observations and her experi- pressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake ments in breeding insects, illustrated with some of her to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected own discoveries in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE.
No notice is taken of anonymous communications.]
The Implications of Science.
It would be a great misfortune if such views as were expressed In this book Prof. Sadtler has attempted to compress into by Dr. St. George Mivart in a lecture delivered under the ægis about 500 octavo pages an account of those manufactures (pp. 60 and 82), were allowed to pass unchallenged. In case no
of the Royal Institution, and reported at length in your columns which depend upon the applications of organic chemistry. ahler challenger appears, will you allow me to say a few words For what particular class of readers such a book is in- about the implications of science”? tended is rather difficult to determine. The scientific man The great objection I take to Dr. Mivart's view is, that he is hardly likely to consult it in preference to the numerous does not appear to recognize any distinction between a real and special manuals to which he has access; and to the manu- a verbal truth. He apparently puts our knowledge of "the facturer the book is practically useless, owing to the com- law of contradiction" into precisely the same category as our parative absence of all working detail. Considering the knowledge of our own continuous existence," and draws but volume of literature which is required to give an approxi
a slight distinction between these items of knowledge and such mately adequate representation of one industry alone
an item as the law of gravitation. Whereas, in fact, the soviz. the tar-colour manufacture-it would seem hopeless called “law of contradiction” is not a necessary truth at all, it to expect anything of value from a chapter on the arti- only expresses a verbal convention. It is not a law, but is of
the nature of a definition. On the other hand, our knowledge ficial colouring-matters, which, in well-leaded “roman
of our own existence, in the present, comes to us by direct apspaced,” attempts to give in 45 pages an account of prehension, and really is a "" necessary truth” to each of us the production and chemical nature of the numerous individually ; though, since our knowledge of our existence in artificial and natural organic colouring.matters used in the past depends on the accuracy of our memories, this latter the arts, including their identification, chemical analysis, may easily be erroneous. That the memory exists is of course and detection on dyed fabrics. Certain of the other sub- indisputable, but it may well be that the fact it prosesses to jects are. it must be stated in fairness, treated with greater recali either took place differently, or even did not take place detail ; and, as we should expect from Dr. Sadtler's con- at all. Our confidence in our memories depends upon induction nectionas an expert with the mineral oil industry, his de- .- ultimately on inductio per enumerationem simplicem—in just scription of the manufacture of petroleum and its associated the same way as our belief in the law of gravitation does, and products is reasonably complete. So also is the account of neither of these items of knowledge can therefore be necessary the cane sugar industry. But, with the exception of the truths, though we may well hold them with so strong a convicbibliographical and statistical information which occupies
tion that the distinction may for practical purposes be ignored.
The "implications of science” which Dr. Mivart insists on a relatively large share of the space devoted to each article,
are nearly all truisms (that is, purely verbal assertions)-all we see little else to commend. The book, however, is those to which he ascribes universal validity in any regions of well got up; the paper and printing are all that can be time or space are such. I may repeat here what Í have said desired, and the illustrations are, as a rule, much better elsewhere : “ The supposed peculiar certainty of mathematical executed than is usual in works of this class.
conclusions is solely due to the fact that they are truisms.”
For example, the assertion “Two straight lines cannot inclose Progressive Mathematical Exercises. First Series. By
a space " is certainly not a “ necessary truth." Either its terms A. T. Richardson. (London: Macmillan and Co.,
are defined by connotation, so that its truth depends solely on 1891.)
those definitions, or else its terms are defined by denotation, as
representing real things in space, and the truth of the assertion The examples contained in this book are of the most can only be proved by induction from actual experience with elementary nature, and are intended for the use of those things. In the first case the truth is arbitrary, not neces those who have got no further than quadratic equations. sary ; and in the second case it might conceivably be false, In this series the exercises only deal with arithmetic as was shown by Helmholtz. It is of course true that the and algebra, and are arranged in sets of papers which imaginary dwellers on a sphere might still conceive what we call gradually become more difficult
. The examples in arith- "straight lines,” but if they chose to reserve that term for metic commence by dealing with the first four rules, geodesics of their space they would be within their rights in simple and compound, and fractions; while those in doing so. This is practically what Euclid does, and this is why algebra consist mostly of numerical values, addition and though, in fact, they are true as far as we can test them.
he requires "axioms” which are not necessary truths ; even subtraction. Cube root and compound interest in arith
So also there is no useful sense in saying that twice two must metic, and quadratic equations in algebra, form the highest be equal to four under any conditions of time or space. Doubtlimit to which these subjects are carried in this series, less, if the inhabitants of the Dog Star defined "twice,” “two,' Throughout the work the author seems to have paid and four" as we do, then “twice two” would to them be great care to insure accuracy in the answers; and "four"; but to say that it was so could only give verbal in
formation. And if the people in the Dog Star chose to define features in this controversy. Two years ago I annotated my four as I + I + 1, the so-called “necessary truth" would not original paper with the remark that Mr. King had noticed the even be true! Again, we do not "recognize that what we know mistake of De Boot about Monardes, but it was then too late *is' cannot at the same time 'not be, we define it to be so. to correct the press. To know that anything “is,” is indeed to possess real know- The confusion which has most unfortunately been introduced ledge ; but in order to conclude that therefore it cannot “not into this subject by authors has now, it is to be fervently hoped, be,” we require no further knowledge, except as to the meanings culminated in the publication by Prof. Maskelyne of a figure of a of the words employed in the argument.
The “law of contra- huge mounted jewel, which, going much further than his prediction" never tells us whether anything “is” or “is not.” vious reference to it might have led one to expect, he labels It only tells us that the terms " is" and "is not" are not “ The Mogul.” What the authority may be for this sketch, applicable to the same thing. This is part of the definition of we are not clearly informed ; all, apparently, that can be the terms. If anyone chooses to say a thing both “ is" and " is said for it is that "it speaks for itsell. I cannot understand not,” there is no law against his doing so, only if he does so he how Sir John Malcolm can be responsible for it, at least as it is is not talking the Queen's English. Dr. Mivart is wrong in labelled, because I know what he has published about the speaking of the “ objective absolute validity of the law of Sbah's jewels, especially the Darya.i-Nur and its companion the contradiction." Its validity is not only not objective at all, but Taj-e-mah. Kerr. Purter, Eastwick, and others who have deeven subjectively it is not absolute, but depends on the arbitrary scribed the Shah's jewels, make no inention of the existence of meanings assigned to its terms. It is exactly on a par with the any such stone as this figure represents. assertion that at chess one king cannot give check to another. " It speaks for itsell”; and I must venture by two alternatives
EDWARD T. DIXON. to hazard an interpretation of what it says. Firstly, the amorTrinity College, Cambridge, November 29.
phous-looking mass may be intended to represent some uncut stone, possibly a ruby ; but why should it be the Mogul's
diamond, which is known to have been cut? Secondly, it seems The Koh-i-Nur.
to be more probable that the figure may have been taken from
a native sketch which originally professed to represent, but ABSENCE from home and pressing business since my return greatly exaggerated the size, and omitted the facets, of the have delayed my sending a reply to Prof. Maskelyne's second Koh-i-Nur. Prof. Maskelyne says it was accompanied by two article upon the above subject (NATURE, November 5, p. 5). other stones in the same mount : so was the Koh-i-nur (see the So far as I can discern Prof. Maskelyne's primary object in copies of the original model in the Tower and in several public writing these articles, it is to endeavour to maintain the hypothesis museums). The character of the mount is somewhat similar to put forward by him many years ago ; and with this object in that in the Hon. Miss Eden's sketch of the Koh-i-Nur. This is view he has made a number of statements, from which I have all that, as it appears to me, can be legitimately deduced from culled not a few that may be ranged under either of two heads this figure which has been left " to speak for itself.” --firstly, those which I believe can be shown to be distinctly con- As to Prof. Maskelyne's own sketch of the Koh-i-Nur, I trary to the evidence; and secondly, those which, if not directly thank him for it, because I think it may perhaps serve to aid contradicted by the evidence, are quite unsupported by it. readers who have not seen the original in accepting the hypoIn my first reply I gave samples of these statements which thesis put forward by me, that it had been mutilated after afforded perfectly clear issues, and as these have been un- cutting answered, it is useless to refer to others in detail at present. Through the kindness of Mr. L. Fletcher, F.R.S., Keeper of
Some readers of what has already been written have ex- the Minerals in the British Museum, I have recently had an pressed to me their regret that finality has not been attained opportunity afforded me of seeing the original plaster model of by this discussion. For my own part I have a feeling of the Koh-i-Nur, and of comparing it with a glass model similar sincere regret at any additional confusion being introduced into to the one upon which my remarks as to the mutilation were the subject. Some of the statements referred to may, unless a based, and I find them to be identical in form and all essential warning be given, be quoted in the future, as others have been details.
V. BALL. in the past, by writers who may not have the means or may not Dublin, November 13. be willing to take the trouble to refer to the original authors.
There are several reserences in Prof. Maskelyne's last article to authors with whose writings I have considered it to be my Plaff's "Allgemeine Geologie als Exacte business and duty to make inyself samiliar. I possess their
Wissenschaft." works, and of one of them I have recently published a detailed commentary, while of another I have a com nentary in course of In this work (Leipzig, 1873) there is a speculation (on p: 162) preparation. Among these authors are Garcia de Orta and that in early geological times the carbonic anhydride, while yet Chappuzeau, and Prof. Maskelyne's remark; lead me to con
free on the surface of the earth, was sufficient in quantity to clude that he has not a very intimate acquaintance with their exert a pressure of 356 atmospheres. If this had been the writings and with those of some of their contemporaries. From condition of things at any time when the surface temperature internal evidence it is practically certain that at the time Garcia
was below the critical temperature (30°:9 C.), it follows that wrote his book he had not visited the Mogul's Court, and could abundant liquid carbonic anhydride flowed over the surface of not, therefore, have seen his jewels, though, for the sake of the earth, or floated upon the seas ; unless it be supposed, argument, Prof. Maskelyne suggests he had. As for the dis- which is not probable, that this quantity could be held in solu. credited Chappuzeau, whose malicious statements are quoted tion in the water, Other very important and interesting effects without their refuta ion, I need only say that Prof. Joret's are also involved. The statement of the 356 atmospheres has investigations have cleared Tavernier of the charges of plagiar- been quoted without question by so high an authority as Dr. ism, &c., which were made against him, and they have further Irving in his “Metamorphism of Rocks." disclosed the fact that his own original manuscript documents,
Pfaff's result, however, is based on a statement of Bischof's from which the “ Travels ” were prepared, are still extant (see (as quoted by Pfaff), that the calcium carbonate of all formations preface to the second volume of my edition of the “Travels"). would suffice to cover the surface of the earth to a depth of
Now, as to the De Boot mistake, to which Prof. Maskelyne 1000 füsse. Pfaff takes 44 per cent. of this to be CO2, and again resers as though it had an important bearing on the assumes the specific gravity of the rock to be 2.6. subject, it is the case that Mr. King, in a footnote, pointed out
On these data, and taking the fuss az = 0-3 metre (as stated the error in De Boot's quoting as from Monardes. The footnote elsewhere by Pfaff), the CO, would exert a pressure, not of 356 does not occur in Mr. King's account of the diamonds, but atmospheres, but of 33-2, approximately. It appears, in fact, elsewhere. When I wrote, I had Prof. Maskelyne's quotation
as if Pfaff's result was, through some oversight, calculated as (Edinburgh Review), as from Mr. King, before me, and thus I just ten times too great. was for the moment misled as to the extent of Mr. King's
Perhaps there is some other explanation of the discrepancy. knowledge. Seeing, then, that it was Prɔf. Maskelyne's mis- But, lest it prove an error, I have thought well that attention quotation which misled me, his not having accepted my invita- should be drawn to it, the statement being made on such high tion to explain, coupled with his crowing over me for having authority.
J. JOLY been misled (by his own words), is one of the most extraordinary Physical Laboratory, Trinity College, Dublin.
SEISVOJETRY AND ENGINEERING IN RE
stone-undoubtedly put up in the Aimsiest manner-lie LATION TO THE RECENT EARTHQUAKE ing. Cotton mills have fallen in, whilst their tall brick
as heaps of ruin between Japanese buildings yet standIN JAPAN
chimneys have been whipped off at about half their height. AT 6.38 2:m. on October 28, I was awakened at my Hugen cast-iron columns, which sunlike chimneys, are earthquake. There was no noise of creaking timbers, have been cut in two near their base. In some instances and there were no shocks such as usually accompany these have been snapped into pieces much as we might earthquakes. It was an easy swing, which produced snap a carrot, and the fragments thrown down upon the dizziness and nausea. As recorded by bracket seismo shingle beaches of the rivers. The greatest efforts graphs this continued for ten or twelve minutes. During appear to have been exerted where masonry piers carrythe interval there was ample time to study the movements ing 200-feet girders over lengths of 1800 feet have been of these instruments, and the conclusion that could not cut in two, and then danced and twisted over their solid be avoided was that rather than acting as steady points foundations considerable distances from their true posithese heavy masses were simply being swung from tions. These piers have a sectional area of 26 x 10 feet, side to side-horizontal displacement was not being and are from 30 to 50 feet in height. Embankments have mea sured, but angles of tip were being recorded. That been spread outwards or shot away, brick arches have many of our seismographs are useless as recorders of lillen between their abutments, whilst the railway line borizontal motion whenever a vertical component of i: self has been bent into a series of snake-like folds and motion is recorded, is a view that I have held' for many lummocked into waves. The greatest destruction has years, and therefore when these two have been recorded tken place on the Okazaki-Gifu plain, where we have in conjunction I have been inclined to receive the records all the phenomena-like the opening of crevasses, the with caution.
Spurting up of mud and water, the destruction of river Further, the measurement of vertical motion as recorded binks, &c. - which usually accompany large earthquakes. by a horizontal lever arrangement can only be trusted if At Okazaki and Nagoya ihe castles have survived. The we can assure ourselves that the advance of the waves reason for this may be partly attributable to the better has been at right angles to the direction of the lever. If class of timber employed in their construction, but this condition is not fulfilled, then the seismograph for principally to their pyramidal form and to the fact that vertical motion may also become a tip-recording instru- they are surrounded by moats. Here and there a temple ment. As another indication that during this particular has escaped destruction, partly, perhaps, on account of earthquake earth tips occurred, I may mention that the the quality of materials employed in its construction, water in a tank with perpendicular sides which is about but also in consequence of the multiplicity of joints 25 feet deep, 60 feet long, and 30 feet broad, rose quickly, which come between the roof and the supporting columns. first on one side and then on the other, to a height of At these joints there has been a basket-like yielding, and 3 or 4 feet-much in the same way that water would the interstice of the roof has not, therefore, acted with its rise and fall in a basin that was being tipped from side whole force in tending to rupture its supports. On to side.
the hills which surround the plain, although the motion Assuming what is said to be correct, it must not be has been severe, the destruction is not so great. These cosciusded that modern seismographs are useless. For hills are granites, palæozoic schists, and other rocks. ear:kquakes where the motion is horizontal, they give There is nothing volcanic. In the small cuttings where records which practically are absolutely correct. When the railroad passes from the hills out into the plain, no vertical motion occurs, in many cases if not in all, the effects of disturbance are observable, the surface motion records must be interpreted in a new light. The so-called probably having been discharged at the faces of the borizontal displacements may be employed in determining inclosing embankments. The general appearance outthe maximum slope of a wave, and if from an instrument side the cuttings, however, is as if some giant hand had recording vertical motion we are assured that we have taken rails and sleepers and rubbed them back and forth measured the vertical height of a wave, we can at least until the ballast lying between them was formed into approximate to the length of the same. The period of huge bolster-like ridges. Crossing the hills and proceedthe waves being recorded, it follows that the velocity of ing to other plains, it is noticeable that there has been propagation may be calculated.
more movement on the alluvium than on the rocks. Although it seems possible to use our present bracket Earthquakes yet continue, and in the Gifu plain each seismographs as angle measurers, it is evident that there one is preceded by a boom as if a heavy gun had been are other types of instruments, where swing due to inertia fired in some subterranean chamber. Although the surs minimized, which will act more satisfactorily. To vivors, who may number, perhaps, two millions, are, obtain a true measure of vertical displacement, the most for the most part, destitute, have witnessed the most evident solution would be to use a number of lever terrible scenes, and are yet surrounded by the dead arrangements in different azimuths. Other methods may, and the dying, yet there is no panic. They hear a however, suggest themselves.
“ boomb,” and run laughing to the middle of the street For the present our time is too much occupied with to escape the shock which the unaccountable noises outside observations to attend to instruments or to reduce herald. The Japanese have their feelings, but on octheir records. Up to date it is known that nearly 8000 casions of this sort there is no helplessness in consepeople have been killed, many having been consumed in quence of hysteria or mental prostration. As to what the burning ruins where they were entombed. At least | happens with Europeans under like circumstances, I 41,000 houses are level with the plain, and engineering must leave readers to consult history. Structures which have stood both typhoon and flood have
JOHN MILNE. been reduced to ruin. In the middle of the stricken Tokio, November 7. district, which is near Gifu and Ozaki, it is doubtful whether any ordinary building could have resisted the violence of the movement; but outside this, much de- FURTHER RESEARCHES UPON AZOIMIDE, struction might have been obviated had attention been
N,H. given to the ordinary rules of construction, and to the special rules formulated by those who have considered THE discovery of this remarkable.compound of bydra; znany places so-called “ foreign” buildings of brick and laboratory of the University of Kiel, forn:ed one of the