« AnteriorContinuar »
called attention to the nature of the vegetation which found the Arctic fossil flora underneath some peat-mosses grew round the margin of the great northern inland ice, in the immediate vicinity of Copenhagen. In 1872 I dison the soil which was left bare when it melted away. covered leaves of Betula nana in a peat-moss near Oertzen
During my first visit to Spitzbergen, in 1870, it hof, in Mecklenburg, and at Kolbermoor, in Southern were true—the remains of those Arctic plants which, in i in a fresh-water deposit at Schwerzenbach, on the low all probability, formerly existed in the area once covered ground between Zürich and Bodensee. The flora was rich by the great Scandinavian inland ice, would have been in such species as Betula nana, Salix reticulata, S. buried in the glacial fresh-water deposits, just in the polaris, S. retusa, S. myrtilloides, Arctostaphylos uvasame manner as the leaves of Salir polaris, Dryas ursi, Polygonum viviparum, Azalea procumbens, &c. octopetala, Polygonum viviparum, &c., are at the pre- From Switzerland I went to England, and first visited sent day carried into the small lakes of Spitzbergen, Bovey Tracey (17)," where I re-found Betula nana in the
SKETCH MAP SHOWING THE LOCALITIES WHERE ARCTIC PLANT-FOSSILS HAVE BEEN FOUND WITHIN THE AREA ONCE COVERED BY THE GREAT
NORTHERN ICE-SHEET. A, margin of the great northern inland ice at the climax of glaciation; B, margin of the Uralo.Timan glacier (according to Nikitin); c, margin of the
glaciers of the Alps. (1) Several localities (more than thirty) in Scania; (2) Rangilstcrp, near Vadstena ; (3) Fröjel, in the isle of Gotland ; (4) several localities in
Jemtland; (5) Leine, in Norway (6) several localities in Seeland ; (6) Möen ; (6'') Northern Jutland :(6'') Bornholm; () Kunda, in Esthonia : (6) Samhof and Kinzli, in Livonia ; (9) Pingo and Wieratz in Livonia : (10) two localities at Rjeshiza, Government of Vitebsk; (11) Kuhrische Nehrung ; (12) Schroop, in Western Prussia : (13) Krampkewitz, in Pomerania; (14) Neetzka and Oertzenhof, in Mecklenburg; (15) Nantrow, in Mecklenburg; (16) Projensdorf, north of Kiel; (17) Bovey Tracey, in Devonshire : (18) Hoxne, in Suffolk; (19) several localities at and near Crimer, Norfolk : (20) Holmpton, Yorkshire ; (21) Bridlington, Yorkshire; (22) localities near Edinburgh.
and buried at their bottoms. On my return from that original locality, and also in another little basin close expedition, I at once examined some glacial fresh-water
by, together with leaves of Arctostaphylos uvu-ursi and deposits at Alnarp, in Scania, and was glad to find in Betula alba. Then I went to the coast of Norfolk, where them the leaves of Salix polaris, S. herbacea, S. reticu. I was so fortunate as to find Salix polaris and Hypnum lata, Dryas octopetala, Betula nana, &c. ; thus proving turgescens in the pre-glacial deposits between the boulderthat a true Arctic flora had once lived in the southernmost clay and the forest-bed in the vicinity of Cromer (19). part of Sweden. The next year, after having discovered This plant-bearing bed has since then been noticed by the same fora in a great many other localities of the Mr. Clement Reid, of the Geological Survey, who has same province, I was invited by Prof. Japetus Steenstrup named it the “ Arctic fresh-water bed," and he has traced to extend my researches into Denmark; and our joint investigations were soon crowned with success, for we
• The figures within parentheses refer to those on the accompanying sketch
it in some other places on the coast of Norfolk. Besides Northern Germany which until then had yielded fossil Salir polaris, Mr. Reid has also found in it leaves of Arctic plants, while nothing whatever was known of the Betula nana and seeds of some other plants. At Hoxne, existence of Arctic plant-fossils in Russia, Prof. O. Drude, in Suffolk (18), Messrs. Reid and Ridley have discovered of Dresden, in 1889 expressed the opinion that the margin Salir polaris, S. myrsinites, and Betula nana, together of the great northern inland ice might have been surwith many other species in a glacial fresh-water deposit rounded, not by an Arctic flora, but by a forest growth; of a precisely similar character to those in Southern and further, that such a growth may even have existed on Sweden. Again, in 1879, I found leaves of Betula nana the surface moraines of the inland ice itself. in a peat-moss at Bridlington (21), and the same plant I havelately tried to show, however, that this hypothesis has been found by Mr. Reid at Holmpton (20). Accord- is erroneous; but with the conviction that facts would prove ing to a statement of Mr. Reid, Salix herbacea was found the best arguments, I resolved to visit those portions of some years ago by Mr. Bennie in an inter-glacial deposit Western Russia and Northern Germany which I had not at Hailes, about three miles from Edinburgh. Finally, previously examined, and, thanks to the liberality of the during this present year (1891), Mr. Reid has himself Swedish Society for Geography and Anthropology, who discovered a rich Arctic fora, yielding Salix polaris, gave me the balance of the Vega fund, I have been enabled S. herbacea, S. reticulata, Azalea procumbens, and Betula to carry out my project, with the results communicated nana, in lacustrine deposits immediately above the boulder- below. As my collections are, however, only partially clay near Edinburgh (22).1
worked out as yet, the present notice must be considered Returning to Sweden, a great many new localities yield as only preliminary. ing Arctic plants have also been found in Scania since The circumstances under which the Arctic plant1871, partly by myself, partly by Dr. Gunnar Andersson fossils occur are pretty uniform, and it may therefore be and others, so that the number of localities in Scania (1) convenient to state them at once, instead of giving a now exceeds thirty. In Ostrogothia, leaves of Betula description for every locality. In those parts of Western nana and Dryas octopetala, &c., were found in 1886 in a Russia and Northern Germany, which I visited, the calcareous tusa near Vadstena at Lake Vetter (2); and in ground almost everywhere consists of a true moraine the isle of Gotland (3), Mr. R. Sernander, in 1890, dis- profonde (till) which has never been covered by the sea. covered leaves of the same species in a fresh-water deposit Though marine glacial deposits are consequently absent overlain by the curious gravel-bed containing Ancylus. in this area, fresh-water deposits, which have been formed In Jemtland, Mr. A. F. Carlson, in 1885 and 1886, dis- in ancient lakes or ponds, are very abundant. These covered leaves of Dryas and Salix reticulata in calcareous deposits consist generally in their lower part of a bluish tufa in several localities (4) far removed from the regions clay or sandy clay, sometimes distinctly laminated, while where these species now exist. In Norway nothing what the colour of the clay in the upper part is generally someever was known of the ancient Arctic flora until last summer what yellowish. This fresh-water clay is often covered by (1891), when, according to Prof. A. Blytt, leaves of Dryas white shell mar), principally derived from the shells of octopetala were found in calcareous tufa at Leine (5). fresh-water Mollusca ; sometimes, however, by mud conIn Denmark the continued researches of Prof. Steen- taining the remains of microscopical Algæ, fragments and strup have added many new localities (6) to the original excrements of insects and other minute fresh-water ones mentioned above, not only in Seeland, but also animals. Then comes the peat, terminating the deposit (from a private communication made to the author) on
above-sometimes developed as a true peat-moss; at the isle of Möen (6'), in Northern Jutland (6"), and on
others, only as a peaty mould i to 2 feet thick. In Bornholm (6"). Turning to Switzerland, Prof. C. Schröter, places the peat is totally absent, i.e. the fresh water lake of Zurich, has discovered three new localities for the has been entirely filled up by the alluvial clay before the glacial fora, and in 1880 I myself found leaves of Salix formation of peat had begun. kerbacea, Dryas octopetala, and Betula nana in a fresh- The Arctic plant-fossils are found principally in the water deposit near Hedingen (Canton Zürich), and leaves clay, sometimes also in the white marl or mud, whilst of the last-mentioned species underneath a peat-moss at only Betula nana ascends into the peat. Some freshWauwyl (Canton Luzern), and in peat at Le Chaux de water Mollusca are found together with the Arctic plants Fonds.
-namely, some species of Pisidium, Limnæa ovata, It ought also to be mentioned that Prof. M. Staub, Anodonta or Unio, sometimes also Cyclas cornea. By of Buda-Pest, has lately described a fossil glacial fora studying the distribution of the Mollusca in the different from the Southern Carpathians, which, besides seeds of horizons, the order of immigration of the different species Pinus Pumilio and Pinus Cembra, also contains leaves of
can be ascertained, and we know now very well the manner Dryas octopetala, Betula nana, and Salix myrtilloides, in which this has taken place in Southern Sweden. Besides together with fruits of Tofieldia borealis, thus proving the Mollusca, the Arctic plants are often accompanied by reexistence of a somewhat colder climate than the present mains of beetles and by Ostracoda, such as Cytheridea
torosa and others; and in one locality in Scania I have In 1880, I discovered a locality at Neetzka, in Mecklen- also found abundant remains of Apus glacialis. Finally, burg, not far distant from Oertzenhof where I had found it is in this horizon that the remains of the reindeer are Betula nana in 1872. The new locality (14) yielded principally found in Southern Sweden, Denmark, and Dryas octopetala, Salix reticulata, Betula
Northern Germany. папа,
, odorata, and B. verrucosa, together with leaves of
When travelling in Esthonia and Livonia I had the Myriophyllum, some other Salices and mosses, such as
advantage of being accompanied by the well-known Hypnum scorpioides and H. fluitans. According to the geologist, Akademiker Fr. Schmidt, of St. Petersburg, manner in which the samples of clay were gathered, it and the success of our investigations was largely due to is very possible that the species mentioned belong to his advice. The Arctic plant-fossils were first discovered different horizons.
at Kunda in Esthonia (7), where the fresh-water marl Neetzka and Oertzenhof being the sole localities in and clay are used in the preparation of cement. The
upper part of this deposit has yielded a great many bone It is curious that Dryas octopetala has not yet been reported from the implements of Neolithic age, which were described glacial plant-fossils of Great Britain, although it abounds in the glacial fresh water deposits of Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Russia; and
some years ago by the late Prof. Grewingk, of Dorpat, although the plant still lives in the mountains of Scotland, Yorkshire, and and antlers of reindeer are likewise present. The Arctic Wales. May not, however, the leaf from Crofthead
which Mr. Mahony plants were obtained at a depth of 174 feet below the has identified with Scutellaria galericulata (Geol. Mag., vol. vi. P. 392) in reality ha ve been a leaf of Dryas? The leaves of Scutellaria can hardly be 1 Petermann's Mitteilungen, 1889, pp. 282–290. preserved in the fossil state.
2 Engler's Botan. Jahrbücher, Bd. xiii., 1891, Beiblatt Nr. 2).
surface, Salix polaris being the most common form. Of have obtained so great an extension as from Suffolk to other species found, the following have, up to the present, Kunda, in Esthonia, or why it should have flourished been recognized : Salix herbacea, Dryas octopetala, Betula during so long a time after the amelioration of the climate, nana, Polygonum viviparum, Saxifraga cespitosa or an which caused the melting of the ice, had commenced. allied species, mosses, &c.
The fresh-water deposits with Arctic plants are sometimes From Kunda we went to Hellenorm in Livonia (8), so thick that they probably indicate an interval of several where we were welcomed by the old Siberian traveller, thousand years, during which the Arctic flora prevailed. A. Th. van Middendorff, who took a great interest in my If the margin of the ice-sheet at the climax of glaciation researches. On the day of our arrival Prof. Schmidt had been surrounded by a forest growth, this ought still found a leaf of Salir reticulata in a bed of clay at Samhof. more to have existed round the margin of the retreating In another clay-bed in the vicinity, at Kinzli, I found ice. But as we have shown that this is not the case, we Dryas octopetala, Betula nana, Salix sp., mosses, &c. are entitled to conclude that the Arctic flora formerly
Then we went to Fellin (9), where I found the Arctic fourished, not only round the margin of the great plants at two different localities, Pingo and Wieratz. northern inland ice, but probably also over a part at The species obtained were Dryas octopetala, Betula nana, least of the area between this ice and the glaciers of the Salix reticulata, Potamogeton sp., &c. I then parted Alps. In connection with this, it ought not to be overfrom Prof. Schmidt, and went to Rjeshiza (10), in the looked that the Arctic tundra-fauna, which Prof. Nehring Government of Vitebsk, accompanied by Dr. J. Klinge, of discovered at Thiede, underneath the steppe-fauna, perDorpat. In Rjeshiza we were welcomed by Dr. E. fectly harmonizes with this view, as this locality is Lehmann, a skilful botanist ; and on the very day of our situated relatively near to the outermost margin of the arrival we discovered the following Arctic plant-fossils, great northern ice-sheet. The existence of Salix polaris Dryas octopetala, Betula nana, Polygonum viviparum, in Suffolk and Norfolk may also be considered as a &c., in two different localities in the vicinity of the town. strong argument for the same hypothesis. Thus the My ignorance of the Russian language made it impossible theory advanced by E. Forbes so far back as 1846—that for me to continue my researches further eastwards into the Alpine Aora of Europe, so far as it is identical with the interior of the country, and I consequently turned the flora of the Arctic and sub-Arctic zones of the Old westwards to Königsberg, in Eastern Prussia. There Prof. World, is a fragment of a flora which was diffused from A. Jentzsch reminded me of the discovery of Hypnum the north, and that the termination of the glacial epoch turgescens, in an alluvial deposit at Kuhrische Nehrung, in Europe was marked by a recession of an Arctic fauna made by Berendt many years ago. As this is a mountain and flora northwards-may now be regarded as definispecies, it is possible that it may have been found in a tively proved. glacial fresh-water deposit, and this locality has con
A. G. NATHORST. sequently been indicated on the sketch map (11).
Accompanied by Prof. A. Jentzsch, of Königsberg, and by Prof. H. Conwentz, of Danzig, I now went to CYCLONES IN THE ARABIAN SEA.1 Marienburg, in Western Prussia, and at Schroop (12), about 10 kilometres south-east of this town, a locality
HIS discussion was undertaken primarily by the yielding Arctic plant-fossils was discovered. They occur Meteorological Office with the object of throwing here under precisely the same conditions as in Scania some light on the very exceptional storm which was exor at Kunda, in Esthland ; Salix polaris and Dryas octo- perienced at Aden in the summer of 1885, but advantage petala being found in the lower strata, whilst Betula was taken of this opportunity to produce synchronous nana
somewhat higher. The next locality weather charts of the Arabian Sea for a limited period, discovered was at Krampkewitz (13), near Lauenburg, since it was felt that such charts would be of especial in Pomerania, whither I had gone with Prof. Conwentz. | interest, dealing as they do with a part of the ocean The plant-fossils found were Dryas octopetala, Betula which is subject to the regular change of monsoon winds. nana, and some others.
The charts also exhibit the occurrence of a second cyclone Owing to heavy rains, a visit to Breslau proved fruit- which had originated over the eastern portion of the less, and for the same reason the fresh-water deposits Arabian Sea before the full effect of the first disturbance near Waren and Rostock were inaccessible, but acting had passed away. The Gulf of Aden and the northern on the advice of Prof. E. Geinitz, of Rostock, I examined portion of the North Indian Ocean are rarely visited by a small peat-moss at Nantrow (15), north-east of Wismar, cyclones or typhoons, and consequently the occurrence where I found Betula nana and some Salices in mud and in these waters, in the summer of 1885, of a violent sand underneath the peat. The following day I examined cyclone, causing the loss of several vessels, among them the sections at the great North Sea-Baltic Canal at the German corvette Augusta, and the French despatchHoltenau, north of Kiel (16), under the guidance of Prof. boat Renard, attracted considerable attention. The R. v. Fisher-Benzon, of Kiel. We succeeded in finding number of ships' logs which have been collected and two fresh-water basins yielding plant-fossils. The first utilized in the preparation of the charts is 239, and the basin, of which only a small portion now remained, con- information has been obtained from all available tained fruits of Betula nana, together with some other sources, including our own Navy and mercantile marine, species, not yet determined, but probably indicating a and those of many foreign countries. For the first sub-Arctic climate. In the other basin, which was also few days of the period discussed, the normal conditions cut through by the canal, the glacial fresh-water strata were apparently prevailing over the Arabian Sea, the underneath the peat were laid bare, yielding abundant wind was north-westerly near the Indian Peninsula, leaves of Salix polaris, sometimes intermingled with but the south-west monsoon was blowing steadily near those of Dryas octopetala, mosses, &c.
the African coast and for some distance over the sea on In view of these facts, thus briefly communicated, I the western side of the district. Until about May 20, think it may be accepted as proved that the Arctic flora the weather in the neighbourhood of Ceylon seems to flourished on the plains south and east of the Baltic have been quiet, and the wind fairly steady from the round the margin of the ice-sheet, and some time after south-westward. On the 20th, Her Majesty's ships the inland ice had melted away (see the accompanying Briton and Woodlark experienced somewhat disturbed sketch map). There can also be hardly any doubt that weather at Trincomalee, the squalls attained the force this same Hora may have lived round the margin of the great northern inland ice at the climax of the glaciation.
! "Daily Weather Charts for the Period op Six Weeks ending June 25, For otherwise it is difficult to understand how it could
1885, to illustrate the Tracks of Two Cyclones in the Arabian Sea."
(London : Published by the authority of the Meteorological Council, 1891.)
of a moderate gale from the north-westward, and much Again, in the case of extremely large pressures, when thunder and lightning occurred. Unsettled weather con- the volume is nearly reduced to the smallest possible tinued from the 21st to the 24th, and from this day a dimensions, it is easy to see that a formulastorm area can be clearly traced travelling to the westward. The cyclone reached its greatest violence on
Pi(v - uby) = fa . Emu?
(2) June 2 and 3, when the barometer is reported as reading must hold good, where ube 3 12/T . b = 1'35..b, re27-86 inches in close proximity to the centre of the dis
presents the space in which the spherical molecules can be turbance. A hurricane occurred at Obokh during the inclosed when they are motionless, and I is a certain evening of the 3rd, and it was reported that all the numerical coefficient whose determination might present houses but one had been blown down, and trees had
some interest, and perhaps is not beyond the scope of been uprooted. The position of the storm area is not mathematical analysis. (For one-dimensional motion only marked throughout its passage across the Arabian 1 = 1.) Be this as it may, putting (2) in the form-Sea by the cyclonic circulation of the winds, but also by the rain area which accompanied the disturbance ; the
B[- (1+ ents). mo] = [muo, . . (3) rate of progress of the storm from May 24 to June 3 was rather less than seven miles an hour. The second cyclone which is shown by the charts ap
it is clear that in this case
x approaches the value pears to have originated not far distant from Ceylon at M I'35. the commencement of June, and on the 4th a strong
Now surely, for intermediate volumes and pressures, xb, south-westerly gale was blowing on the equator in the
cannot be considered as a constant; still, along the large longitude of 76 E. This storm can be traced for the next range of these pressures, the correction required must be ten days, during which time it passed to the northward and called relatively slight, and the more so as it is beyond westward towards the entrance of the Persian Gulf. The doubt that a considerable part of the change from 4 to weather was very disturbed over nearly the whole of the 135 takes place near those extreme pressures where, Arabian Sea from the 9th to the 13th, and the area of the according to (3), x may be very variable. Whether at storm was much larger than in the case of the Aden the critical volume this coefficient has undergone already cyclone, and gales were experienced from the coast of a practically important change from its original value, Africa to that of India, extending over a distance of about 4, seems to me a question which cannot easily be 1500 miles. The synchronous weather charts for the last answered by purely theoretical considerations. few days of the discussion, after the cyclonic disturbances In my opinion, in all cases except in that of large had passed away, show that the south-west monsoon had volumes the formula (1) is preferable to a formula extended over the whole of the Arabian Sea, whereas in the middle of May it was limited chiefly to the western
ob, Piv =
(4) side. Each daily chart contains the observations from several
even if the numerical value of o could be exactly calcuships in the Red Sea, where the wind direction and other lated; therefore the question at issue does not simply elements of the weather are very instructive. The
turn on the introduction or rejection of terms of the order southerly march of the northerly or north-westerly wind, B2/vo, and it was looking at the matter from this point of which throughout the whole period prevails over the
view that in my paper I once called a formula of the northern portion of the Sea, and the gradual backing form (1) the true one as distinguished from a formula of down of the southerly winds in the southern portion of the the form (4), and not from any formula given by Prof. Sea are well shown. The northerly wind in the northern portion of the Red Sea often attains the force of a gale, by different authors can be named true in the sense
Tait. Certainly, none of the isothermal equations given but there is no instance in the charts of the southerly of representing with absolute exactness the conduct of winds attaining gale force. The air temperature is
real gases; and of course, when more constants are ingenerally higher in the Red Sea than over the more open water in the Arabian Sea, the reading of the thermometer Van der Waals, a better approximation to the conduct of
troduced in these equations than are contained in that of commonly reaching 90°, and on June 14 the temperature these gases may be reached. at 10 o'clock in the morning was 102° over the open sea,
In conclusion, I beg to add a few words about Prof. neariy abreast of Musawwá. The charts show many other Tait's third remark. It seems to me that he has no right points of interest, among these the flow of the current
to identify the process of putting arbitrarily y = ß with under the influence of disturbed weather as well as when that of calculating the correction indicated by Prof. the sea is comparatively quiet, and doubtless the volume Lorentz.
D. I. KORTEWEG. will throw some additional light on the winds and weather
Amsterdam, January 6.
SEVERAL scientific meetings have been postponed in con. IN N reply to Prof. Tait's criticism (NATURE, December sequence of the death of the Duke of Clarence. Prof. W. E. 31, 1891, p. 199) of my paper (December 17, p. 152),
Ayrton, F.R.S., was to have delivered his inaugural address, as I wish to say that I certainly do not consider Van der President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, on January 14. Waals's b as an absolute constant. Perhaps it may be It will be delivered at a meeting of the Institution on January interesting to show how the limits of its variability can 28. The annual general meeting of the Royal Meteorological be determined.
Society, fixed for the 20th, will be held on the 27th, when the Leaving aside the question of the attractive forces,
President, Mr. Baldwin Latham, will deliver an address on which probably has been sufficiently elucidated in the course of this discussion in the columns of NATURE, and
'Evaporation and Condensation.” The annual meeting of the considering gases as aggregations of elastic spheres, then
Entomological Society is also adjourned from the 20th to the in the formula
27th. xbı) = }Emu ......(1)
The forty-fifth annual general meeting of the Institution of x can be proved to be equal to 4 for large volumes and Mechanical Engineers will be held on Thursday and Friday small pressures.
evenings, February 4 and 5, at 25 Great George Street, West
minster. The chair will be taken at half.past seven p.m. on these fibres, different fibres sometimes bearing the same name, each evening. The President, Mr. Joseph Tomlinson, will while the same product often bears different names at different retire, and will be succeeded by the President-elect, Dr. ports. This confusion is apparently due in part to the fact that William Anderson. The following papers will be read and European traders have used the terms "jute” and “hemp" in discussed, as far as time permits ;-Notes on mechanical a generic rather than a specific sense ; in part to the fact that the features of the Liverpool water-works, and on the supply duty on “jute” is only " 2 mace per picul,” whereas “hemps” of power by pressure from the public mains, and by other pay 31 mace. The subject has lately been carefully investigated means, by Mr. Joseph Parry, water engineer, Liverpool at Kew, and further inquiry is about to be made at the Chinese (Thursday). On the disposal and utilization of blast-furnace ports under the direction of Sir Robert Hart, Inspector-General slag, by Mr. William Hawdon, of Middlesborough ; com- of the Chinese Imperial maritime Customs. At Kew much municated through Mr. Charles Cochrane, past-President help has been derived from specimens sent by the Acting Consul (Friday).
at Chefoo, Mr. Alexander Hosie, a report by whom is included The German Mathematical Association (Deutsche Mathe
in the paper in the Bulletin. A memorandum on the jute and matiker-Vereinigung) propose to hold their annual meeting in hemp of China, by Dr. Augustine Henry, is also given. The the autumn of this year at Nuremberg, and at the same time an
question is one of considerable practical importance, as the conExhibition of Mathematical and Physical Models and Apparatus
fusion which prevails cannot but tend to hinder the development
of trade. is to be brought together under the auspices of the Govern. ment. This Exhibition will resemble that of the Loan Collec- ANOTHER interesting paper in the Kew Bulletin is on Ipoh tion, held at the South Kensington Museum in 1876. At poison of the Malay peninsula." It consists chiefly of a valuable Nuremberg the corresponding Germanisches Museum is avail
report by Mr. Leonard Wray, Junior, Curator of the Perak able for the same purpose. The German Mathematical Asso- Government Museum, who has sent to Kew an admirable series ciation request the concurrence and assistance of those persons of specimens. The report is printed in advance of the reand institutes interested in the subject in this country, so as to sults of the examination of the presumed poisonous fluids, make the Exhibition as complete and representative as possible. which has again been undertaken by Dr. Sidney Ringer, The American Institute of Electrical Engineers has passed F.R.S., Professor of Clinical Medicine, University College,
London, a resolution declaring its intention to co-operate with "the World's Congress Auxiliary” in the effort to secure the gather- DR. BROWN LESTER, who accompanied the Gambia Delimitaing of an International Electrical Congress at Chicago in 1893, tion Commission, made a botanical collection fairly representaand pledging itself to do everything in its power to make the tive of the flora in the neighbourhood of the River Gambia, az Congress a successful and worthy representation of the best far as the dryness of the season would permit. The specimens electrical science and practice in all parts of the world. Accord- have been determined at Kew; and a list of the determinations, ing to a prospectus issued by the World's Congress Auxiliary, with Dr. Brown Lester's brief notes, is given in the Kew Bulletin. the Congress will deal with "scientific and technical electricity, From a botanical point of view, the collection, according to the telegraphy, telephony, electric light, electric power, and other Bulletin, is not of very great interest ; but it is said to afford a forms of electrical application, with appropriate chapters and useful picture of the character and productions of the country sections for the proper consideration of each."
traversed. The friends of Prof. Baird, the late Secretary of the Smith- In an appendix to the latest number of the Kew Bulletin, a sonian Institution, will regret to hear that his widow, Mrs. list is given of the staffs of the Royal Gardens, Kew, and of Spencer F. Baird, died at her home in Washington on December botanical departments and establishments at home, in India, 23, 1891.
and in the colonies, in correspondence with Kew. On two M. DE QUATREFAGES, the well-known anthropologist, died
former occasions a list of the same kind has been issued in the on Tuesday, January 12. He was born in 1810, and studied
kew Bulletin ; and it has been found of considerable value, as it medicine at Strasburg. Asterwards he became Professor of affords a convenient means for placing on record the official Zoology at Toulouse, where he had settled as a medical practi.
titles and designations of the officers concerned, and renders tioner. In 1855 he was made Professor of Anthropology and possible the notification of the changes that take place in the Ethnology at the Jardin des Plantes, Paris. He had already several appointments. The new list includes an enumeration of been admitted to the Academy of Sciences in 1852, and he the officers that have been selected to carry out the recentlywas an honorary member of many foreign learned Societies. organized botanical survey of India, with the districts allotted Numerous friends and pupils were present at his funeral, and
to each one. There is also a fuller list of officers in charge of addresses were delivered by M. Milne-Edwards, and other men gardens in Native States. The organization of the botanical of science. The most famous of his writings are his “ Crania department of the Leeward Islands brings into one group the Ethnica” and “Études des Races Humaines.”
several botanical stations existing in those islands. MR. W. L. SCLATER, Deputy-Superintendent of the Indian
MM. LABORDE AND RONDEAU have given, in the Revue Museum, Calcutta, has been appointed Curator of the Museum Mensuelle d'Anthropologie, an account of recent experiments on and Lecturer on Biology at Eton College.
the poison of the arrows of the Sarro savages, in the Upper In a letter on “ A Difficulty in Weismannism,” published in Niger valley. Specimens were brought back by Lieutenant Jaime. NATURE on December 3, 1891 (p. 103), Prof. Hartog quoted From the physiological experiments performed, it would seem some passages from a private letter he had received from Prof. that the poison is identical with that of Strophanthus. Weismann. To this letter reference was made in a subsequent
SEÑOR F. P. MORENO, who has been investigating some ancient communication by Mr. A. H. Trow (p. 175). Prof. Hartog has sent us Prof. Weismann's letter, but we do not consider it graves in the Argentine l'rovince, Catamarca, has found various
objects which are likely to be of considerable importance in the necessary to print it, as the correspondence is now closed.
study of American archæology. He has secured 86 human skulls, An important and interesting paper on Chinese fibres appears 400 vases, 420 stone implements, 15 copper implements, and 110 in the new number of the Kew Bulletin. It seems that at Chinese objects made of bone. The skulls are of two different types, ports there is much confusion as to the origin and classification of one set resembling those found in the graves at Ancon, Peru,