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General Williamson consulted me as to the probable bottom seemed to be from 50 to 100 feet (15*24 to 30-48 value of the so-called mine of "pure metallic iron,” | metres) below the surrounding plain. The rocks stating, on the authority of the prospector, that the vein which form the rim of the so-called “crater” are sandhad been traced for a distance of about two miles, that it stones and limestones, and are uplifted on all sides at an was 40 yards wide in places, finally disappearing into a almost uniform angle of from 350 to 40°. A careful mountain, and that a car-load could be taken from the search, however, failed to reveal any lava, obsidian or surface and shipped with but little trouble.
other volcanic products. I am therefore unable to exAglance at the peculiar pitted appearance of the surface, plain the cause of this remarkable geological phenoand the remarkable crystalline structure of the fractured
I also regret that a severe gallop across the portion, convinced me that the fragment was part of a plain had put my photographic apparatus out of order, so meteoric mass, and that the stories of the immense that the plates I made were of no value. quantity were such as usually accompany the discovery About two miles (3'22 kilometres) from the point at the of so-called native iron mines, or even meteoric stones. base of the “crater” in a nearly south-easterly direction, As soon as possible, in June, I made a visit to the locality, and almost exactly in a line with the longest dimensions and found that the quantity had, as usual, been greatly of the area over which the fragments were found, two exaggerated.
large masses were discovered within about 80 feet (2438 There were some remarkable mineralogical and geo- metres) of each other. The area over which the small
logical features which, together with the character of the masses were scattered was about one-third of a mile (0:53 iron itself, would allow of a good deal of self-deception in kilometre) in length, and 120 feet (36-57 metres) in its a man who wanted to sell a mine.
widest part. · The longer dimension extended north-west Description of Locality.-Nearly all of the small frag- and south-east. ments were found at a point about ten miles south-east Description of the Specimens.—The largest mass disfrom Cañon Diablo, near the base of a nearly circular covered weighs 201 pounds (91'171 kilos), and, as the elevation which is known locally as “Crater Mountain.” photograph shows (Fig. 1), has a somewhat flattened I believe this is the same as Sunset Knoll, figured on the rectangular shape, showing extraordinarily dee and topographical sheets of the U.S. Geological Survey. large pits, three of which pass entirely through the iron. This is 185 miles (297*72 kilometres) due north from The most remarkable example of such perforation is the Tucson, and about 250 miles (402'34 kilometres) west of Signet Iron from near Tucson, Arizona, now in the Albuquerque.
National Museum, and figured in Prof. F. W. Clarke's The elevation, according to the Survey, rises 432 feet Catalogue. (13167 metres) above the plain. Its centre is occupied by a cavity nearly three-quarters of a mile (1'2 kilometres)
1 The Signet Iron was discovered about 30 miles (48.28 kilometres) from in diameter, the sides of which are so steep that animals Tucson. Dr. Geo. H. Horn states that twenty-five years ago he was told that have descended into it have been unable to escape,
by the Spaniards that plenty of iron could be found on a range of hills
extending north-west and south-east half-way between Albuquerque and and have left their bleached bones at the bottom. The
fOne other large mass was found weighing 154 pounds Prof. Koenig in a letter to me gives the following (69-853 kilos). This is also deeply pitted. A mass weighing points as definitely known :approximately 40 pounds (18:144 kilos) was broken in “(1) Diamonds, black and white, established by hardpieces with a trip hammer, and it was in cutting one of ness and indifference to chemical agents. (2) Carbon in the fragments of this mass that diamonds were discovered the form of a pulverulent iron carbide occurring in the (Fig. 2).
same cavity with the diamonds. The precise nature of Besides these masses of considerable size a careful this carbide, whether containing hydrogen and nitrogen, search made by myself with the assistance of five men is not ascertained, except in so far that after extracting was rewarded by the discovery of 108 smaller masses. all iron by nitro-hydrochloric acid the black residue goes Twenty-three others were also discovered, making a total into solution with deep brown colour upon treating it of 131 small masses, ranging in weight from io of an with potassium or sodium hydrate. From this solution ounce (1479 grm.) to 6 pounds to ounces (3'006 kilos). A acids do not precipitate anything. (3) Sulphur is not brownish-white, slightly botryoidal coating, found on a contained in the tough malleable portion of the meteorite, number of the meteorites, is probably aragonite.
but in the pulverulent portion. (4) Phosphorus is conA thorough examination of many miles of the plaintained in the latter, and not in the former. (5) Nickel proved that the car-load of iron existed only in imagina- and Cobalt in the proportion of 2:1 are contained in tion. Accompanying the pieces found at the base of the both parts nearly equally. (7) Silicon is only present “crater” were oxidized and sulphuretted fragments which in the pulverulent portion. (8) The Widmannstättian a preliminary examination has shown are undoubtedly figures are not regular. (9) The iron is associated with of meteoric origin. About 200 pounds (90-718 kilos) of a black hydroxide containing Fe, Ni, Co, P, in the ratio these were secured, from minute fragments up to 3 pounds of the metallic part, and therefore presumably derived 14 ounces (1.757 kilos). These fragments are mostly quite by a process of oxidation and hydration of the latter." angular in character, and a very few show a greenish Conclusions.-As this meteoric iron contains only 3 per stain, resulting probably from the oxidation of the nickel. cent. of nickel, while that from the Santa Catarina MountThis oxidized material is identical in appearance with an ains, 30 miles (48.28 kilometres) south-east of Tucson incrustation which covers some of the iron masses and and 215 miles (346 kilometres) from this locality, contains partially fills some of the pits.
from 8 to 9 per cent., according to the analysis of Brush Composition.-After obtaining the meteorite I was un- and Smith, they are quite distinct, although somewhat able to return to Philadelphia for some time, and there alike in external appearance. They also somewhat refore sent a frag nent of the 40-pound mass (18:144 kilos) semble the Glorietta meteoric irons from about 300 miles to Prof. G. A. Koenig for examination. Prof. Koenig was (482:8 kilometres) to the east-north-east, in New Mexico. compelled to leave town before this examination was These contain 11'15 per cent. of nickel. completed. I take the following, therefore, from his letters The most interesting feature is the discovery for the to me, and from an account furnished the daily Public first time of diamonds in meteoric iron. This might Ledger by Dr. E. J. Nolan, Secretary of the Academy of have been predicted from the fact that all the constituents Sciences, of a preliminary notice made by Prof. Koenig, of meteoric iron have been found in meteoric stones, and June 23, before the Academy of Natural Sciences of vice verså, although in different proportions. Philadelphia. In this account he says :
The incrustation of what is probably aragonite shown “In cutting the meteoric iron for study it had been by some of the masses has rarely been noticed (I find found of an extraordinary hardness, the section taking a two records by J. Lawrence Smith which he states to be day and a half, and a number of chisels having been unique, and both of these were from regions south of this destroyed in the process. When the mass, which on the one). The incrustation is especially interesting as showexterior was not distinguished from other pieces of ing that the meteoric irons must have been embedded a meteoric iron, was divided, it was found that the cutting long time, as the formation of aragonite would be exapparatus had fortunately gone through a cavity. In the ceedingly slow in this dry climate. attempt to polish the surface, so as to bring out the The remarkable quantity of oxidized black fragmental characteristic Widmannstättian figures, Dr. Koenig re- material that was found at those points where the greatest ceived word that the emery wheel in use had been number of small fragments of meteoric iron were found ruined.
would seem to indicate that an extraordinarily large mass “ On examination, he then found that the exposed cavi- of probably 500 or 600 pounds (226796 or 272'165 kilos) ties contained diamonds which cut through polished had become oxidized while passing through the air, and corundum as easily as a knife will cut through gypsum. was so weakened in its internal structure that it had burst The diamonds exposed were small, black, and, of course, into pieces not long before reaching the earth. of but little commercial value, but mineralogically they are of the greatest interest, the presence of such in meteorites having been unknown until 1887, when two
THE SEVERE GALE OF NOVEMBER 11. Russian mineralogists discovered traces of diamond in a meteoric mixture of olivine and bronzite. Granules of THE stormo which traversed Englandecent Nexember small quantity of this treated with acid had revealed resulted in considerable loss of life and property at sea a minute white diamond of one-half a millimetre, or our coasts, and did a large amount of damage on about 1/50 of an inch in diameter. In manipulation, land. unfortunately, this specimen was lost, but others will The weather over England at the commencement of doubtless be obtained in the course of investigation. the month was dry and fine, and the conditions were those The minerals troilite and daubreelite were also found in known as anticyclonic, the barometer on November 5 the cavities. The proportion of nickel in the general having exceeded 30*7 inches over a great part of the United mass is 3 per cent., and the speaker was not as yet able Kingdom. On November 8, the type of weather became to account for the extraordinary hardness apart from the cyclonic, and disturbances were skirting close to our presence of the diamonds in the cavities."
coasts from off the Atlantic, south-westerly gales being
experienced in the Hebrides and in the west of Ireland ; 1 October 18.-During September I received three additional large masses weighing respectively 632, 506, and 145 pounds (or 286678, 229 516 and ' Attention may be called to the discovery by Haidinger (1846) of cubic 65*771 kilos). The two latter were each perforated with three holes. A crystals of a graphitic carbon in the Arva meteoric iron, and also of somenumber of smaller masses up to 7 pounds (3'175 kilos) were discovered by what similar crystals from the Youngdegin (West Australia) iron, described digging. The three large masses and one of 23 pounds (10'432 kilos) were by Fletcher (1887) under the name of cliftonite. Both have been regarded covered with grass and earth.-A. E. F.
i as pseudomorphs after diamond.
whilst on the following day unsettled weather spread to Islands, and gales were blowing in most parts of the other parts of the United Kingdom, and rain was heavy country. The cyclonic circulation of the winds was comand persistent over the south of England.
plete in our islands, the direction being northerly in The daily weather report issued by the Meteorolo- Ireland, westerly and south westerly over the Channel gical Office at 8 o'clock on the morning of the roth showed and the south of England, southerly on our east coasts, that the winds were westerly and south-westerly over the and easterly in Scotland and the northern portion of the whole of the British Islands under the influence of a Kingdom. The barometer gradients were very steep in storm area situated off the north-west of Scotland, the the English Channel, as well as in the south-western and readings at our extreme northern stations being 29-1 inches; south-eastern districts; and at Scilly force 11 of Beaufort's but a fresh fall of the barometer was already in progress notation was reported from the north-west. At many of at Valentia, and the wind had there backed to south-south- the English stations the fall of the barometer since 6 west. The report added : “ The new depression which is o'clock the previous evening exceeded o'9 inch, and at approaching our western coasts is at present too far away Hurst Castle it amounted to an inch, whilst in several to enable us to judge of its size or depth.” The telegrams places in the south and west the rainfall exceeded an received by the Meteorological Office at 2 o'clock indicated inch in the preceding 24 hours. The gale continued to the approach of a serious disturbance; the barometer was rage during the day, and at 2 o'clock in the afternoon the
DIAGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE THE Severe GALE OF WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 11, 1891. The barometer is expressed by isobars, the pressure corresponding to each line being given in inches and tenths. The winds are shown by arrows which
are drawn flying with the wind. O = a calm; -=a lightor moderate wind : -+ = a fresh or strong breese ; →→ =a gale. alling rapidly at the south-western stations, and the fall force of the wind at Dungeness was reported as 12 of had now extended even to London, and the wind had Beaufort's notation, which is the extreme limit of the backed over the whole Kingdom. The evening reports scale, and is equivalent to a hurricane, the lowest baroindicated a still further advance of the storm area towards meter reported to the Meteorological Office at this time our islands, and the trend of the isobars over the south- being 28-34 inches at Shields. At 6 o'clock on the 11th, western portion of the Kingdom showed that the centre the central area of the storm had passed to the eastward of the disturbance was not far distant to the south-west- of our coasts, as shown by the diagram for that hour, the ward, whilst moderate south-easterly gales were blowing core or heart of the storm not being far distant from at the entrance of the English Channel.
Shields, where the barometer was standing at 28-31 The conditions on the morning of the lith are inches, which is apparently the lowest reading recorded pictured in the diagram for 8 o'clock, obtained from in the British Islands during the gale. Strong westerly the weekly weather report of the Meteorological Office, and north-westerly gales were still blowing over the and from this it will be seen that the storm area greater part of the United Kingdom, and the succeeding was central over Pembrokeshire, the lowest reading night was very boisterous, although the gale had everybeing 28-36 inches at St. Ann's Head, whilst the mercury where subsided before 8 o'clock on the following was below 29 inches over the entire area of the British morning.
2 p.m. ; whilst at
I a.m. 2
The Meteorological Council have very kindly permitted only 45 miles, which occurred at the use of the Observatory records and other documents Greenwich the pressure anemometer registered 31*5 lbs. in their possession, which are more in detail than the eye on the square foot at 2'35 p.m. At Fort William the observations made at the telegraphic reporting stations barometer commenced to fall at 11.30 a.m., roth, and which furnish data for the daily weather reports.
the lowest reading was 28:48 inches at 3.53 p.m., Iith. The following table shows the hourly velocity of the At Aberdeen the fall of the barometer set in at 7.45 p.m., wind as obtained from the anemometrical records. All Toth, and the minimum was 28-38 inches at 9 p m., 11th ; velocities of 35 miles and upwards are given, and when whilst here the wind changed suddenly from south-east so strong a wind is recorded at any Observatory, the by east to west by north at 10-15 p.m., uith. velocity is given at the other Observatories, although less The ship Khyber, Captain W. Peterkin, keeping a log than 35 miles an hour.
for the Meteorological Office, felt the first influence of the Velocity of the Wind by Anemographs.
cyclonic weather system at midnight, 9th, in lat. 49° 30'N., and long. 13° W., about 300 miles to the west of Land's
End, when a moderate south-west wind was blowing, Valentia. Falmouth. Holyhead.
and the barometer stood at 2964 inches. The wind
afterwards changed through south, south-east, east, and 28 28 41
25 16 north-east, and the centre of the disturbance passed to 34 31
the south of the vessel, being nearest to the ship at 3
about 10 p.m., 1oth, when the barometer was 28.71 inches,
27 and the wind was blowing a fresh gale from north-north5 39 31
34 east, the ship being in lat. 49°40' N., and long. 12° 20' W.
34 35 This vessel shows that the wind did not attain gale force 7
until after the centre had passed to the east of the ship, 32 50
40 34 62
but with a rising barometer she experienced a very strong 17
44 33 56 36
The observations from the Khyber, considered with Noon. 33 43 59
those obtained from stations in the United Kingdom, show 35 43
32 41 that the storm system travelled across the area of the 34 34 52 45 39 British Islands at the rate of about 34 English mi
per 3 34 30
43 43 39 hour; but the rate of progress was slackening decidedly 4 32 33
after it had passed over the centre of England, and on 5 24
29 30 reaching the North Sea it passed away very slowly to the 17 24
The exceptional features of the storm were the strong 8
gales experienced in the English Channel and over the 9
southern portion of the Kingdom, accompanied by a
terrific sea, the latter being doubtless greatly aggravated 27 Midnight. 16
owing to the heavy westerly wind setting up the Channel, 15
also the low barometer which occurred in the southern
part of the country. In the neighbourhood of London the From the table it will be seen that the gale did not barometer fell to 28:47 inches, and there have only been continue over the United Kingdom for more than twenty- seven years since 1811 in which the reading has fallen four hours, and at Falmouth and Holyhead, where the lower, the absolutely lowest corrected reading during the highest velocities were obtained, the wind only exceeded last eighty years in the vicinity of London being 28:02 50 miles an hour—a fresh gale of Beaufort's notation- inches on January 29, 1814. for four hours; whilst the maximum hourly velocity at
The influence of this storm area had not passed away any observatory was 62 miles, registered at Falmouth from our islands before an entirely fresh disturbance was at 9 o'clock in the morning. These velocities, although seen to be approaching the Irish coasts, and at Valentia a fair index of the severity of the gale, give no idea of the
a fresh fall of the barometer was in progress after 7.50 violence of the gusts or squalls.
p.m. on the uth, the barometer having only previously The photographic registrations of the barometer show risen to 29'20 inches. The mercury subsequently fell to that at Valentia the first fall for the gale set in at i a.m., 28·3ó inches at 6.20 p.m., 12th, which is more than 04 10th, when the mercury was standing at 29.5 inches, and inches lower than during the gale of the uth; and the the lowest reading was not reached for more than twenty- wind attained the velocity of 58 miles an hour, and was four hours later, the minimum being 28-78 inches at
above 50 miles an hour for ten hours, from 1 to 10 p.m. 2.10 a.m., 11th. The fall at Valentia only exceeded the At Falmouth the wind attained the hourly velocity of rate of o'05 inch per hour for two hours, and the subse- 47 miles at 6 p.m., 12th, and at Holyhead 45 miles at noon, quent rise there was not very brisk; the wind force, how. 12th ; but at Kew and Aberdeen the wind did not increase ever, at Valentia throughout the storm did not exceed a beyond a fresh breeze. moderate gale. At Falmouth, the barometer commenced The sudden manner in which this second disturbance to fall at 8 a.m., 10th, and by i a.m., 11th, the mercury collapsed, after assuming very threatening proportions, is had decreased an inch, whilst the lowest reading was of considerable interest, in so far as it affords a good 2837 inches at 5 a.m., 11th. The subsequent rise was
illustration of the extreme difficulty experienced at times very slight at first, but after 8 a.m., lith, it amounted to in the weather forecasting for our islands; the present 0°15 inch per hour. At Kew the first fall of the baro- position of science affording no explanation why the one meter is shown at 11 a.m., Ioth, just ten hours subsequent storm should traverse our islands, and the other prove to Valentia ; and the lowest reading was 28:47 inches at entirely abortive after reaching the western stations. 11'5 a.m., 11th, only nine hours later than Valencia. The
CHAS. HARDING. fall did not amount to oʻi inch per hour, but the subsequent rise was o‘15 inch per hour from 1 to 3 p.m. The
NOTES wind did not veer till after i p.m., and then only to westsouth-west from south-south-west. The hourly velocity of The Duke of Devonshire, of whose death every one was the wind at Kew evidently affords but little illustration of sorry to hear, maintained throughout life the interest in science the violence of the gale, since the maximum velocity was which had been fostered by his studies as an undergraduate at
Cambridge, where he distinguished himself equally in mathe-graphy for foreign words, which in many details agree with the matics and in classics. He acted as Chairman of the Royal English system. Commission on Scientific Instruction and the Advancement of
An Italian correspondent of the Lancet writes that on DeScience, whose reports might have marked an era in our
cember 10 the academic world of Rome entertained at a banquet pational progress if there had been a scientific depart- the Senator Stanislao Cannizzaro, in celebration of the bestowal ment of the Government to give effect to them. At
on him of the Copley Medal by the Royal Society of London. Cambridge he did what he could to encourage scientific study The Accademia dei Lincei (the "Royal Society" of Rome), the by his splendid gift of the Cavendish Laboratory. The Duke Accademia di Medicina, and the Senatus Academicus of the was the first President of the Iron and Steel Institute ; and the
“Sapienza” were fully represented on the occasion. The Chair. Owens College, Manchester, owed much to the real and
man was the eminent mathematician and engineer, the Senator liberality with which, on every suitable occasion, he sought to
Brioschi, who, in a few felicitously chosen sentences, conveyed promote its interests.
the sense of pride shared by all Italians at the bestowal on their MR. E. RAY LANKESTER, Deputy. Professor of Human and compatriot of the “blue ribbon ” of science. Signor Villari, Comparative Anatomy, has been elected to the Linacre Pro
Minister of Public Instruction, also spoke. The Senator Todaro, fessorship of Human and Comparative Anatomy, Oxford, the Professor of Anatomy in the University, gave the toast of vacated by the death of Prof. Moseley.
“The Royal Society of London,” which was as cordially rePROF. MARSHALL WARD has been engaged lately in studying ceived as it was eloquently proposed. Prof. Cannizzaro therethe strange compound organism called by villagers the “ginger after delivered an effective speech, in which he showed that it beer plant." We print elsewhere an abstract of an interesting was in the effort to make his prelections clear to successive paper in which he submitted his results to the Royal Society last generations of students that he had trained himself to reach week.
those laws, the co-ordination of which had won for him the At the annual meeting of the Academy of Medicine of Paris, recognition of the greatest court of scientific arbitration in the on the 15th instant, the Alvarenga Prize, which is given annually world. for the best treatise on some medical subject, was awarded to ACCORDING to a despatch from Philadelphia, published in the Dr. Bateman, of Norwich, for his work on aphasia, and to New York Sun, it has been decided that an Expedition shall Dr. Legneu, of Paris, for his ítreatise on renal calculi, these be sent to Greenland for the relief of Lieutenant Peary and gentlemen being bracketed together ex æquo. This prize confers his party. Dr. Keeley, who accompanied Lieutenant Peary on the title of Laureate of the Academy.
his exploring expedition, but afterwards returned, has said that, THE “Committee of Council on Education” have sanctioned the unless such an Expedition, fully equipped for an Arctic season, appointment of Mr. George Brebner as first Marshall Scholar in were sent to his assistance, Lieutenant Peary and his companions Biology at the Royal College of Science, London. Mr. Brebner
would never reach the bounds of civilization. has passed through both the botanical and zoological advanced MR. RICHARD BOXALL GRANTHAM, who died lately in his classes of the Biological Division in the Royal College, eighty-sixth year, was one of the engineers who helped Brunel and in 1889 obtained the Edward Forbes Medal and Prize in the construction of the Great Western Railway. He made awarded to the best student of the year in biology. Mr. Brebner the branch line from Gloucester to Cheltenham. He was an has already been engaged in botanical research, and has pub- authority on sanitary matters, and in 1869 became Chairman of lished two original papers on structural subjects, in conjunction the Committee appointed by the British Association to inquire with Dr. D. H. Scott. He has also assisted Dr. E. Schunck, into the treatment and utilization of sewage. In 1876 he sucF.R.S., of Manchester, in his investigations of the chemistry of cessfully completed the reclamation of Brading Harbour, in the chlorophyll, and is about to publish a joint paper with him. Mr. Isle of Wight. This had been attempted by Sir Hugh MiddleBrebner's researches as Marshall Scholar will be carried on in
ton 250 years previously, but his work had afterwards been the Huxley Research Laboratory, and will be concerned with destroyed by the sea. questions relating to the histology of plants.
Dutch newspapers announce the temporary nomination of THE Paris Museum of Natural History has been partly re.
Mr. E. Engelenburg, meteorologist at the Royal Meteoroorganized by a recent decree. The financial mangement is logical Institution at Utrecht, as Director of the Observachanged ; and it has been decided that the Professors shall, tions on land. This directorship had become vacant by the as a rule, retire from their Professorships at seventy-five years ) appointment of Dr. M. Snellen to the position of Chief Director of age. To this rule, however, there are to be exceptions. of the same Institution, which had been held by the late Prof. An exceptional case is that of M. de Quatrefages, who Buys Ballot. Mr. Engelenburg accompanied Dr. E. van retains his post, although Profs. Fremy and Daubrée will Röckevorsel to Brazil, acted as his assistant during the magnetic have to retire. The name of “aide-naturaliste " disappears, and
survey of that country, 1882-85, and prepared a part of the that of "assistant ” takes its place-a fact which is rather carious, since "assistant," in French, has not the same meaning of Sciences at Amsterdam.
report on this survey published in 1890 by the Royal Academy
In 1887 he was attached by Prof. as in English, or as the corresponding word has in German.
Buys Ballot to the Meteorological Institution, and has since The assistants are einpowered, under some limitations, to
been responsible for the yearly report on the thunderstorms deliver courses of lectures, and their financial position is to be
observed in the Netherlands, formerly prepared by Dr. Snellen. improved.
He has also investigated the quantities of rain in different THE Royal Geographical Society is to be congratulated on parts of the Netherlands and in the different months of the the success of its system for the proper spelling of geographical year. His results on this subject have lately been published names. When its rules on the subject were drawn up, it was in the Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Amsternot anticipated that foreign nations would make any change in dam; the accompanying rain-maps give a clear idea of the the form of orthography used in their maps. As a matter of dependence of the rainfall on the distance from the seafact, however, considerable changes are being effected. In the shore. He has repeatedly directed his attention to the tides circular letter, the principal passages of which we print else- at the coast of the Netherlands; to the variation of the where, it is noted as a most satisfactory piece of news that velocity of the tidal currents in the Dutch“ zeegaten," i.e. France and Germany have both promulgated systems of ortho- the entrances to the Dutch roads or harbours (de Ingenieur,