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parts, whilst the current edition is in four parts. The those bright colours of animals which have hitherto been readded part is somewhat of a jumble, inasmuch as it is garded as of warning significance are merely the substances supplementary of each of the first three parts. The

which confer the unpleasant taste, and that therefore the older

The writer scheme of the book is not apparent from the list of interpretation is unnecessary and in fact erroneous. contents, and this omission results in confusion. Whilst, furthermore implies that Dr. Eisig's views are not alluded to by however, the arrangement of the book is bad, the matter

those who have written upon animal colours, because they have is good. In skilful hands, indeed, the material which is explanation of such neglect, and one which in my own case is

escaped their attention. There is, however, another possible here accumulated might have been very attractively certainly the correct one-viz. that the views in question appear presented. At p. 132, a dozen pages are commenced to be so inherently improbable that a large body of confirmatory on the pests of the farm, whilst another dozen pages evidence is required before they demand attention. I do not by devoted to the same subject begin on p. 180. At p. 71, this mean to suggest that the unpalatable attribute may not the reader enters upon 30 pages about manures, and at possess a bright colour : this is certainly often the case, espep. 167 he gets a further dozen pages also upon manures. cially with the secretions expelled by many insects when they And so on.

are irritated. But it is highly improbable that these facts afford With reference to the fixation of nitrogen by legu- any refutation of the theory of warning colours ”-that is, of minous plants, mention is made of the presence on the

the view which regards the bright and conspicuous colouring as roots of these plants of " little bag-like enlargements, pleasant attribute, whether associated or unassociated with the

an indication (in mimetic forms a false indication) of some unor tubercles as they are called." It is unfortunate that this effort should be made to associate the pathological imagines, such associationis, tosay the least ofit, entirely unproved.

colour itself. And as regards the bright colours of Lepidopterous term “ tubercle” with these structures. The word

It by no means follows that the yellow colouring of the brim“nodule " is much preferable, and is not less explanatory. stone and other butterflies is disagreeable in flavour because it

Despite the fact that the book has been written to “is due to a substance formed as a urinary pigment.” And the enable candidates to pass an examination," it is as relation of many animal colours to these pigments by no useful and trustworthy a little treatise of the kind as means necessarily implies unpalatability. Again, it would be we have seen.

impossible to regard merely as a coincidence the fact that the

substances in question almost invariably produce a conspicuous Elementary Trigonometry. By J. M. Dyer and Rev.

appearance, and, furthermore, produce it in a variety of ways. R. H. Whitcombe. (London: George Bell, 1891.) Such an appearance is, as is well known, not merely due to the THE title of this book is on all fours with the contents. individual colours, but to their mutual arrangement and relation. The work is well adapted for school use. The explana- ship; It is due, moreover, to a variety of physical principles, tions of book-work are clearly expressed, and the text

for the production of white is very different from the production is amply illustrated by a store of exercises. Sufficient

of the colours which are so often contrasted with it. Conground is covered to meet the wants of average Army spicuous effects are furthermore often gained without the use of pupils.

pigment, as in the brilliantly metallic pupäe of Euplæa core and We have detected errata in the text on pp. 21, 30,

of Mechanitis lysimnia. Hence the contention that the bright

colour of distasteful insects is a mere incident of chemical com36, 59, 61, 62, 65, 67, 74, 80, 101, 136, 153. The major position which has been selected on other accounts is so part of the proof-sheets has been carefully gone over, inherently improbable that it would require a large body of but occasionally, as we have indicated, the authors have evidence to support it. nodded. The printing in places, in our copy, is defec- But perhaps the strongest argument against the view is that tive. But these faults only slightly mar a work which it creates such an artificial distinction between inedibility due to treats a hackneyed subject with all the freshness one can mere unpalatability, and that due to other unpleasant attributes. look for in an elementary text-book.

Mr. Beddard would probably admit that the conspicuous colouring of the skunk, the coral snake, and the wasp pos

sesses a true warning significance ; and yet he would interpret LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.

the black and yellow colouring of the larva of the cinnabar [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions ex

moth or the pupa of the magpie moth (both known to be un

patable) in an entirely different way, and would deny that it pressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake

possesses a warning meaning, to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected

In addition to these considerations, the undoubted existence manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE.

of an unpalatable quality not residing in the superficial pigments No notice is taken of anonymous communications.)

is quite clear in many brightly coloured insects. The irritating Opportunity for a Naturalist.

hairs and odoriferous secretions of many Lepidopterous and Since the completion of “ Argentine Ornithology,” in which Hymenopterous larvæ, and the evil-smelling yellow Auids which was given an account of the 434 species of birds then known to

exude from Coccinellida and from many conspicuous butterflies occur in the Argentine Republic, Mr. Arthur Holland, of the

are examples. Estancia Espartilla, and Mr. J. Graham Kerr, of the Pilcomayo

The recent investigations of the distinguished Russian Expedition, have made excellent contributions to the same sub.

naturalist Portchinsky (II. “Coloration marquante et taches ject, and have added some 30 species to the Argentine avifauna.

ocellées, leur origine et leur développement," St. Petersburg, But much more remains to be done, and, in continuation of the

1890) have, among other things, shown us the distinct manner work, I am now anxious to get a good series of birds from

in which the colours which attend un palatability are displayed Uruguay, the fauna of which, so far as we know it, does not

by the insect when it is disturbed. He thus explains some of appear to differ materially from that of its neighbouring Re

the cases of "shamming death ” which are so orien alluded to public. For this purpose I have made arrangements with a

in works on insects (the other cases being explained by the friend to take in a naturalist at his Estancia, near Minas, about necessity for concealment). Two examples which he adduces sixty miles from Monte Video, and am looking for a qualified

are so interesting, and have so important a bearing on this dis. collector to occupy the post. His necessary expenses will be

cussion, that I cannot resist the temptation of reproducing them met, but his further remuneration must de end, more or less, on

here, especially as Portchinsky's paper, being written in Russian, the results obtained. May I ask the aid of NATURE to make is almost unknown in this country. I have, however, been known this eligible opportunity for a young naturalist who can

most kindly helped by my friend Mr. Morfill, and now possess a

The make good birds'-skins, and is anxious to pass a few months in

complete translation, which I hope soon to publish. a foreign clime ?

female of Spilosoma mendica possesses black and yellow legs, 3 Hanover Square, London, W.

r. L. SCLATER.

and, when disturbed, it folds its limbs and drops to the ground, generally falling on its back, so that the contrasted colours are

displayed (see Fig. 1). In the closely allied Spilosoma urtica Warning Colours.

the dorsal surface of the abdomen is black and yellow, and this MR. Beddard, in his letter published in NATURE of Novem- insect, when irritated, raises its wings and curves the abdomen ber 26 (p. 78), calls attention to Dr. Eisig's suggestion that downwards so that the colour is conspicuous. Furthermore,

FIG. 1.

FIG. 2.

only its first pair of legs are black and yellow, and these alone My friend Prof. Meldola has drawn my attention to a comare stretched out conspicuously (see Fig. 2). The great dif- munication by Mr. F. E. Beddard in NATURE of November 26 ferences between the attitudes of these two closely related (p. 78), in which the view is expressed that the brimstone buttermoths, corresponding to the distribution of startling colours fy (Gonepteryx rhamni) is rendered protected or unpalatable by upon them, afford a very strong support to the theory of warning the yellow pigment of its wings being due to a substance formed colours. Mr. Beddard might reply that they thus make pro- as “a urinary pigment," and that the coloration is “a conseminent the unpalatable pigments that the enemies may first quence of the deposition in the integument of bitter pigments.”

The following objections may be urged against the view that this coloration, said to be of the nature of a “urinary pigment,” affords any protection whatever.

Gonepleryx rhamni itself has its female much paler than the male and of a greenish-white hue, whilst the wings in both sexes are of a leaf-like appearance, which can only be due to the process of natural selection, and can scarcely have been exercised in the direction of "protective resemblance " if the insect was already unpalatable by the "urinative” nature of the yellow pigment of its wings.

Yellow Lepidoptera have certainly no immunity from the attacks of birds ; on the contrary, the scanly records we possess of these onslaughts go to prove that the contrary is the case. The late Mr. P. H. Gosse observed one of the greenlets (Viero. sylvia calidris) to pursue a species of Terias in Jamaica (** Birds

of Jamaica,” p. 194). In Southern India, Mr. E. L. Arnold make trial of them upon a material which will ensure their found the principal victims of the green bee-eaters to be speci. ultimate rejection. But if the colour has not a meaning as such,

mens of Terias hecate (On the Indian Hills," vol. i. p. 247-48). there is no reason why this spot should be attacked in pre. Quite recently in the Transvaal I have observed the wagtail, ference to any other part of the exposed surface ; and the Motacilla capensis, to pursue and devour the yellow Lithosiid existence of the colour as a covering to the most vital parts moth, Binna madagascariensis. seems to indicate that it acts as a warning away rather than in

But the facts of " mimicry" seem to effectually dispose of the the reverse manner.

supposition. In South Africa, the yellow black-margined The fact that brightly coloured animals are frequently attacked Pupilio cenea affords by its females the most striking examples does not seem to me to be a great difficulty. The really im. to prove the non-protective value of this coloration ; for the portant point is whether the enemy remembers the attack, and females respectively mimic those two well-known “protected is assisted in identifying the unpalatable species by its bright butterflies," the blackish Amauris echeria and the reddish colours. Many experiments seem to show that this is so. Danais chrysippus, whilst, to add to the negative evidence, the Certainly. Mr. Beddard will not assert that the majority of yellow male has been seen by Mr. Weale to become the prey of insect-eating animals fail to know and recognize a wasp without the flycatcher, Tchitrea cristata. tasting it. Again, the question is really, as Mr. Titchener

On the Amazons, Mr. Bates has long since shown that the implies in his interesting communication, one of “comparative yellow and black Leptalis orise mimics the markings-even to palatability”; and there is no doubt that insect eating animals the colour of the antennæ and the spotting of the abdomen-of when sufficiently hungry will attack and sometimes devour the protected or unpalatable Methona psidii. insects which they would ordinarily reject. Furthermore, an

Russell Hill, Purley, Surrey.

W. L. DISTANT. animal which naturally prefers a varied insect food, and which is fed in c nfinement largely on other substances and partially on a monotonous insect diet, may be expected to be less scrupu

A Difficulty in Weismannism. lous than it would be in the wild state.' I may state, however, that the most intelligent insect-eating animals, such as the In his communication of November 28 (Nature, December marmo-et, hardly ever make mistakes ; their suspicion being at 3, p. 102), Prof. Hartog asks us to believe that Weismann, in once aroused by any trace of a warning colour.

a letter from which he quotes, insists (1) that the Ahnenplasmas It is well known that we chiefly owe the theory of warning are “not completely unchangeable,” and (2) that “ each colours to Mr. A. R. Wallace. My own conviction of its Ahnenplasma unit corresponds to an individual of the species entire validity rests upon the results of a prolonged series of itself; and if put under suitable trophic conditions would, singly, experiments, of which only a part has been published. I believe reproduce such an individual. that I conducted these experiments fairly, that my mind was Assuming that thesis II. adequately represents the Freiburg oped, and that I had no personal bias in the matter at all, Professor's latest views, and that a few sentences detached from either in favour of or against the theory. And I can confidently their context are to be depended upon, we must, it seems to me, make the same claim on behalf of others who have experimented conclude, with Prof. Hartog, that he has unearthed an inconin the same manner-such as Mr. Jenner Weir, Prof. Weis. sistency, and, what is of more importance, shown that the mann, and M. Portchinsky. I may allude especially to the shuffling process is not only unnecessary, but that a new signiwritings of the last-named authority, as they are the most im- ficance must be found for it. portant as well as the most recent contribution to the theory I am, however, still inclined to believe that hypothesis B is which we owe to Mr. Wallace.

the one upon which Weismann has founded his theories of I may also take this opportunity of replying to a very similar heredity and sexual reproduction. The hypothesis, however, objection raised by some reviewers against my book on the should take account of the variability, slight though it may be, Colours of Animals, their Meaning and Use, &c.” They of the Ahnenplasmas. We agree to call the Ahnenplasmas point out that I have not alluded to Eimer's work on the com- Protozoan, simply because we have no conception of the kind parison of the wing-markings of Papilionida, and they assume and amount of the variation they have undergone since they ihat his paper has, therefore, escaped my attention. But parted company with the unicellular organisms in which they Eimer's paper has no bearing whatever on the value of colour originated. We have no reason, however, ito believe that the in the struggle for existence, and this is the subject of my book, external causes which led to their variation in unicellular organas anyone can infer from the preface, or even from the title. isms are powerless to affect them now that they are localized For this reason I was also compelled to omit reference to what in the reproductive cells of multicellular ones. I venture to regard as the far more important work of Weis. Prof. Hartog, moreover, while relinquishing the idea of the mann on the development of the colours and marking of variability of the offspring of the lioness, endeavours from caterpillars, and of Dixey on the wing-markings of Vanessida another point of view to attack Weismannism on the plane of and Argynnida, as well as a very large proportion of my own hypothesis B. Is he, too, sceptical as to Weismann's adherence work, which is a continuation of that begun by Weismann, and to hypothesis A, or does he simply wish to overwhelm the was, in fact, inspired by it.

so-called disciples ?

EDWARD B. POULTON. In either case, several objections may be made to his arguOxford, December 15.

ment. In the first place, we object most emphatically to any theory of Weismannism minus natural selection. In the second | Mersey and the Lancashire coast as far north as the Ribble, the place, we believe that Weismann means permutations, though destruction of young fish is absurdly under-estimated, whether he uses the term combinations. After a football team has been I judge by my own experience or by that of Mr. R. L. Ascroft, selected, the men can be arranged in 11 different ways. The of Lytham, with whom I have been in correspondence on the arrangements would virtually constitute new teams, and news- subject since 1889. This gentleman, however, informs me that papers would speak of them as strong and weak combinations.

Dr. Fulton's information was obtained from Morecambe Bay, The combinations of the Ahnenplasmas can be assumed to be of where smaller trawls are used, and the boats drift with the tide a similar kind. The arrangement almost certainly counts for instead of sailing: Dr. Fulton has Leen informed that in the something. Nevertheless, Prof. Hartog's contention-that the Solway Firth a single boat in one year captures over 110,000 elimination of Ahnenplasmas in the shuffing process would lead immature plaice. If the word "year" is not a mistake for to ever-increasing simplicity-demands serious consideration, for "week,”, either the statement is immensely under-estimated or duplication lessens the possible number of permutations and the conditions in the Solway must be very different from what combinations. I would point out that we may conceive that they are further south. This may be judged by the following the Ahnenplasmas were, in asexual unicellular organisms, either extract from a letter writter by Mr. Ascrost in 1889. I may all the same, all different, or in intermediate conditions. In say that this gentleman (who is now, I am glad to say, a memany one of these cases we must assume that m, the number of ber of the Lancashire Fishery Committee) has had a long and individuals, was much greater than n, the number of practical experience in all kinds of sea-fishing on the Lancashire Ahnenplasmas present in every individual. With the evoluticn coast, and is a careful and accurate observer. He writes as of sexuality (all the individuals being different) we should get follows :-"Shrimping destroys more young fish than almost combinations of, at least, m Ahnenplasmas taken n at a time. any other agency. I have seen in Formby Channel 10 cwi. of Different permutations of the same combination would be, of young flukes destroyed, not one the size of half-a-crown, by one course, possible, giving rise to other combinations, using the boat, and there were sixty boats there that day.” word in the general sense. We must suppose that natural Now, taking the weight of a Auke the size of half-a-crown at selection operated upon the variations produced by these first } oz., a simple calculation will show that each boat captured combinations. Natural selection had operated upon the uni. 35,840 young Aukes (a term which includes plaice and dabs) in sexual ancestors of these sexual forms. We can at least conceive one day, or 215,040 in a week of six days-nearly twice as that development would follow one of two courses. Along the many as Dr. Fulton's figures for a year! And elsewhere Mr. first, combinations in which more than one unit of a kind ap. Ascroft says : “ You may put it as an axiom that 90 per cent. peared would, if possible, be prevented. Such might arise, but of fish that comes on a boat is destroyed, as when trawling they under the operation of natural selection they would not be allowed sail back as they have got their net, and do not commence to perpetuate themselves. Along the second, such combinations sorting the take until the net is out again, and they do not, in might arise and be perpetuated. In either case, it must be shallow water, throw the rubbish (ie. everything except assumed that the combinations which survived were such as were shrimps) “over until they turn out to haul, for fear of getting it best adapted to the varied combinations of external conditions. into the net again.” All of which I may say is borne out by my This may be made clearer by an illustration. In Rugby foot. own experience. ball, combinations of 15 in which 8 or 9 of the men-the

The following is an extract from my diary, written July 10, forwards-are all the same would be strong, whereas, if all were

1885, when Fishery Committees were not dreamt of. The different, they would be weak. In Association football, strong occasion was an excursion for dredging purposes of the Chester combinations could only be made up by selecting different types Society of Natural Science, when I took my boat and trawl to of players for the different places. 'I am inclined to believe that

meet their steamer at the mouth of the Dee. The Green Buoy both cases are followed by Nature. The one which I have marks the bar near Prestatyn, and I let down the trawl in midillustrated with referencc tó Rugby football cannot, however, channel (about 5 fathoms) in the hope of getting some natural have been generally followed. It is an adaptation for which the history specimens :-“Began to trawl just below the Green organism has ultimately to pay dearly, and is as dangerous to

Buoy. Got a few goodish soles, and an immense number of the development of the phylum, as we may suppose parthenogenesis young soles, which always squeeze their heads through the meshes. to be to the species. Taking the case of plants, I would say that (N.B.-Shrimp-trawling at this time of year should only be allowed the one course may have been followed along the line of de

within a quarter of a mile of the shore, to avoid the immense velopment of the main archegoniate series, the other in the destruction of fry, which mostly lie further out.) Afterwards development of such divergent groups as the Ustilagineæ and got a good haul of shrimps as close in (shore) as we could go.” Gastromycetes. The argument of Prof. Hartog, therefore, while I have a perfect recollection of the occasion, and although of no avail as directed against Weismannism, is of use in so far

the trawl was only down about twenty minutes I was horrified as it enables us to better understand divergence. I am inclined

at the number of young soies which were in the net, and most to think that it may serve also to explain the remarkable per

of which had choked themselves. But there were very few sistence of such forms as Nautilus. It suggests, too, an explana- shrimps, which mostly lie in very shallow water near the edge tion of the disadvantage of breeding “in and-in." Finally, I

of a sand-bank. would remind Prof. Hartog that neither of the disciples of

As a remedy for this destruction I would suggest that the Weismann apparently believes in the non-variability of the principal breeding-grounds be ascertained, and trawling on them Ahnenplasmas. If their beliefs have a substantial foundation, prohibited at such times as the young fish are there. If the it follows that the number of possible combinations becomes prohibition be evaded, then a steamer-load of very large angular absolutely unthinkable.

stones, distributed from 100 to 200 yards apart on the selected I shall be much obliged to Prof. Hartog if he can inform me

grounds, would effectually prevent trawling, and at the same of any theory of heredity whose foundations are not “more or time, as they became covered with weed, afford shelter and less mythical.” There are, no doubt, many difficulties in Weis. food to the fish and shrimps. This has been done by Nature in mannism, before one of which, the theory, having served its this bay, where large boulders washed out of the drist that here time, may come to the ground. I do not think that Prof. forms the coast-line strew the shore at wide intervals, and Hartog's is one of them.

A. H. TROW. render trawling for shrimps impossible, though hand nets can Penarth, Cardiff, December 10.

be and are worked.

I trust the importance of the subject will excuse the length of this letter.

ALFRED O. WALKER.
Destruction of Immature Sea Fish.

Nant y Glyn, Colwyn Bay, December 14.
In your number of November 19 (p. 49) you review the Ninth
Annual Report of the Scotch Fishery Board. I have not seen
the Report, but assume that your reviewer's statements as to its

The Salts in Natural Waters. contents are correct. My object in writing is to draw attention The inquiry of your correspondent “R. B. H.,” in NATURE to the opinions attributed to Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton as to the of November 26 (p. 78), may be answered as follows. In the destruction of young fish by shrimpers. I may say at once that analysis of an ordinary water, after determining the respective I am one of the “very many" to whom the “ results" are "sur- amounts of lime, magnesia, (socia), carbonic acid (combined), sulprising " as your reviewer remarks. I am an old shrimp-trawlerphuric acid, nitric acid, and chlorides (these being the constituents in the Dee and along the Flintshire coast, and I have no hesita- met with usually in such a water), we proceed to combine the acids tion in saying that, as regards the Dee and, I believe, the and bases thus: the carbonic acid is calculated to carbonate of lime; if there be more than sufficient to satisfy all the lime, the had painfully to reduce back to the real facts from which they remainder is calculated to carbonate of magnesia ; if there be were derived. too little, however, the remaining lime is combined with sul- I am quite prepared to believe that the investigations of phuric acid ; any remaining sulphuric acid is calculated to sulphate Ostwald and others as to solutions show that salts as such do of magnesia, and so on ; the order in which the bases and acids not exist in these waters at all, and that the relations of acids are taken being therefore as follows :

and bases in such cases are variable with the physical condition Lime, Carbonic acid,

of the water. As an instance which has come under my own Magnesia, Sulphuric acid,

notice, it was reported by competent chemists, with reference to Soda. Nitric acid,

water from a deep well in Harrow, in which an unusual quantity Hydrochloric acid.

of magnesium and sulphuric acid was found, that at 60° F. its Now, although this is the usually accepted and conventional

hardness was 10°:4 (grs. per gall.); that, mixed with an equal method of returning an analysis, there is no doubt that the quantity of distilled water, its hardness rose to 24° : while at the assumptions it involves are altogether arbitrary, illegitimate, would hardly attempt to assign with much confidence what

temperature of 158° it rose to 26° 5. I suppose that a chemist and unscientific. The only scientific method of returning a' water analysis is to represent (in parts per 100,000 ; not in

exact changes in the relations of the dissolved constituents grains per gallon, as the atrocious English system of weights and then, why analysts should limit themselves to statements which

would produce these and similar results. All the more reason, measures generally compels us to) the constituents actually found; as, for instance,

they can vouch for by direct observation and the balance.

My remarks having extended beyond a mere question, I think CaO ; MgO, CO, ; NO3 ; Cl; &c.

it best to sign myself in full, ROBERT B. HAYWARD. This is all that an analyst is entitled to say, and this much is certain : when we proceed to combine the constituents, we are

Peculiar Eyes. dealing in conjecture.

Mr. Shaw's case is by no means so peculiar as he supposes. Unfortunately, however, it seems to be a "law of Nature" | I imagine that everyone who has had to do with experithat those classes of the community who chiefly require the mental questions of physiological or psychological optics has services of analysts are absolutely ignorant of the merest rudi- found it to be rather the exception than the rule that an investiments of chemistry; the consequence is that if any analytical gation of his reagents' eyes has shown their persect equality-as purist endeavours to reform upon the conventionally established regards “long and "short” sight, colour sensitivity, and procedure, and to return a certificate of analysis in a scientific sensitivity to light. The common preferential use of one eye manner, his clients are up in arms at once, and indignantly de explains a good deal (cf., e.g., Aubert, “ Physiol. d. Netzhaut,' mand what he means by sending them such a nonsensical rigmarole. p. 18; Schön, Arch. f. Ophthalmologie, xx. 2, p. 271). Mr.

Thus far, then, we are helpless ; but it is most undesirable Shaw may also be colour-blind in one eye ; the perception of that this conventional procedure should be adhered to whenever it colour difference alone is no criterion. I find it safest to employ is possible to substitute the scientific (as in an analysis of purely the wool, spectrum, and coloured-card tests in combination. scientific interest).

Animals (with the exception of the very highest) have nor“R. B. H.” asks what salts really exist in solution.

mally a so restricted binocular vision that they need not be According to Ostwald and others, no salls at all if the solution taken into account. be dilute enough, but only dissociated ions with electrical It may be interesting to note that a like difference of sensacharges. But whether this theory be correct or not, it is im- tional capacity exists between the two ears. A tuning-fork held probable to the last degree that an analysis represents the salts to one ear may, quite normally, drown a tone sensation which is actually present. The indeterminateness of the problem is clearly half a musical tone deeper or higher than that excited by the shown by the fact that from the same solution either sodium same fork in the other ear.

E. B. TITCHENER. chloride and magnesium sulphate, or sodium sulphate and mag. P.S.-I discovered the very considerable inequality of my nesium chloride, may be obtained, according to the method of own eyes quite accidentally in my sixteenth year. crystallization adopted. Even supposing that Ostwald's theory bé incorrect, and that not ions but salts exist in solution, and

Alleged Pseudopodes of Diatoms. that these different results be due to double decomposition occurring in one case, it would be a gigantic assumption that

Will you allow me to express my concurrence in your we can definitely show the exact natural distribution in a

criticism (p. 140) on Mr. Grenfell's paper on the occurrence complicated solution containing eight or ten constituents.

of pseudopodia in the Diatomaceous genera Melosira and CycloIf “R. B. H." wishes to see an account of how acids and

tella? I express no doubt on the accuracy of Mr. Grenfell's bases distribute themselves in a simple solution, he may consult observations, the knowledge of which I have derived from his Ostwald's, “ Outlines" (p. 338, &c., English translation), and paper in the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, and also the discussion on avidity in Lothair Meyer's

"Modern

from his verbal description at a meeting of the Linnean Society ; Theories of Chemistry” (472-87). F. H. PERRY COSTE,

but I do desire to enter my protest against the use of the term 7 Fowkes Buildings, Great Tower St., E.C., Nov. 28.

“pseudopodia " for the protoplasmic filaments observed by

him. According to the accepied meaning of this term, it is I Am much indebted to Mr. Perry Coste for his clear and applied to masses of protoplasm which are in organic connection candid answer to my question. It is exactly the answer which

with the protoplasm of the body of the organism, and which are I anticipated. The actual facts established by analysis are too

retractile. I understand Mr. Grensell that he is unable to affirm often forced, by the arbitrary assumptions of the analytical him ; and, until this is done, the application to 'hem of the

either of these facts with regard to the structures observed by chemist, to yield unwarrantable conclusions. The reason given is, that “the people love to have it so." I

term “pseudopodia" appears to me to involve a begging of the had hoped that chemists could give some better grounds for question at issue, and a needless and regrettable confusion in

ALFRED W. BENNETT. their proceedings. They bring to mind the words of the old terminology. prophet: "A wonderful and horrible thing is come to pass in the land ; the prophets prophesy falsely,' for “my people

Intelligence in Birds. love to have it so ; and what will ye do in the end thereof?” UNDER this head Mr. Wilkins, in your last impression (p. Surely we may henceforth claim, in the interests of truth or 151), speaks of Podoces paneri hiding food in the sand. I have (which is the same thing) science, that chemists will give us in a fox-terrier puppy which was taken from its mother when about every case the actual facts obtained by analysis ; and if they seven weeks old, and sent to me. I have no other dogs, nor proceed further for the sake of the prejudices of the ignorant, has he seen any dogs, but he buries bones in the garden with they will at least warn them that such further inferences are not great skill, digging a hole with his fore.paws. He puts in the trustworthy, and bave only a very moderate amount of prob- bone, and carefully pushes it down with his nose, and then ability, if they can even lay claim to any probability at all. covers it with garden soil, which is pushed in with his nose.

I speak feelingly, because I have had occasion to examine a The work is very carefully and elaborately well done. great number of analyses of water from the chalk of the London I have had, at various times, very many dogs of all kinds and Basin, telling me, in most cases with a “cocksureness" whichages, but I never saw so young a puppy bury bones, or any dog has amazed me, what salts, and what amount of them, these do it so well. It is an admirable example of pure heredity. waters contained, and these, for purposes of comparison, I have Norfolk Street December 19.

JOE.

A NEW LOCALITY FOR METEORIC IRON,

mined by a Colorado assayer, who reported “76-8 per WITH A PRELIMINARY NOTICE OF THE

cent. of iron, 18 per cent. lead, 1 ounce silver, and a trace DISCOVERY OF DIAMONDS IN THE IRON.1

of gold. From its appearance we should take it to be a

furnace product." i HISTORICAL Sketch of the Discovery - In the latter This result was naturally not satisfactory to the mining

part of March 1891 the mining firm of N. B. Booth firm, and a mass weighing 40 pounds was broken into and Co., of Albuquerque, New Mexico, received a letter several fragments with a trip hammer. One of these was

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

sent to the President of the Santa Fe Railroad, and another to General Williamson, the Land Commissioner of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company, in Chicago.

This assay was of such a remarkable character that I took the trouble to stop at the city where it was made, and ask how such extraordinary results were obtained. I was informed that the lead, silver, and gold were probably the results of the materials used in making the assay.

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