« AnteriorContinuar »
another those of Indians in Chaco and in the south of the juices are matured as much by night as by day. The accumulaArgentine Republic. All are brachycephalic, and many have tion of sand and pebbles of which this soil is composed is apbeen artificially distorted. The skulls of the Peruvian type are parently the spoils of the Pyrenean rocks, brought down by the the later of the two groups. It is evident, however, that before torrents tributary to the Garonne and other great rivers, and dethe appearance of the Peruvian elementi in what is now posited in former ages on the borders of the sea. At a depth of Catamarca the population were in a much higher position than 2 or 3 feet from the surface occurs a bed of indurated conglomethe Indians of the present day. They built strong fortresses, rate, which requires to be broken up before the vine will grow. like those which are found in Arizona and New Mexico, and the traces of their dwellings indicate a comparatively advanced
The latest publication issued by the Meteorological Council
contains the harmonic analysis of hourly observations of air stage of civilization. Many of the remains remind Señor Moreno of the Mexicans, others seem to show some affinity
temperature and pressure at British Observatories. The com
putations as originally undertaken were designed to supply the between the people and the Chibcha, while others are of a
analysis of the hourly observations made at Greenwich Obquite peculiar character. He has given a provisional account
servatory which were published in 1878 ; but subsequently it was of his results in the Revista de la Plata, 1890-91.
determined to extend the investigation so as to include the MR. JAMES F. HOBART contributes to the January number of observations made at the seven Observatories maintained by the the Engineering Magazine, New York, an interesting article on Meteorological Office for a series of twelve years. The onerous the paper-making industry. He notes that while in 1881 the work of calculation has been considerably diminished by means C'nited States produced only 5,315,400 pounds of paper, it pro- of the mechanical analyzer designed by Sir William Thomson, duced in 1891 not less than 15,219,580 pounds. Even this rate and by special formulæ, tables, and a slide rule prepared by of production is exceeded by Germany. Mr. Hobart, however, General R. Strachey, Chairman of the Council. A drawing of thinks there are indications that the United States will lead the the scale, and an explanation of its application, are given in the world in the production of paper before the end of the century. preface to the work.
The new number of the Board of Trade Journal contains The Meteorological Council have just issued a useful pubsome extracts from a valuable report by the French Agent at lication entitled “Ten Years' Sunshine in the British Isles, Victoria on the salmon industry in British Columbia. Among
1881-90." The observations have been taken at forty-six the details noted by him is the fact that the best fish are almost stations, well distributed over the country-except for Scotland always taken on the outflow of the river in the place where the and Wales. At the great majority of stations the instrument fishermen endeavour to meet the fish on their arrival from the used is the Campbell-Stokes sunshine-recorder, which focusses sea. A boat is often filled with several hundred fish in a single the sun's rays, by means of a glass ball, on to a card fixed in a drift net of from 400 10 500 metres. It is calculated that on brass frame. The instrument records only bright sunshine, certain days the total of the Fraser fishery amounts to not less which burns the card when no mist is present, or no cirrus than 150,000 salmon, which are passed through all the different or other clouds obstruct the rays. The tables show that Decphases of preserving, and are ready to be forwarded for the ember is the most sunless month of the year. Jersey stands market on the same day. An ingenious apparatus used to take first on the list of stations, as it does in nearly all other months the salmon, chiefly on the Columbia River in the United States, of the year, having 23 per cent. of possible duration, while is described. A large wheel, fixed at a certain distance from the Dublin has 21 per cent., and St. Ann's Head 20 per cent., bank, is put in motion by the current. The blades of this and London has a miserable record of 2 per cent.
A great wheel are provided with a network of iron wire intended to increase is noticeable in February, when Jersey has the greatest raise from the water any large object coming in contact with amount, viz. 31 per cent., and London the least, 9 per cent. them. A sort of bar-work starting from the wheel is so placed | In April, London begins to compare more favourably with other 25 to increase the strength of the current in such a manner as to places situated in the suburbs, and May is the sunniest month of force the fish passing on this side of the river to go in this the year, while June and July are by no means as sunny as might direction. The salmon, wishing to cross the very rapid stream be expected. August is a good month, except in the north-west where the wheel is placed, is raised out of the water by the iron of Ireland and Scotland. September and October exhibit a wire on the blades. In the rotary movement the salmon is considerable decrease, and November is the only month in carried to the centre of the wheel, whence an inclined plane · which the Channel Islands are not the most sunny part of the cooducts it into vast open reservoirs placed in the stream, where · British Isles. The sea-coast generally is more sunny than in. it can be kept alive for some time. A system of pulleys provides land parts, while large manufacturing cities, such as Glasgow, for the raising of these reservoirs, the water flows out, and the compare badly with stations in their neighbourhood. In the salmon is carried in boat-loads just as it is required for preparation. late autumn, Ireland generally receives more sunshine than the The U.S. Consul at Bordeaux gives, in a recent report, some
most of England. interesting information about the wines of the Medoc district. It is useful, in relation to meteorology, to note the date of He notes that this district, between the sea on the one hand commencement of various harvest operations. A French Abbé, and the Garonne and Gironde Rivers on the others, is called M. Buvé, has recently suggested a consideration of the quantity Medoc (quasi medio aqua), because nearly surrounded by water. of sugar produced in certain plants as a means of determining It is the northern termination of the extensive tract of sand-hills the meteorological elements concerned in this process. The and marsh-land called “ Les Landes,” extending from Bayonne physiology of the sugar beet is now pretty well known; and, north, which changes to a bank of gravel on approaching the according to M. Marié Davy, one may estimate pretty closely left bank of the Garonne, and contains some of the most pre- the yield of this plant by means of calculations from the heat and cious vineyards in the world. The soil is of light pebble, and, illumination to which it has been subject. Conversely, the indeed, on the spots where some of the test wine is produced Abbé points out, we might determine the heat and light received, it appears a mere heap of quartz mixed with the most sterile through the quantity of sugar produced. Fiscal operations, quality of earth. The best wine is not produced where the bush determining the yield of sugar, would facilitate the process. is most luxuriant, but on the thinner soils, where it is actually Again, it is suggested that the yield of honey might be considered stunted, and where weeds disdain osten to grow. Here the vine in the same relation-the quantity of it in flowers depending retains the sun's heat about its roots after sunset, so that its Sreatly on sunshine, wind, rain, &c., while the state of the
atmosphere favours or hinders the work of bees. The summers the surface of some coloured water. The air is first displaced of 1889 and 1890 are cited as presenting a marked contrast with from the whole apparatus by means of pure dry nitrogen, and regard to both beet-sugar and honey, in correspondence with when this is accomplished, the combustion tube containing the weather conditions ; the earlier year was a highly prosperous magnesium, laid nearly horizontally, is heated by means of a triple one, the latter quite the opposite.
Bunsen burner. After two or three minutes have elapsed from
the attainment of a red heat, the speed of the current of nitrogen In the Report, just issued, of the U.S. Commission of Fish
may be slackened by means of a screw clip placed somewhere in and Fisheries, on the fisheries of the great American lakes in 1885, it is noted that in Lake Michigan there is no fishing tube, attaining a height of ten feet, if the tube is so long, in a
its path, when the coloured water will rapidly rise in the vertical through the ice in the southern end of the lake, but that in the couple of minutes, thus exhibiting in a graphic manner the rapid northern end, especially in Green Bay and along the north absorption of the nitrogen by the magnesium. On allowing the shore, this fishery is extensive. For twenty years it has given experiment to proceed for upwards of an hour, almost the whole employment to a very large number of men living in the neigh.
of the magnesium is converted to nitride, the small remainder bourhood of Green Bay, and many fishermen from other locali. ties have found work there during the winter months. During reacting with the glass, and producing a black mirror of silicon.
Magnesium nitride obtained by this method is a light, volumin. the winter season the bay used to present greater activity than
ous, friable, and yellowish-gray-coloured substance when cold, the surrounding land, hundreds of shanties and temporary huts
but reddish brown while hot. When exposed to the air, it being built for shelter. Dealers drove about from place to
smells strongly of ammonia, owing to its decomposition by the place on the ice to purchase the catch, and merchants sent
When a little water is poured upon it, great waggons with provisions for the fishermen. At the height of rise of temperature occurs, together with hissing, increase in the season it was not uncommon for the fishermen to bring their volume, and evolution of steam, just as when quicklime is slaked. families out to the fishing quarters, where they would remain for some weeks, all hands helping to keep the nets in repair. nesium hydrate remains. The decomposition by means of water
Ammonia is also evolved in large quantities, and white magFor several years this fishery, owing to the diminished quantity is most effective when performed at the bottom of a large flask, of white-fish, has been less extensive, and the fishermen engaged
which rapidly hecomes filled with ammonia gas; the moment a in it at present generally live at home, owning a horse and
little hydrochloric acid is introduced upon a feather or other sleigh, which enable them to visit their ne daily.
convenient carrier, the flask becomes fiiled with dense fumes of At a recent meeting of the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, ammonium chloride. Dr. Merz further shows that the nitride Baron von Mueller advocated strongly the protection of insecti. may likewise be obtained by heating magnesium in a current of vorous and native birds in the colony. He thought that this dry ammonia to a temperature considerably lower than that object might be attained, not only by putting a comparatively which is required in the case of free nitrogen, and very much heavy tax upon guns and by more strictly enforcing the present lower than that employed by Briegleb and Geuther in some laws, but by the initiation of some scheme which would enlist similar experiments made by them. As soon as this temperature the sympathy and co-operation of all persons interested in the is attained, a brilliant incandescence occurs, and the flame may subject. He suggested that a distinctive badge might be worn
be removed ; hydrogen is evolved in a rapid stream, and 95 per by members if such a union were ever formed.
cent. of the magnesium is converted in three or four minutes to
nitride. The Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres, et des Beaux Arts de Belgique has issued its Annuaire for 1892. It The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the contains, besides much information as to the organization and past week include a Green Monkey (Cercopithecus callitrichus 8), activity of the Academy, biographical sketches of deceased a Sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus fuliginosus ) from West Africa, members, with remarkably good portraits.
presented by Canon Taylor Smith ; a Moustache Monkey
(Cercopithecus cephus 8) from West Africa, presented by Mr. An interesting memoir is contributed by Dr. Merz, of Zurich,
Alfred Lloyd ; a Silver-backed Fox (Canis chama) from to the current number of the Berichte, concerning the compound
Damaraland, South Africa, presented by Mr. E. Aubrey Hart ; of nitrogen and magnesium, generally known as magnesium
two Virginian Opossums (Didelphys virginiana) from North nitride, MgN, Magnesium, like boron, appears to possess America, presented by Mr. John Brinsmead, F.Z.S. ; a Coma somewhat powerful affinity for nitrogen. Some years ago
mon Jay (Garrulus glandarius), British, presented by Mr. Deville and Caron, during their distillations of magnesium for
Charles Faulkner; a Great Titmouse (Parus major), a Coal the purpose of obtaining the pure metal, observed the pre
Titmouse (Parus ater), a Blue Titmouse (Parus cæruleus), sence of small transpar ent crystals, containing only magnesium British, presented by Captain Salvin ; a Bonham's Partridge and nitrogen, upon the surface of the distilled metal. More (Ammoperdix bonhami) from Western Asia, deposited ; a recently, Briegleb and Geuther have shown that nitride of mag. Bronze-winged Pigeon (Phaps chalcoptera ®) from Australia, nesium in an amorphous form may be prepared by heating
purchased. magnesium filings in a porcelain boat placed within a porcelain tube traversed by a stream of nitrogen. Dr. Merz now describes two extremely simple methods of obtaining the nitride, suitable
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. for lecture demonstration, and also some further properties of this interesting substance. A quantity of finely-powdered and
MOTION OF STARS IN THE LINE OF SIGHT.-Prof. H. C. carefully dried magnesium, about two grams in weight, is placed describes the method used at Potsdam for determining the
Vogel, in Monthly Notices R.A.S. for December 1891, fully in a wide piece of combustion tubing about twenty centimetres velocity of stars in the line of sight, and states the chief results long, closed at one end. Attached to the open end of this tube that have been obtained since the work was begun in 1887. In by means of a wide caoutchouc connection is a narrower tube order to insure great stability with the smallest possible weight, closed by a caoutchouc stopper, through which passes the nitrogen the frame of the spectroscope is made of cast steel. The camera delivery tube. A short side-tube blown upon the narrower tube
is also constructed of steel, and the dark slides are of brass. It
may be worth remarking, however, in this connection, that sta. carrying the stopper serves for the exit of the gas, and is con. bility would have been secured if aluminium had been used nected by narrow caoutchouc tubing with a long vertical tube instead of steel and brass, and this with a little more than onebent round parallel to itself, the open end of which dips beneath third the weight. A spectroscope similar to Prof. Vogel's, but with an aluminium frame, has been made for the Observatory geographical distribution was already known, and is now ex. at Kensington, and gives every satisfaction. The comparison tended to the Eastern Pacific. This was naturally to be ex. spectrum used at Potsdam has been furnished by a Geissler tube pected from the fact that the district we are exploring is placed directly in the cone of rays of the refractor, at a distance practically a new field, nothing having been done except what of 40 cm. from the slit, the tube being at right angles to the tbe Albatross herself has accomplished along the west coast of optical axis of the refractor and the slit. The slit is set parallel | North and South America. The Chailenger, as you will reto the line of the diurnal motion, and widih is given to the member, came from Japan to the Sandwich Islands, and from spectrum by making the driving-clock move slightly slower or there south across to Juan Fernandez, leaving, as it were, a faster than its proper rate. A uniform exposure of one hour has huge field, of which we are attacking the middle wedge. As been employed, the proper intensity being obtained by changing far as we have gone, it seeins very evident that, even in deep the rate of the driving-clock, so that the error increases with in. water, there is on this west coast of Central America a con. crease of brightness. The photographs are measured with the aid siderable fauna which finds its parallel in the West Indies, and of a microscope having a sliding apparatus on its table, movable recalls the pre-Cretaceous times when the Caribbean Sea was by a fine micrometer screw. One revolution of the screw practically a bay of the Pacific. There are, indeed, a number corresponds to a difference of wave-length of o‘324 upe, which, of genera in the deep water, and to some extent also in the expressed in miles per second, is 139:13. After describing the shallower depths, which show far greater affinity with the methods of measuring the displacement of lines in stars of Pacific than with the Atlantic fauna. Of course, further exdifferent types of spectra, Prof. Vogel brings together the ploration may show that some of these genera are simply genera results which have formed the subject of several previous com- of a wider geographical distribution; but I think a sufficiently munications. It is said that the probable error in the deter- large portion of the deep-sea fauna will still attest the former midation of the radial velocity of a star of Class II. is £ 1'34 connection of the Pacific and the Atlantic. miles per second, and for stars of Class I., $ 231 miles. I am thus far somewhat disappointed in the richness of the Measurements have been made independently by Prof. Vogel deep sea fauna in the Panamic district. It certainly does not and Dr. Scheiner, and each star has been observed on the compare with that of the West Indian or Eastern United States average 33 times, wherefore it is concluded "that the probable side. I have little doubt that this comparative poverty is due to error of the definitive values for both spectral classes will the absence of a great oceanic current like the Gulf Stream, amount to less than one mile." A list of the observed veloci. | bringing with it on its surface a large amount of food which ties of forty-seven stars will soon be published. The mean serves to supply the deep-sea fauna along its course. In the motion in the line of sight is 10'6 English miles per second ; regions we have explored up to this time, currents from the six stars have a velocity less than 2 miles per second, and five north and from the south meet, and then are diverted to a greater than 20 miles. a Tauri heads the list with a velocity of westerly direction, forming a sort of current doldrums, turning ahout + 36 miles per second. Fifteen of the stars have a west or east or south or north according to the direction of the positive, and thirty-two a negative motion.
prevailing wind. The amount of food which these currents ORTHOCHROMATIC PLATES FOR ASTRONOMICAL Photo carry is small compared with that drifting along the course of GRAPHY.-MM. Fabre and Andoyer photographed the eclipsed of the surface fauna. Except on one occasion, when, during a
the Gulf Stream. . I was also greatly surprised at the poverty moon at Toulouse Observatory on November 13, 1891; and some of the pictures obtained were exhibited by them at the meeting calm, we passed through a large field of foating surface mate. of the Paris Academy of January 11, with a note on the rial, we usually encountered very little. It is composed mainly of method of production. Collodion-bromide and collodion Salpæ, Doliolum, Sagittas, and a few Siphonophores—a striking chloride plates were employed, both kinds being treated with
contrast to the wealth of the surface fauna to be met with in a eosin and cyanin to render them orthochromatic. The former
calm day in the Gulf of Mexico, near the Tortugas, or in the kind of plate was found to be relatively more sensitive to red
main current of the Gulf Stream as it sweeps by the Florida and yellow rays than the latter, although both were stained
Reef or the Cuban coast near Havana. We also found great with the same dyes. It is proposed, therefore, to use collodion difficulty in trawling, owing to the considerable irregularities of bromide orthochromatic plates to obtain photographs of Mars,
the bottom. When trawling from north to south, we seemed Jupiter and the red spot, and coloured stars.
to cut across submarine ridges, and it was only while trawling from east to west that we generally maintained a fairly uniform depth. During the first cruise we made nearly fifty hauls of the
trawl, and, in addition, several stations were occupied in trawl. DREDGING OPERATIONS IN THE EASTERN ing at intermediate depths. In my dredgings in the Gulf of PACIFIC.
Mexico, off the West Indies, and in the Caribbean, my attenTHE Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at
tion had already been called to the immense amount of vegetable Harvard College, published in June, contains three letters
matter dredged up from a depth of over 1500 fathoms, on the from Prof. Alexander Agassiz to the Hon. Marshall McDonald, lee side of the West Indian Islands. But in none of the dredg(nited States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, on the ings we made on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus did we come dredging operations off the west coast of Central America to
upon such masses of decomposed vegetable matter as we found the Galapagos, to the west coast of Mexico, and in the Gulf of on this expedition. There was hardly a haul taken which did California.
The operations, which were in charge of Prof. not supply a large quantity of water. logged wood, and more or Agassiz, were carried on by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer
less fresh twigs, leaves, seeds, and fruits, in all possible stages Albatross, Lieutenant Commander 2. L. Tanner, U.S.N., of decomposition. This was especially noteworthy in the line commanding.
from the mainland to Cocos Island, and certainly offers a very 1.
practical object.lesson regarding the manner in which that island
must have received its vegetable products. It is only ab:ut 275 Steamer “ Albatross," Panama, U.S. of Colombia, miles from the mainland, and its flora, so similar to that of the March 14, 1891.
adjacent coast, tells its own story. Malpelo, on the contrary, MY DEAR COLONEL MCDONALD,-We returned yesterday which is an inaccessible rock with vertical sides, and destitute from our first trip. The route extended from Panama to Point of any soil formed from the disintegration of the rocks, has reMala, and next to Cocos Island; from there we ran in a mained comparatively barren, in spite of its closer proximity to outherly direction, then north-westerly to Malpelo Island, and the mainland. ack to the hundred-fathom line off the Bay of Panama. We The most interesting things we have found up to this iime are pent several days trawling off the continental plateau of the representatives of the Ceratias group of Fishes, which the Bay. This trip being rather in the nature of a feeler, I cannot
naturalists of the Albatross tell me they have not met before on ell you just what I ihink it means. But I believe I can to the west coast of North America. The Crustacea have supplied ome extent conjecture probabilities from what has been us with a most remarkable type of the Willemoesia group. The ccomplished.
paucity of Mollusks, and also of Echini, is most striking, I have found, in the first place, a great many of my old West although we brought up in one of the hauls numerous fragments ndian friends. In nearly all the groups of marine forms among of what must have been a gigantic species of Cystechinus, 1e Fishes, Crustacea, Worms, Mollusks, Echinoderms, and which I hope I may reconstruct. We were also fortunate olyps, we have found familiar West Indian types or east coast enough to find a single specimen of Calamocrinus off Morro rms, and have also found quite a number of forms whose wide Puercos, in 700 fathoms, a part of the stem with the base,
showing its mode of altachment 1o be similar to that of the to a depth of 200 fathoms, and no farther.
Next came of fossil A piocrinidæ. The number of Ophiurans was remarkably single aitempt to bring up what might be found, say within 10 small as compared with the launa of deep waters on the Atlantic fathoms of the bottom, and Captain Tanner's net was towed at side, where it often seems as if Ophiurans had been the first and depth of 1000 fathoms where the soundings recorded 1100. Us only objects created. The absence of deep-sea corals is also fortunately, we deepened our water while towing only twenty quite striking. They play so important a part in the fauna of minutes to over 1400 fathoms, so that we failed in our ex the deeper waters of the West Indies, that the contrast is most object. But we brought up in the closed part of the bag im marked. Gorgoniæ and other Halcyonoids are likewise un. species of Crustacea, a Macruran and an Amphipod, beti common. We have found but few Siliceous Sponges, and all of entirely unlike anything we had obtained before. I hope in it well-known types. Star-fishes are abundant, and are as well next cruise to follow this up, and determine also the upper limit represented in the variety of genera and species as on the At of the free-swimming deep-sea fauna. In the upper part of the lantic side of the Isthmus. I may also mention the large num bag (the open part) we brought up a couple of so-called deep ber of deep-sea Holothurians (Elasipoda) which we obtained, sea Medusæ, which must have been collected at a comparatively as well as a most remarkable deep-sea Actinian, closely allied moderate depth, judging from their perfect state of preservasion to Cerianthus, but evidently belonging to a new family of that I can hardly express my satisfaction at having the opportunity group We found the usual types of deep-sea West Indian to carry on this deep-sea work on the Albatross." While of course Annelids, occasionally sweeping over large tracts of mud tubes I knew in a general way the great facilities the ship afforded, in the region of green mud. Although we dredged frequently did not fully realize the capacity of the equipment until I came in most characteristic Globigerina ooze, I was much struck with to make use of it myself. I could not but contrast the luxurious the absence of living Globigerinæ on the surface. Only on two and thoroughly convenient appointments of the Albatross will occasions during a calm did we come across any number of my previous experiences. The laboratory, with its ingeniou sursace Globigerinæ and Orbulinæ. On one occasion the trawl arrangements and its excellent accommodations for work by day came up literally filled with masses of a species of Rhabdamina and by night, was to me a revelation. The assistance of Messrs closely allied 16 R. lineata. Thus far, no pelagic Algæ have Townsend and Miller in the care of the specimens was mos been met with
welcome, giving me ample time to examine the specimens during It is interesting to note that at two localities we came across the process of assorting them, and to make such notes as I could patches of modern greensand similar in formation to the patches between successive hauls, while paying some attention also to discovered off the east coast of the United States by the earlier the work of the artist, Mr. Westergren. He has found his tim dredgings of the Coast Survey, of Pourtalès, and of the fully occupied, and we have in this trip brought together a con Blake. Having always been more or less interested in pelagic siderable number of coloured drawings, giving an exceller faunæ, and having paid considerable attention to its vertical general idea of the appearance of the inhabitants of the deel distribution during my earlier cruises in the Blake, I was natu- waters as they first come up. These drawings can be used t rally anxious to reconcile the conflicting statements and expe- great advantage with the specimens in making the final illustra riences of the naturalists of the Challenger and Gazelle on one lions to accompany the reports of the specialists who may have side, and my own observations on the other. Both Murray and charge of working up the different departments. Studer contended that, in addition to the deep-sea and pelagic We left Panama on February 22, and returned to Panam faunæ, there was what might be called an intermediate fauna, after an absence of twenty days. with characteristic species, having nothing in common with the other two ; while I maintained, on the other hand, from my
II. experiments in the Blake, that there was no such intermediate fauna, but that the pelagic fauna might descend to a consider
“ Albatross," Acapulco, April 14, 1891. able depth during the daytime to escape the effects of light, We have reached the end of our second line of explorations heat, and the disturbing influence of surface winds, and that After coaling we left Panama, and reached Galera Point, where this surface fauna on the Atlantic side-off shore in deep water we began our line across the Humboldt Current, which was to -did not descend much deeper than 150 to 200 fathoms. In give us a fair idea of the fauna of that part of the coast as far 2 order to test this point, Dr. Chun, under the auspices of the the southern face of the Galapagos. With the exception o Naples Station, made an expedition to the Ponza Islands. Dr. three good casts, the trawling on that part of the sea botton Chun applied to a tow.net an apparatus for closing it, similar to proved comparatively poor, nor did the sea face of the southers the propeller in use on our thermometer and water-cups. He slope of the Galapagos give us anything like the rich fauna I had lowed io a depth of 1400 metres, if I am not mistaken, but expected. Theoretically, it seemed certain that a sea face like never at any great distance from the mainland or from the that of the Galapagos, bathed as it is by a great current coming islands of the Gulf of Naples, and came to the conclusion that from the south and impinging upon its slope, and carrying up the pelagic sauna existed all the way to the bottom. At the its surface a mass of animal food, could not fail to constitutes time, I considered his experiments inconclusive, and was, of most favourable set of conditions for the subsistence and develop course, anxious to repeat them in a strictly oceanic district, in ment of a rich deep-sea fauna. great depths, and at a considerable distance from shore. I had
In the deeper parts of the channel between Galera Point an an apparatus constructed by Ballauf, of Washington, similar to the southern face of Chatham Island, we found a great numbe that used by Dr. Chun. Unfortunately, in testing it we found of Elasipoda, among them several genera like Peniagone, Bathe the pressure of the tow-net against the propeller shaft so great dytes, and Euphrosyne, represented by numerous species. Th as to make the machine useless, or, at any rate, most unreliable. Star-fishes of this, our second cruise, did not differ materially from Thanks to the ingenuity of Captain Tanner, we overcame these those collected during our first trip, but we added some fin obstacles. He devised a net which could be closed at any depth species of Freyella, Hymenaster, Astrogonium, Asterina, an by a messenger, and which worked to perfection at 200, 400, Archasteridæ to our collections. Among the Sea-urchins o 300, and 1000 fathoms, and had the great advantage of bringing two occasions we brought up fine hauls of a species up anything it might find on its way up above the level at which Cystechinus with a hard test, many specimens of which wer it was towed. The lower part of the bag alone was closed by in admirable state of preservation. Among the Opliuran a double set of slings pulled by two weight liberated from a nothing of importance was added, unless I may except a lot bell crank by a messenger. We found that, in towing the net Ophiocreas attached to a Primnoa, and a pretty species al 200 fathoms for twenty minutes, we got everything in any Sigsbea attached to a specics of Allopora, from the south sid way characteristic of the surface fauna which we had fished up of Chatham Island. with the tow-net at the surface. In addition to this, we brought The Gorgonians were remarkably few in number, which up five species of so-called deep-sea Fishes, Scopelus, Gonostoma, undoubtedly due to the unfavourable nature of the bottom B ryx, and two others, which had thus far been brought up in worked upon. Nearly everywhere except on the face of t the trawl, and considered characteristic of deep water.
Galapagos slope we trawled upon a bottom either muddy peculiar Amphipod, and the young of the new species of Wille composed of Globigerina ooze, more or less contaminated wi mnesia mentioned above. We then tried the same net at 300 terrestrial deposits, and frequently covered with a great amou and 400 fathoms, and in neither case did we bring up anything of decayed vegetable matter. We scarcely made a single ha in the closed part of the bag, while the upper open part brought of the trawl which did not bring up a considerable amount up just what we had found previously at a depth of 200 fathoms, decayed vegetable matter, and frequently logs, branches, twis plainly showing that in this district ibe surface fauna goes down seeds, leaves, fruits, much as during our first cruise.
bur Crustaceans, from the nature of the bottom, naturally The surface at this point was also examined with the towsisted of the same groups of deep-sea types which we net, and the pelagic animals found to be the same as those brought ained before. I may, however, mention a haul containing up in the open part of the tow-net on its way from the bottom. oodly number of Nephrops, a genus we had not previously The number both of species and specimens was, however, much aided.
less than in the Tanner net. On the following day the Tanner Among the Worms the Maldaniæ and Limicolous types were tow.net was sent to be towed at a depth of 214 fathoms. In usually abundant at some localities, the empty mud tubes twenty minutes the messenger was sent down and the net hauled en filling the bottom of the trawl. Some very large speci- up. The bottom part of the net came up tightly closed. Its Hos of Trophonia were collected, and remarkably brilliantly contents were examined in the same manner as before in well loured (orange and carmine) Nemerteans and Planarians. sisted water, and the water was found to be absolutely barren, The Mollusks were very scanty, and the absence of Comatulæ while the upper part of the net, which came up open, and was other Crinoids was equally disappointing, even when trawling not more than eight or nine minutes on the way, was well filled the extension of the line started three years ago by the Alba- with sursace life. The net contained this time a number of 1955, on the eastern face of the Galapagos slope, when on her Hyalæas and Criseis, in addition to the things collected the day ay from Chatham Island 10 San Francisco. We took up this before. An examination of the surface fauna at this same point ve off Indelatigable Island, hoping to obtain from that quarter with the tow-net showed the presence only in smaller numbers ir best results, but our hauls were very disappointing. The of the same species which the open part of the same net contained, cand proved not only most difficult to dredge upon, but also except that there were a larger number of bells and fragments imparatively barren, and it was not till we got into the oceanic of Diphyes and of Cristalloides than in the Tanner net. The sin again, between the Galapagos and Acapulco, that our point at which this experiment was made was about 250 miles from itches improved. But even then they were not to be compared the Galapagos, and about the same distance from Cape San to the bauls at similar depths in the Atlantic off the West Francisco. There were myriads of Nautilograpsus swarming adics, or along the course of the Gulf Stream.
on the surface of the water; they literally filled the surface towAmong the Fishes, our most important catches were fine speci- On two other occasions, once at a distance of 350 miles in a lens of Bathyonus, of Bathybrissa, of Bathypteroides, and a few south-easterly direction from Acapulco (depth 2232 fathoms), recimens of Ipoops in excellent condition.
we tried the same experiment with the Tanner net, and inFrom the nature of the bottom we naturally expected rich variably with the same result. The net was towed at a depth auk of Siliceous Sponges, but we did not find many, and I do not of 100, of 200, and of 300 fathoms, each time for twenty nink there were many novelties among those we have collected. minutes, the messenger sent down, and the bottom part closed. On two occasions, a number of specimens of Ascidians were At the depth of 100 fathoms, the closed part of the net conrought op; among them was a fine white translucent Corinascidia. tained practically the same things as the open part of the net ;
Among the Bryozoans, the most noteworthy haul was a at 200 fathoms, the lower part of the net contained but few umber of beautiful specimens of the delicate Naresia, in ex. specimens of the surface life; and at 300 fathoms, the closed ellent condition. On the line from the Galapagos to Acapulco bottom net came up empty. je brought up a good many Foraminisera from the mud bottoms. On the following day the surface was carefully examined, and In several occasions the bottom must have been covered with the tow.net sent to 175 fathoms, where it was towed for twenty uge masses of a new type of an arenaceous Foraminifer, minutes, and the messenger sent down to close it. The lower Orming immense curling sheets attached by one edge to stones net came up well filled with the surface pelagic species, which r sunk into the mud. This Foraminifer seems to increase in on this day were unusually varied, it having been smooth and ize by forming irregular more or less conceutric crescent-shaped calm the previous night, and the morning before the towing was ings. When it comes to the surface, it is of a dark olive-green made. This haul was made in the evening, at 8 p.m. The olour.
previous hauls had been made at about 10 a.m., in a brilliant During this second cruise we continued our experiments with sunlight. Again, on April 11, about thirty miles south-east of he Tanner closing tow-net, in order to determine the lower Acapulco, in a depth of over 1800 fathoms, the Tanner net was imits of the surface pelagic fauna, and to determine also if there sent to a depth of 300 fathoms, and the messenger sent down to 520y so-called intermediate pelagic fauna at other depths, or close it. There was nothing in the lower part of the net which within a short distance from the bottom.
had been closed, while the open part contained an unusually On March 25, at a point not quite half-way between Cape rich assortment of surface species, and among them a large jan Francisco and the Galapagos, in 1832 sathoms of water, the number of Scopelus, of Schizopods, and of Rhizopods, mainly Tanger net was sent down to low at a depth which varied from Collozoun and Acanthometra. 739 to 1773 lathoms. The net was towed within these limits These experiments seem to prove conclusively that in the open or a period of something over twenty minutes. The messenger sea, even when close to the land, the surface pelagic fauna does was then sent down to close the net; time occupied seven not descend beyond a depth of 200 fathoms, and that there is minutes. The net was then drawn up to the surface. The no intermediate pelagic sauna living between that depth and the ower part of it was found to have closed perfectly, and contained bottom, and that even the free-swimming bottom species do not nothing beyond a few fragments of leaves. The lower bag was rise to any great distance, as we found no trace of anything 2.refuily washed in water which had been strained, and the within 60 fathoms from the bottom, where it had been fairly Wuler examined with all possible care, and sifted again. It con- populated. ained nothing. The upper part of the
net, however, which had The experiments of Chun regarding the distribution of the emained open on its way up, was
found to contain the identica! pelagic fauna have all been made in the Mediterranean, within nurface things which on former occasions we had found in the a comparatively short distance from the shore, and in a closed Tanner det down to a depth of 200 fathoms. They were a basin showing, as is well known, special physical conditions, its mali
, species of Sagitta, and species of Doliolum, Appendi- temperature to its greatest depths being considerably higher ularia, a hege Sagitta, a large number of Leucifer and Sergestes, than the temperature of oceanic basins at the limit of 200 f Hyperia , probably parasitic on a Salpa, which was also quite of the bathymetrical range of the true oceanic pelagic fauna.
At 200 fathoms our temperature was from 49° to 53", while, as number of fragments
of what must have been a very large Beroe, is well known, the temperature of the Mediterranean soon falls measuring from five to six inches in diameter ; Leptocephalus, at 100 fathoms even to about 56", a temperature which is conseveral specimens of Stomias, of Scopelus, of Melampbæs, and tinued to the bottom in this closed basin. Of course, if temother species, many of which, like some of the Schizopods, had perature is one of the factors affecting bathymetrical distribution, been considered as typical deep-sea forms. Among the so-called there is no reason except the absence of light which would Jeep-sea Medusa, several specimens of Atolla and Periphylla prevent the surface pelagic fauna from finding conditions of were also found in the open part of the net. I may mention temperature at the greatest depth similar to those which the 115o as of special interest a huge Ostracod, allied to Crosso- surface fauna finds within the limit of 200 fathoms in an open shorus, with a thin semi-transparent carapace, and measuring oceanic basin. omewhat more than one inch in length. The largest Ostracod Arriving as we did at the Galapagos at the beginning of a previously known is not more than one-third of an inch long. remarkably early rainy season, I could not help contrasting the he two other occasions this same Ostracod was brought up in green appearance of the slopes of the islands, covered as they be low-net from a depth of less than 200 fathoms.
were by a comparatively thick growth of bushes, shrubs, and