Imágenes de páginas

trees, to the description given of them by Darwin, who repre

landed on the shores of the Galapagos. Its flora, as is sents them in the height of the dry season as the supreme known, is eminently American, while its fauna at every pod expression of desolation and barrenness. or course, here and discloses its affinity to the Mexican, Central or South America there were extensive tracts on the sea-shore where there was and even West Indian types, from which it has probably orig nothing to be seen but blocks of volcanic ashes, with an ated; the last indicating, as well as so many of the marine typ occasional cactus standing in bold relief, or a series of mud collected during this expedition, the close connection that volcanoes, or a huge black field of volcanic rocks, an ancient existed between the Panamic region and the Caribbean and G flow from some crater to the sea ; but as a rule the larger of Mexico. islands presented wide areas of rich fertile soil, suitable for I have already referred to the physiognomy of the deepcultivation. The experiments at Charles Island, where there fauna, showing relationship on the one side to Atlantic and W. is a deserted plantation, and at Chatham Island, where Mr. Indian iypes, and on the other to the extension of the Paod Cobos has under successful cultivation a large plantation pro. types, wbich mix with the strictly deep-sea Panamic ons ducing sugar, coffee, and all the tropical fruits, as well as The western and eastern Pacific fauna, while as a whole ps extensive tracts on which his herds of cattle, sheep, and donkeys senting very marked features in common, yet also prese roam towards the higher central parts of the island, show the striking differences. The vast extent of territory over wbie fertility of these islands. They are indeed as favourably situated some of the marine types extend, through all the tropical for cultivation as the Sandwich Islands or Mauritius, and there of the Pacific, may readily be explained from the course of is no reason why, if properly managed, they should not in the great western equatorial current and ihe eastern counter currer near future yield to their owners as large returns as do those which cannot fail to act as general distributors in space for islands.

extension of a vast number of marine Vertebrates and I obtained from Mr. Cobos a piece of the so-called sandstone, vertebrates. said to occur on Indefatigable Island, and which of course I Mr. Townsend made quite a large collection of birds fros was most anxious 10 see, as the occurrence of true sandstone Chatham and Charles Islands, considering the short time would have put quite a different face on the geological history were there. of the Galapagos from the one usually received. This I found As soon as we have reached Guaymas, I shall be able to gi to be nothing but coral rock limestone, either a breccia, or you a better résumé of the character of the deep-sea fauna of the slightly oolitic, identical with the formation found back of the Panamic region, and of its relationship on the one side to beach at Wreck Bay on Chatham Island. I found there an old Pacific fauna and on the other to the West Indian region, coral rock beach, extending on the flat behind the present beach, composed entirely of fragments of corals, of mollusks,

III. and other invertebrates, cemented together into a moderately compact colitic limestone, which when discoloured, as it often

Guaymas, April 25, 1891. is, and turned gray, would readily be mistaken for sandstone. We lest Acapulco on April 15 for our third cruise into This coral rock is covered by just such a thin, ringing coating Gull of California, and steamed as far as Cape Corrientes will of limestone as characterizes the modern reef rock of other out attempting to do any trawling. The character of the bottor localitics. On nearly all the islands there are a number of as indicated on the charts, promised nothing different from wt sandy beaches made up of decomposed fragments of corals and we had dredged off Acapulco, and on the line from there to other invertebrates, and cemented together at or beyond high- Galapagos Islands. We made one haul off Cape Corriente water mark into the modern reef rock I have described. The bringing up nothing but mud and decomposed vegetable matid coral is mainly made up of fragments of Pocillopora, which is This induced us to keep up the Gulf of California till we we found covering more or less extensive patches off these coral off the Tres Marias. We there made several hauls, and sand beaches, but which, as is well known, never forms true tained some Umbellulæ, Pennatulæ, Trochoptilum, Anth coral reef in the Panamic district. The only true coral reef ptilum, and a fine Antipathes, a few Comatulæ, a large Astr belonging to this district is that of Clipperton Ísland (if we can pecten, some fine specimens of Urechinus and of Schizaster, trust the Admiralty charts), situated about 700 miles to the few Holothurians, Lophothuria, Trochostoma, and two speak south-west of Acapulco. But neither at Cocos Island, nor at of Elasipoda, besides a few fragments of Gasteropods, with the Galapagos, nor anywhere in the Panamic district, do we empty shell of Argonauta. find true coral reefs-nothing but isolated patches of reef- Among the Crustacea there came up the usual types four building coral. The absence of coral reefs in this district has living upon muddy bottom, such as Glyphocrangon, Heter of course already been noted by other naturalists, who have carpus, Notostoma, Pentacheles, Nematocarcinus, Nephrop been struck by this feature in an equatorial region. Dana has together with species of Lithodes and of Munida. The use ascribed it to the lower temperature of the water due to the types of Limicolous Annelid also were found here, Halinze action of the Humboldt current coming from the south, pouring Terebella, Maldania, and the like, a few Ophiurans, Oph into the Bay of Panama, and then flowing westward with the pholis, and Ophiocantha, a few fragments of Farrea, and a hu colder northerly current coming down the west coast of Mexico Hyalonema of the type of H. toxeres. Among the Fishes the and Central America. From the investigations made this year by few Macrurans, Bathypteroides, Lycodes, and Malth the Albatross, I am more inclined to assume that the true cause The trawl was usually well filled with mud, and with the m of the absence of coral reefs on the west coast of Central came up the usual supply of logs, branches, twigs, and decay America is due to the immense amount of silt which is brought vegetable matter. down the hill and mountain sides every rainy season, and which On going farther north into the Gulf of California, the nate simply covers the floor of the ocean to a very considerable dis of the bottom did not change materially, and we found 4 tance from the land, the land deposits being found by us even trawling most difficult from the weight of the mud brought on the line from the Galapagos to Acapulco at the most distant | in the trawl. But occasionally a haul was made which ma point from the shore to the side or extremities. The mud in i than repaid us for the time spent on the less productive on Panama Bay to the hundred-lathom line is something extra- Two of the hauls are specially worthy of mention, as being cho ordinary, and its influence on the growth of coral reefs is un- racteristic of the deep-water fauna of the Gulf of California, og doubtedly greatly increased from the large amount of decomposed made in 995 fathoms, and the other in 1588 fathoms. We ol vegetable matter which is mixed with the terrigenous deposits. tained in these hauls a number of Ophiomusium and Ophiocrez

The course of the currents along the Mexican and the Central some fine specimens of Schizaster, a new genus allied to Pala and South American coasts clearly indicates to us the sources pneustes, and also the same species of Cystechinus, with a hal from which the fauna and flora of ihe volcanic group of the test, and of Phormosoma, which we had obtained before a Galapagos has derived its origin. The distance from the coast the line from the Galapagos to Acapulco. Beside these the of Ecuador (Galera Point and Cape San Francisco) is in a direct came up a number of specimens of an interesting species line not much over 500 miles, and that from the Costa Rica Pourtalesia, most closely allied to Pourtalesia miranda, the fi coast but a little over 6co miles, and the bottom must be for its type of the group dredged in the Florida Channel by Cou whole distance strewn thickly with vegetable matter. The Pourtalès. force of the currents is very great, sometimes as much as 75 The deeper haul was specially rich in Holothurians, ama miles a day, so that seeds, fruits, masses of vegetation harbouring them a fine large white Cucumaria, some specimens of Trock small reptiles, or even large ones, as well as other terrestrial stoma, several species of Bathodytes, some of them remarkal animals, need not be afloat long before they might safely be for their white colour, their huge size, and comparatively su


nber of ventral tentacles. With these were numerous speci: and south of the equator in the Pacific, from the west coast of ns of an interesting species of Euphronides. In this haul I Central America to the East Indian Archipelago. s specially struck with the Elasipoda, and the great variety in The success of the Albatross thus far has depended entirely

consistency of the skin in individuals of one and the same upon the zeal, energy, intelligence, forethought, and devotion of cies; it varied in different individuals from extreme tenuity Captain Tanner, if I may judge of the past by the present. He a comparatively tough gelatine-like consistency. On care never spares himself, and he is always ready to make the most of ly sisting the mud, we found a number of interesting Fora the time at his disposal for the benefit of the special object he nisera, and of delicate and minute Gasteropods and Lamelli- has in charge. He looks after every haul of the trawl himself

, anchs, fragments of the shell of an Argonauta, and two species and will not allow anyone else to jeopard in any way the

a huge ribbed Dentalium. Among the Star-fishes were material of the vessel, or the time it requires to make a haul. ecially noticeable a large Brisinga, a long-armed Cribrella, That responsibility he assumes himself, and it constitutes his d several species of Astropecten. The usual types of Worms daily work. In looking over the records of the Albatross during are found in the mud at these greater depths. In addition her voyage from New York to San Francisco, I am struck with a number of Macroroids, we obtained a pink Amphionus, the amount of work which has been accomplished. It would large black Beryx-like fish, a fine Nettastoma, and a be but a just return to Captain Tanner if Congress would make uple of species of Lycodes. The usual surface species of the necessary appropriations to work up and publish all that he omias and of Scopelas also came up in the trawl. Among has brought together, not only on that cruise, but also what has & Crustaceans were a fine lot of Arcturus, of Colossendeis, of been left untouched thus far of the immense collections made byphocrangon, and of a Caridid with a deep blue patch on the by him in the Caribbean, and off the east coast of the United Ese of the carapace, making the strongest possible contrast to States, to say nothing of his explorations in the Gulf of Calie dark crimson colouring of the rest of the body. Blue is a fornia, on the coast of California, on the coast of Alaska, and in ity unusual colour in the deep-sea types, although the large the Behring Sea, from which he has accumulated endless and !gs of some of the deep-sea Macrurans are often of a light blue most interesting material, which no other ship could get together

unless she had another Tanner in command. We brought up in the trawl at various times, and subsequently We reached Guaymas on April 23, in the afternoon, and I so in the Tanner net, from depths of less than 200 fathons, the parted from the ship with great regret, but more than satisfied ime gigantic Ostracod which I mentioned in one of my previous with the results of this expedition. tters, several specimens of Atolla, and fragments of a huge Allow me, in concluding, to thank you most cordially for eriphylla, which must have been at least 15 inches in diameter

. having given me the opportunity to join the Albatross on this Iso a most interesting new type of Bougainvillia, remarkable extended cruise, and for your kindness in urging the President ir having eight clusters of marginal tentacles, but only four to allow the vessel to be detailed for this work. wymiserous tubes.

As soon as it may become practicable, I shall send you a full We continued our experiments with the Tanner tow-net. On résumé of our work, accompanied with sketches of the Tanner pril 16, about 120 miles from Acapulco, we sent the net to tow tow-net and a detailed chart of the route we followed.

a depth of 175 fathoms, and after towing for about twenty inutes, sent the messenger to close it. On examining the

Very respectfully yours, pitom part of the net, which came up tightly closed, we found to contain practically the same things as we obtained in the

ALEXANDER AGASSIZ. irface Det at the same spot. On two occasions we sent the net to be towed at depths of co fathoms and of 700 fathoms, the depths at these points eing in one case 905 fathoms and in the other 773 fathoms. At THE ORIGIN OF THE ASS, THE CAT, AND se greater depth, the water shoaled somewhat while towing, as

THE SHEEP IN CHINA. e closed part of the net came up partly filled with fine silt; bale during the second haul, the twisting of the swivel wound AT a recent meeting of the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic he straps of the weights round the rope, and the net came up Society in Shanghai, Dr. Macgowan, a well-known pen, but must have dragged very close to the bottom, as it Chinese scholar, read a paper on the probable foreign origin of obtained a fine specimen of Neitastoma, and some Penæids, the ass, the cat, and the sheep in China. He said that the hich we supposed to be deep-sea types. Otherwise the net Chinese, in their numerical co-ordination of concrete and abstract ontained only the customary surface species of Sagitta, Ptero- nature, give the “six domestic animals” as the horse, ox, goal, ods, Copepods, Schizopods, Tunicates, and Fishes. These pig, dog, and sowl ; which seems to indicate that when that mo hauls were made about the middle of the Gulf of California, formula was framed, neither cat, sheep, nor ass had been

a distance of some fisty miles in a south-westerly direction domesticated there. When familiar beasts were selected to 'om Guaymas.

denote years of the duodenary cycle, to the “ six domestic On April 23, a few hours before reaching Guaymas, we made animals” were added the rat, tiger, hare, dragon, serpent, and De more attempt with the Tanner, at a depth of 620 monkey, to complete the dozen, as if the ass, sheep, and cat athoms, sending the net to be towed at a depth of from 500 to were too little known to meet the object in view, which was 70 fathoms. We found in this case in the bottom part of the the employment of the most familiar representations of animated et, which came up tightly closed, a Scopelus, a Penæid, and nature for the duodendary nomenclature. Still more striking is Hyalea, while the upper open part of the net contained the the absence of the ass, sheep, and cat from the twenty-eight ime surface species we had obtained before.

zodiacal constellations, which are represented by the bestMy experience in the Gulf of California with the Tanner self-known animals. losing set would seem to indicate that in a comparatively closed With regard to the ass, there is ample reason to regard it Ea, at a small distance from the land, there may be a mixture as being excluded from the list of domestic animals f the surface species with the deep-sea bottom species, a condi. because it was not archaic. The hybrid mule is of comon of things which certainly does not exist at sea in an oceanic paratively modern origin in China, dating back only about a asin at a great distance from shore, where the surface pelagic score of centuries. A miscellany of the Sung era states that kuna only descends to a comparatively small depth-about 200 “the mule was not seen during the Hsai, Shang, and Chou itbomsthe limits of the depth at which light and heat pro- dynasties ; that it was a cross between the ass and horse from uce any considerable variation in the physical condition of the Mongolia. It is regularly bred in the north, and is worth in later. The marked diminution in the number of species below the market twice as much as the horse ; it is popularly reported Do fathoms agrees fairly with the results of the National | that its bones are marrowless, which is the reason of its inability xpedition.

to produce its kind.”. Again, it is recorded in a Ming cycloThe more I see of the Albatross the more I become convinced pædia : “ The mule is stronger than the horse, and is not a at her true field is that of exploration. She is a remarkably natural product of China ; in the Han era it was regarded as a ne sea boat, and has ample accommodation for a staff of work- remarkable domestic animal.” Is it likely that, if the ass existed s specialists such as would be needed on a distant expedition during the three ancient dynasties, there was no crossing with he time will soon come when the Fish Commission will hardly the horse ? ure to continue to run her, and I can conceive of no better use With regard to the cat, Dr. Macgowan proceeded to state t 50 fine a vessel than to explore a beit of 20° latitude north that there was a quotation from a standard work which discloses the fact that Yuang Chuang, the pilgrim monk, who, in

In the discussion which followed, the conclusions of the pape the seventh century A.D., returned after sixteen years' wander- were not accepted by all the speakers; and it was agrea ings in India, brought cats with him to protect his collection of that the subject was one worthy of scholarly investigation, Sanskrit Buddhist books from rats. That account, however, is somewhat invalidated by an anecdote of Consucius, who is related to have one day seen a cat chasing a rat. These

HAINAN. conflicting statements are from authoritative sources, and it is impossible to offer a satisfactory explanation. Possibly the cat of Con THE great island of Hainan, off the south-eastern coast of Chis fucian times was only a partially domesticated wild cat. There is but little known to Europeans, although since 1877 the must have been some ground for the statement of the cat having has been a treaty port there. Mr. Parker, the Consulat Kiungchon been brought from India, as it is hardly likely that in all the the port in question, lately made a short-journey in the interior long period of Chinese history it should be named but twice as the island, of which he gives some account in a recent report. E a domestic animal. He quoies from Chinese folk-lore on the travelled about sixty miles up the Poh-Chung River, to with subject of cats. As cruelty to cats and other animals is followed a mile or two of Pah-hi, which is, at most seasons of the yes by retribution, so services rendered to them meet with supernal considered the limit of navigation for all but the smallest crat recognition. As anciently the tiger was sacrificed to because it He walked round the walls of Ting-an city, one of the disturbe destroyed wild boars, so the wild cat was worshipped because districts during the recent rebellions, on New Year's D: it was the natural foe of rats ; boars and rats being the natural | (February 9); they are just one mile in circuit, and differ litt enemies of husbandry. At the commencement of the Sui from those of other Chinese cities. Wherever he had an oppa dynasty (A.D. 581), the cat spirit inspired greater terror than the tunity of walking diametrically across lengthy curves of te fox did subsequently. The hallucinations of cat spirit mania river he found the inclosed area to be extremely well cultivated prevailed, forming a remarkable episode in Chinese history, though not so flat, its general appearance recalled many feature only to be likened to the fanatical delusion of witchcraft that of the Tonquin delta, especially in its great wealth of bambox frenzied Europe a thousand years later. It was believed that The productions of the soil are much the same, the papaw the spirit of a cat possessed the power of conjuring away areca-palm, sweet potato, turnip, ground-nut, orange-tree, &c property from one person to another, and inflicted through | but a peculiar Hainan feature is the cocoa-nut palm. Anothe incantations bodily harm. The popular belief was intensified peculiarity of this region is the ubiquitousness of the dwar and spread like an epidemic, until every disastrous affair that Pandanus, probably the same as the P. odoratissima of Fij took place was ascribed to cat spirit agency set in motion by the fibre of which is used in the manufacture of grass-cloth

. some mischievous enemy. Accusations were lodged against and is usually known to foreign trade here as hemp. Mucho suspected persons, and, the slightest evidence sufficing for con- the land was under sweet potato cultivation, and every house viction, the malicious were encouraged to trump up charges hold seemed to possess a few pigs, of the very superior ar against the innocent, until the country became a pandemonium. stereotyped Hainan variety, black as to the upper and white : No one was safe, from the Imperial family down to the humble to the lower part of the body, with a dividing line of gre clodhopper. Even a magnate of the reigning house, who running along the side from the snout to the tail. These whole enjoyed the titular distinction of Prince or King of Szechuan, some-looking pigs are fattened on the sweet potato, and do ng was executed for nelariously employing the agency of cat

rely for sustenance upon precarious scavengering, as is the cas spirits. In this manner several thousands were immolated with the repulsive and uncleanly animals of North China before the delusion was dispelled. Happily the period appears

Land contiguous to the river is irrigated by enormous wheel to have been of brief duration : incentives such as kept up the forty feet in diameter, of very ingenious construction, moved by witch mania for centuries were wanting in China. Coming the current, needing no attention, and discharging perhaps or down to our own times we find a cat-craft delusion prevailed hundred gallons of water in a minute into the trough above over a great portion of Chêkiang. “In the summer and autumn | day and night without intermission. He passed several large of 1847 frightful wraiths appeared throughout the departments | pottery establishments; but as at the New Year all busines of Hangchow, Shaohsing, Ningpo,' and Taichow. They were and cultivation are suspended for a few days, the opportunity demons and three-legged cats. On the approach of night a was not a very good one for gathering precise information fætid odour was perceptible in the air, when dwellings were The temperature during the week ranged between 50° an entered by something by which people were bewitched, causing 60° F. "Game seemed plentisul everywhere, and he men alarm everywhere. On detecting the effluvium in the air, tions that a German resident has recently made a very fire householders commenced gong-beating, and the sprites,

collection of about 400 Hainan birds, embracing 154 species frightened by the sonorous noise, quickly retreated.' This which will shortly be on their way to a Berlin Museum, Or: lasted for sveral months, when the weird phenomena ceased.” of the commonest birds in the river is a spotted white and black Well did he remember, said Dr. Macgowan, the commotion kingfisher of large size. Amongst the trees which attracted be that prevailed in Ningpo throughout those months of terror. attention was one locally called the "great-leafed banyan, Every gong that could be procured or manufactured for the which looks remarkably like the gutta-percha tree ; the native occasion was subject to vigorous thumping through the live- seem to use its gum mixed with gambier, in order to make tha long night, maintained with vociferations by relays of zealous dye “fast”; but there is some doubt whether it is not the say beaters. This deafening din was but a recrudescence of what of the real banyan tree which is used for the purpose. A very had occurred a few generations before-a panic which was only strong silk is made from the grub called the celestial silk exceeded by that which subsequently prevailed over the entire worm,” or, locally, “paddy-insect.” This grub is found on empire.

sort of maple. When full-grown it is thrown into boiling With regard to sheep, Dr. Macgowan said the ancient vinegar, on which the "head" of the gut, or “silk," appears; mode of writing the character for yang, goat, was ideo.

is sharply torn out with both hands drawn apart, and is as long graphic-four strokes on the top to represent horns, two as the space between them, say five feet; it is so strong that horizontal strokes representing legs, and a perpendicular one to

one single thread of it is sufficient to make a line with which to represent body and tail. The modern form gives an additional catch the smaller kinds of fish. parallel stroke, like the word for horse ; it is a simple not a compound character, and when sheep came to be known, instead of making a new character, the sheep was called the

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL “Hun-goat,” thus indicating its origin and affinity. Yang, goat,

INTELLIGENCE. is often translated sheep, the earliest instances being found in one of the Odes, wherein the Court habiliments of Wen Wang OXFORD.-The Chancellor of the University, acting 2 are called “lamb-skins and sheep-skins." This was about Visitor of Pembroke College, has appointed the Rev. Bartholo 1160 B.C., but it is doubtful if these robes are really the skins of mew Price, M.A., F.R.S., Senior Fellow, and Vicegerent sheep. It is not certain that such was the case, for the skins of the College, Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy, goats were used then, as now, for clothes. Hun-goats are not Master of the College in the place of the late Dr. Evans. Prof. named before the period of the Tang dynasty, say the seventh Price, whose contributions to mathematics are well known, has century A.D. The goat was one of the sacrificial animals, as at long taken a leading part in University business, and his appoint present, and was at the first selected for sacrifice when sheep ment to the Mastership of the College, of which he has been i were unknown.

Fellow since 1843, will be warmly approved.

o to be

: -Amoment of Full Term.-A meeting of the heads of rare Bush-Rat (Pithechir melanurus).-Mr. Ernst Hartert Colleges and Halls was held under the authority of the exhibited a series of eggs of the Common and other Cuckoos, "hancellor at the residence of the Regius Professor of mostly collected by himself and trustworthy friends, and made one, Sir Henry Acland. A report having been presented remarks on the question of the similarity of the eggs of the her medical officer of health as to the great prevalence of Cuckoos to those of the owners of the nest in which they are

sana in Oxford, and the difficulty of procuring nursing and deposited. -A communication was read from Dr. J. Anderson, Hal attendance for the patients, it was unanimously F.R.S., containing notes on a small collection of Mammals, ndeed to recommend the Colleges and Halls, and the delegates Reptiles, and Batrachians made during a recent visit to Algeria "he non-callegiate students, to postpone the attendance of and Tunisia. -Mr. F. E. Beddard read a paper upon the Earth. andergraduates to the end of the first week in February, worms collected by Dr. Anderson during the same expedition. a forinight later than the time originally fixed.

Amongst them were examples of a new species of the genus CAMBRIDGE. - The l’niversity Reporter of January 19 contains Vicroscolex. A second new species of the same genus, based 1 bicial notification by Prof. Liveing, F.R.S., Chairman of on examples collected by Mr. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., in

Council of Cavendish College, that the College ceased on Madeira, and proposed to be called 11. poultoni, was also de. S.aury 15 to be a recognized Public Hostel of the University. scribed. -A communication was read from Mr. R. I. Pocock on V: Bachanan, University Lecturer in Geography, announces

some Myriopoda and Arachnida collected by Dr. Anderson the present term a course of lectures on the development of during the same expedition.– Mr. M. F. Woodward read a i urfaces under climatic and other agencies.

paper on the milk dentition of Procavia (Hyrax) capensis. The The Special Board for Physics and Chemistry propose to

auihor showed that Lataste's canine has a counterpart in the - blesb iwo new special examinations for the ordinary B. A. lower or mandibular series, and he described for the first time pree, one in chemistry, including certain papers in heat, elec. two small vestigial upper incisors. He concluded that the teeth "-"y, and magnetism, and another in physics, including papers named belong collectively to the first or milk set, and that the : synamics, elementary chemistry, and more advanced electricity formulation of the incisors of this genus as į is probably due 15 sagaetism. The examinations will include practical work to the occasional persistence of the second upper milk-incisor. :wme of these subjects.

- Mr. Oldfield Thomas gave an account of the species of the W: W. N. Shaw, F.R.S., has been elected a member of Hyracoidea, of which order he bad lately examined a large I Board, and Mr. S. F. Harmer a member of the Board for series of specimens. The author recognized fourteen species of Bad Geology

this group of Mammals, all of which he proposed to refer to one genus (Procavia). Besides these, sour geographical sub-species were recognized. A new species was described as P. laia tei,


Geological Society, January 6.--Mr. W. H. Hudleston, 's the frurnal of Botany for December 1891, Mr. W. West F.R.S., Vice-President, in the chair. — The following com- T. e a collection of Freshwater Algæ from Maine, including munications were read :-On a new form of Agelacrinites (Lepi. neral dew species and varieties; and we have also Mr. W dodiscus Milleri, n. sp.) from the Lower Carboniferous Lime. atheni's Report of the Department of Botany in the British stone of Lumberland, by G. Sharman and E. T. Newton. The eum for 1890, recording important additions to the her. geology of Barbados; Part II. The oceanic deposits, by A. aan! collections, by purchase, exchange, and gift; J. Jukes-Browne and Prof. J. B. Harrison.--Archæo pneustes z the more interesting being the late Mr. J. Ralfs's type 'abruptus, a new genus and species of Echinoid from the oceanic * meas for his " British Desmidiex.”—Dr. D. H. Scott gives series in Barbados, by J. W. Gregory. This genus belongs 10 • raded account of the life and writings of the late Prof. Carl a group of Echinoidea which has given some trouble to

systematists, owing to the union of the characters of the orders sobe Branical Gazette for November 1891, Mr. E. J.

Cassiduloidea and Spatangoidea ; the other genera belonging to describes the remarkable propulsive power possessed by

the group are Asterostoma, Pseudasterostoma, and Palæopneustes. + "slung-fruit" of Cryplotenia canadensis, belonging to

The evidence of the new Echinoid tbrows light upon the mbelliferæ, by which the seeds are thrown out to a dis

affinities of these genera. The main points suggested by a study sme which is exceedingly destructive to the melon crops and inclusion of the true Asterostoma, Palæopneustes, and Archero236 at least 5 feet ; and Prof. Byron D. Halsted, a bacterial of the new species are: (1) the abandonment of the name

Pseudasterostoma as a synonym of Paliopneustes ; and (2) the 'zscurbitaceæ in America. The most important article in * umber for December is by Prof. Douglas H. Campbell, on preustes in the Adete Spatangoidea, whereby the Plesiociationships of the Archegoniatæ, under which term he

spatangidze are left as a more homogeneous family, though e the Gymnosperms, as well as the Muscinex and

berest of the chief interest assigned to it. A tabular summary slar Cryptogams. As in previous essays, Prof. Campbell of the nomenclature of the group is given. The best-known na 'be płylogeny of all the higher forms of vegetable life to

fossil species of Asterostoma and Palaopneustes occur in Cuba, Hepatice ; both Gymnosperms and Angiosperms having in deposits referred to the Cretaceous owing to the resemblance by been derived through the Ophioglossaceæ, Marattiaceæ,

of these Echinoids to the common Chalk Echinocory's scutatus. - isoe:ez.-Prof. C. V. "Riley describes the new insect:pest is probably of the same age as the Bissex Hill rock from

The new genus includes a species from the same deposit, which *4 * committing great ravages on dried plants in herbaria* Ava of Carpkorera plelearia, belonging to the Geometridæ.

which the new species was obtained ; this is at the top of the oceanic series, and belongs to the close of the great subsidence. After the reading of this paper, there was a discussion in which

the Chairman, Dr. Blanford, Prof. Sollas, Prof. Harrison, Mr. SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

J. W. Gregory, and Mr. W. Hill took part.

Zoological Society, January 5. — Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S., Royal Society, December 16, 1891.-Prof. A. C. Haddun,

Peldent, in the chair. -1 he Secretary read a report on President of the Scientific Section, in the chair. - Mr. E. W. * addrizas that had been made to the Society's Menagerie L. Holt read a paper on the eggs and larval and post-larval - the months of November and December 1891. Amongst stages of Teleosteans, obtained during the Society's survey of - tention was called to four Spotted-billed Pelicans (Pele- fishing grounds on the west coast of Ireland. Thirty-three ** milensis), received from Calcutta, and to a second species, chiefly food-fish, are dealt with. The eggs of Gulus Falten of the Formosan Fruit- Bat-a species originally esmarkii, G. Pollachius, and Rhombus me zastoma, are described arbed from an example received alive by the Society in for the first time; those of Hippor essa platessoides (the long 101-Dr. E. C, Stirling exhibited some specimens of the new rough dab), Siomber seumher the mackerel), and Caranr traPrılan Marsupial (Notoryctes typhlops), and gave a short churus (the scad), are also described. The development of the à ant of the habits of this remarkable animal, as observed in long rough dab, turbot, brill, and several other species of flat: Secimen recentiy kept in captivity by one of his corre- fish, is traced upwards, to the assumption of the adult characters, * re dents. -- An extract was read from a letier received from Dr. with more or less continuity. The paper concludes with a series . Jentink, calling attention to the recent acquisition by of tables containing an artificial classification of the pelagic eggs se his correspondents in Java or additional specimens of the of British marine Teleosteans for purposes of easy identification. -A second paper by the same author deals with the shore and hexachloride ; condensation of benzine, by M. J. Meunier. deep-sea fishes obtained during the survey, and contains de- On the formation of dextrines, by M. P. Petit.- On a new unscriptions and figures of some of the more interesting forms. saturated fatty acid of the series C 4.21-40g, by M. A. Arnaud. The vertical and horizontal distribution is also discussed, and it-Influence, in bare soils, of the proportions of clay and organic is pointed out that the west coast of Ireland is to a great extent nitrogen on the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, on the prethe meeting ground of the Scandinavian and Lusitanian or

servation of nitrogen, and on nitrification, by M. P. Pichard. Mediterranean fish faunas. An attempt is made to give a com- On the whistling language of the Canary Islands, by M. J. plete list, with references, of all deep-sea fishes which have been Lajard. --Op the pelagic Hora of Naalsoefjörd (Faroe Isles), by taken in Irish waters.--A paper was then read by Dr. E. J. M. Georges Pouchet.- On the Upper Cretaceous of the Aspe McWeeney, on a method of preparing Hyphomycetes, Saccharo. valley, its age and its relations, by M. J. Seunes. mycetes, and Schizomycetes, as museum specimens, with a demonstration of illustrative cultivations. After pointing out that our natural history collections did not, as a rule, contain speci; BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. mens illustrative of these minute organisms, the author showed that the appearances presented by the aggregate masses formed Books.-Anthropological Religion: F. Max Müller (Longmans). by their cells could in many cases be made perfectly perceptible

Adventures amidst the Equatorial Forests and Rivers of South America to the unaided eye. A collection contained in suitable vessels,

V. Stuart (Murray).- Power and Force : J. B. Keene (Unwin). - British

Flies, vol. i. Part 3: F. V. Theobald (Stock.). -Methods of Gas Analysis : comprising nearly ninety specimens, and including Actinomyces Dr. W. Hempel : translated by L. M. Dennis (Macmillan). -Egypt under grow on agar, potato, and turnip, Trichop ton, Acharion, the Pharaohs; new edition: H. Brugsch-Bey (Murray). --Life in Ancient various species of Saccharomyces, Bacillus tetani, and many

Egypt and Algeria : G. Maspéro : translated by A. Morton (Chapman and others, was then demonstrated. The specimens were prepared

Hall). - List of Soakes in the Indian Museum : W. L. Sclater (Calcutta.

Manipulation of the Microscope : E. Bausch (Collins).-Magnetic laby Král, of Prague, and the writer hoped soon to be able to add duction in Iron and other Metals: Prof. Ewing (Electrician Office).species from Irish sources.

The Realm of Nature : Dr. H. R. Mill (Murray). - Annuaire de l'Académia
Royale des Sciences, Belgique, 1892 (Bruxelles, Hayez). — The Optics of
Photography and Photographic Lenses:

J. T. Taylor (Whittaker). - Vew

Fragments : J. Tyndall (Longmans).—The Art and Craft of Cabinet

making : D. Denning (Whittaker). -Electric-Light Cables : S. A. Russell F Academy of Sciences, January 11.-M. Duchartre in the (Whittaker). --Bergens Museums Aarsberetning for 1890 (Bergen, Griees). chair.-On the resistance of coiled elastic springs to small Istituto Chimico Ricerche, 1890-91 (Regia Università degli Studi di Roma) deformations, by M. H. Resal.-On the spontaneous oxidation

(Rome).-- Catalogue of Scientific Papers (1874-83), compiled by the Royal

Society of London, vol. ix. (C. J. Člay).- Dynamics of Rotation : A. M. of humic acid and of vegetable soil, by MM. Berthelot and

Worthington (Longmans).--Christian Doctrines and Modern Thought : Dr André. If humic acid is allowed to stand in diffused light for T. G. Bonney (Longmans). a short time, a change of colour occurs, and an appreciable PAMPHLETS.-Aids to Natural Philosophy: R, S. Trivedy (Calcutta, quantity of carbon dioxide is developed. It appears from this

Auddy).- The Science of Homepathy: W. B. Picken (London). - The

Glory of the Imperfect: Prof. G. H. Palmer (Boston, Heath). that the brown-coloured constituents of vegetable soil surnish SERIALS:- Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 3rd carbon dioxide, and tend to become discoloured under the series, vol. ii., Part 4, No. 8 (Murray).-Quarterly Journal of Microinfluence of air and sunlight, by oxidizing. The action is said to

scopical Science, No. 129 (Churchill). - Journal of ihe Royal Statistical be purely chemical, and not the result of the growth of microbes.

Society, December (Stanford). -Mind, January (Williams and Norgate).

Geological Magazine, January (Kegan Paul).-Physical Society of London -Some new observations on the estimation of sulphur in veget- Proceedings, vol. xi., Part 2 (Taylor and Francis). -Ann. des k.k. Naturable soil, and on the nature of the compounds containing it, by

historischen Hofmuseums, Band 6, Nos. 3 and 4 (Wien, Hölder). - Natura the same authors.--New contribution to the chemical history of Williams and Norgate).- L'Anthropologie, Tome ii., No. 6 (Paris, Masson).

ed Arte, No. 2 (Milano). -- Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, January the truffle ; analogy between the Tersaz or Kama of Africa and

- Brain. Part 56 (Macmillan). --Mineralogical Magazine, December (SimpAsia and the truffles of Europe, with regard to the relation be- kin). - Journal of the Chemical Society, January (Gurney and Jackson). – tween the chemical composition of soils and tubercles, by M. A.

Veröffentlichungen aus dem Königlichen Museum für Völkerkunde, ii.

Band, 1-2 Heft (Spemann) -Himmel und Erde, January (Berlin, Paetel). Chatin.-On the Ecureuil of Barbary, by M. A. Pomel.-On the hypergeometric series, by M. André Markoff.-On plane réseaux with equal invariants and asymptotic lines, by M. G. Kænigs.--On series with positive terms, by M. V. Jamet.-On


PAGE the use of orthochromatic plates in astronomical photography, by MM. Fabre and Andoyer. (See Our Astronomical Column.) Parke's Personal Experiences in Equatorial Africa 265 -On the thecry of regelation, by M. H. Le Chatelier. The The Austrian Economists

268 consequence which follows from the formulæ developed is that Our Book Shelf:compressed pulverulent ice, in contact with a liquid or vapour Bonvalot : “Across Thibet”.

269 less compressed, experiences an increase of solubility, fusion, or

Wood : "Light"

269 vaporization that brings about an unstable condition of super- Letters to the Editor :saturation, which disappears by the crystallization of the ice in Opportunity for a Naturalist. - Dr. P. L. Sclater, the interspaces : this solution, followed by crystallization, con


269 tinues until the spaces bave completely disappeared and the névé Dwarfs and Dwarf Worship.-Harold Crichtonhas become transformed into a block of ice. The mode of Browne

269 hardening is thus comparable to that of cements. On a new

Sun-spots and Air-temperature. (With Diagrams.)model of a reversible thermometer for the measurement of

A. B. M. deep-sea temperatures, by M. V. Chabaud. -New condensation The Red Spot on Jupiter.-W.F. Denning

272 hygrometer, by M. Henri Gilbault. In order to determine The Implications of Science.-Edward T. Dixon absolute or relative humidity with a condensation hygrometer, Fresh Evidence concerning the Distribution of the moment at which dew is deposited must be observed, and Arctic Plants during the Glacial Epoch, (With the temperature of the surface upon which it is formed. Many Map.) By Dr. A. G. Nathorst.

273 methods have been proposed to perfect the observation of the Cyclones in the Arabian Sea

276 moment when the dew appears, but only a few have taken into On Van der Waals's Isothermal Equation. By account the equally important second condition. The author Prof. D. I. Korteweg . . has endeavoured to improve existing methods by causing con. Notes

277 densation to take place on a thin sheet of platinized glass, and Our Astronomical Column:measuring the variations of electrical resistance of the metal. Motion of Stars in the Line of Sight

280 He finds it possible to determine the dew-point within it of a de- Orthochromatic Plates for Astronomical Photography 281 gree by his method. -Loss of the two kinds of electricity brought Dredging Operations in the Eastern Pacific. By about by light of high resrangibility, by M. E. Branly.-On Prof. Alexander Agassiz

281 metallic borates, M. A. Ditte.-On manganates of potash, by The Origin of the Ass, the Cat, and the Sheep in M. G. Rousseau. It appears from the experiments that man- China. By Dr. Macgowan

285 ganate of potash, heated in the presence of a flux, gives rise Hainan.

286 to two hydrated manganates. About 600° C., the hydrate University and Educational Intelligence

286 obtained is K,0,16Mn0.9,6H,O; between 700° and 800°, Scientific Serials

287 K.,0,8MnO2,3H,0 is produced ; and the former compound re- Societies and Academies

287 appears between 800 and 1000°.--On the reduction of benzine Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received





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