Imágenes de páginas

ACCORDING to the Berlin correspondent of the Times, a The Institute of Jamaica has begun the issue of special curious rosy light overspread the sky above Berlin from 9 till publications. The first, the Rainfall Atlas of Jamaica, contains 11 o'clock on the evening of January 26, and made many people thirteen coloured maps showing the average rainfall in each month think that a great fire had broken out somewhere. Early on the and during the year, with explanatory text. The maps are following morning the Emperor telephoned to the central fire based upon observations made at 153 stations from about the brigade station to inquire what had happened, but received year 1870 to the end of the year 1889. The available stations answer that the effulgence was a natural phenomenon.

are irregularly distributed, being for the most part sugar-estates

and cattle-pens, and in consequence of this irregularity the In March 1891, a Select Committee of the House of Com- island has been divided into four rainfall divisions. The northmons was appointed to consider the subject of the registration eastern division has the largest rainfall, then comes the west of teachers. Two Bills which had been introduced into the central, next the northern, and lastly the southern. The annual House of Commons, one by Sir Richard Temple, the other by distribution of the rainfall varies from 30 to 35 inches in a Mr. Arthur Acland, were referred to the Committee ; and it exa- few places to over 100 inches in the north-eastern division. mined a large number of witnesses whose opinions were worthy of The greatest fall is in October, and the least in February. The being carefully considered. The Report of this Committee has driest stations are on the north-eastern and south-eastern shores. been issued by the National Association for the Promotion of The maps show the distribution and average amount of rainTechnical and Secondary Education, and deserves the attention of fall very clearly by different tints, and cannot fail to be of both all who are interested in educational questions. The following are scientific and practical utility. The work has been prepared by the conclusions at which the Committee arrived : that the regis- Maxwell Hall, the Government Meteorologist. tration of teachers in secondary schools is in principle desirable ;

In the new number of the London and Middlesex Note. that any Educational Council to be established for the furtherance book, Mr. G. F. Lawrence says that some months ago he of such registration should be composed of nominees of the State, obtained a stone hammer of unusual form from the Thames at representatives of the Universities, and members elected by the Hammersmith. It is in the form of a cushion, and is beautifully teaching profession ; that the qualifications for registration

polished all over. The shaft-hole is 18 inch in diameter, and is should include evidence both of attainments and of teaching

an inch nearer one end than the other. The material is a capacity; and that additional facilities are required for the beautifully veined claystone, of a light greenish colour, and the training of teachers in secondary schools. The Committee was

hammer measures 4] inches in length, 24 inches broad, and is of opinion (a) that existing teachers should not be put on the

If inch thick. Mr. Lawrence knows of only two other speci. register merely as such, but should not suffer from any legal

mens of this type which have been found in the southern disability ; (b) that both existing teachers and future teachers counties; both are in the British Museum. The Edinburgh should be admitted to the register on producing such evidence of Museum, however, contains several, some of handsome material intellectual acquirements and teaching capacity as might be and finish, while others are of a less beautiful, but most servicerequired by the Council ; (c) that the register should, as soon as

able granitic stone. The type seems to belong to the Bronze might appear reasonable in such case, be made compulsory upon

Age. Such specimens as the Hammersmith example must have existing teachers in the event of their appointment to teach in a

been, Mr. Lawrence thinks, more than mere implements. He secondary school, assisted by endowments or public money, and

suggests that they were symbols of chieftainship, and handed upon future teachers in these, and ultimately in all other

down from one to another, as sacred badges of office, as the secondary schools ; (d) that teachers certified by the Education

beautiful jade weapons were in New Zealand. Department should be placed on the register, with an indication, as in the case of other teachers, of the nature of their MR. E. P. RAMSAY, Curator of the Australian Museum, certificate.

Sydney, has reported to the trustees that during the year 1890 no

fewer than 320 specimens were bought for the ethnological collecThe Committee on the Indexing of Chemical Literature, ap- tions. The most important of them were a fine lot of greenstone pointed by the Chemical Section of the American Association axes and old clay cooking-pots from New Caledonia ; fine-made for the Advancement of Science, refers with pleasure, in its mats, baskets, hats, native hair lines and fishing hooks, from ninth annual report, to the fact that a new Dictionary of Solu- Gilbert and Kingsmill Group ; necklaces, drums, and other rare bilities is in progress by a competent hand. Prof. Arthur M. articles of native dress, from British New Guinea ; clubs, spears, Comey, of Tufts College, College Hill, Massachusetts, has cava-bowls, and food-baskets, from Viti or Fiji ; stone headed written to the Committee that the work he has undertaken will spears, from Bathurst Island, Torres Straits. Among 74 be as nearly complete as possible. He estimates that the dic. specimens acquired by exchange were a valuable collection of tionary will contain over 70,000 entries, and will make a volume Neolithic worked flints from the Chalk Hills, South Downs, of 1500 to 1700 pages. The arrangement will be strictly alpha England ; worked flints, from the Thames ; Paläolithic worked betical, and in all cases references will be given to original Hints, from the river gravels, near London ; polished basalt celts, papers. The Committee also prints a letter lin which Mr.

from Ireland ; celt socket, formed of the base of the red-deer, Howard L. Prince says that in the U.S. Patent Office, of which from Swiss lake-dwellings ; old English flint and steel, from he is librarian, an index is being made for about 150 journals, Yorkshire ; modern French peasant's pipe-lighter, flint and notably those upon the subjects of chemistry, electricity, and steel ; iron lamp, or “cruzie,” in us: since Roman times in engineering, both in English and foreign languages. The gene- Scotland ; brass lamp, being a modification of the "cruzie,” ral plan is alphabetical, but he departs from it sufficiently to from Antwerp; cornelian, from Arabia ; photogroup under such subjects as chemistry, electricity, engineering, graphs of Hindu pipes. railroads, &c., all the subdivisions of the art, so that the elec. An excellent hand-book on “ Viticulture for Victoria" has trical investigator, for instance, will not have to travel from on

been issued by the Royal Commission on Vegetable Products in end of the alphabet to the other to find the divisions of genera- that colony. The work has been compiled by Mr. François de tors, conductors, dynamos, telephones, telegraphs, &c. An. Castella, of whom the Commission says that from training and other fact mentioned by the Committee is that an extensive experience he is especially qualified for the task of preparing a bibliography of mineral waters is being prepared by Dr. Alfred manual for vine-growers. During the last few years a fresh Tuckerman.

impetus has been given to this industry in Victoria, and Mr.


Castella is of opinion that the amount of wine produced in the black and almost opaque ; those of CsBrl, dark reddish-brown colony will soon be very considerable. He recommends that by reflected and deep red by transmitted light ; CsBr,I forms the vine-growers of each district should agree among themselves crystals of a bright cherry-red colour ; while the crystals of to produce only one definite type of wine, and that it should be CsClBr], CsBrz, and CsClBr, are tinted with various shades known by the name of the district-such as Rutherglen, Great of orange. The compound CsCl,Br forms bright yellow Western, Bendigo, Mooroopna, and so forth. The label on a crystals, the lightest coloured in the whole series. Two other bottle would thus give some idea of the contents.

To name

possible salts of the series, CsCli, and CsCl, have not yet been wine from the sort of grape is useless. Two Rieslings—for obtained. The general method by which the above eight salts instance, one grown on the Yarra and the other on the Murray were prepared consisted in dissolving the haloid salt of cæsium -differ as much as hock and sherry.

employed in water, adding the requisite quantity of iodine or Mr. Clement Reid read an interesting paper the other bromine, or leading a stream of chlorine through the solution, evening before the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society and cooling or evaporating to the crystallizing point. The salts on the natural history of isolated ponds. He selected as

are remarkably stable, they may all be preserved for any length typical examples the isolated ponds dug on the South Downs to

of time in corked tubes or bottles. They form an isomorphous store water for cattle. These ponds are from 300 to 400 feet above group, all crystallizing in the rhombic system. An important

relation has been discovered between the crystallographical sea-level, supplied by rain and condensation, and quite uncon

constants of the first five members of the series, those connected with any stream, often far from a road or path ; and it appears most unlikely that seeds of the plants, or eggs of the taining iodine. The ratio of two of the axes remains almost animals, which he found in considerable numbers and variety,

constant throughout the whole of the five, while the third varies

with the molecular weight. can have been conveyed thither by human agency. Both the eggs and the seeds must, he thinks, have been transported The formation of salts of the nature above described, in chiefly on the feet of birds.

which a compound such as cæsium chloride, which is usually MESSRs. Longmans have in the press and will shortly considered as fully saturated, actually combines directly with publish a new and revised edition of Sir Philip Magnus's two more atoms of a monad halogen element, is a most im“Lessons in Elementary Mechanics." The book, which has portant and interesting fact considered in connection with the already passed through seventeen editions, bas been entirely re

general subject of residual affinity. Cæsium, as is well known, written by the author. It contains several new sections, and especial is the most electro-positive element yet discovered, and that it attention has been given to the subject of units and to the should exhibit this phenomenon of residual affinity in so startling explanations of terms. No change, however, has been made in

a manner is perhaps not surprising. Moreover, Johnson in the the general arrangements of the book. A key containing full year 1877 obtained a tri-iodide of potassium, Kíz, and also in solutions of all the exercises and examination questions, many of 1878 an analogous ammonium compound, NH,13. The question which are new, is ready for press, and will be published about the of the constitution of such salts is a most complex one, but the same time as the new edition.

balance of evidence, particularly that afforded by the crystallo.

graphical measurements, is decidedly in favour of considering A BOOK by Prof. A. Targioni Tozzetti on the insects and them as double salts, and not as salts of trivalent cæsium. The other animals which injure tobacco has recently been published. acceptance of a possible trivalency of cæsium would of course Of his 300 pages of text, 270 are deyoted to insects, 6 to verte- be in direct antagonism to the teaching of the periodic generalizabrates, 7 to snails, 10 to arachnids, and i to earthworms. tion, and Prof. Mendeleeff himself considers the two extra Dealing with the cigarette heetle (Lasioderma serricorne), which, atoms of iodine in potassium tri-jodide to be united much in of all tobacco insects, does most damage in America, Prof. the same manner as the water taken up by many salts upon Tozzetti recommends as a remedy a thorough use of chloroform, crystallization. bisulphide of carbon, and hydrocyanic acid gas in disinfecting warehouses and manufactories ; and he advises, where possible, past week include a Grey Ichneumon (Herpestes griseus 8 ) from

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the the submersion of the tobacco in 90 parts of water for forty India, presented by Mr. R. Meinertzhagen ; a Lesser Whiteeight hours. Insect Life says of this advice that it is “evidently nosed Monkey (Cercopithecus pelaurista ) from West Africa, not based on experience, and not appreciative of the ease with deposited ; two Snow Buntings (Plectrophanes nivalis), a Yellow which tobacco is spoiled for the trade."

Bunting (Emberiza citrinella), two Reed Buntings (Emberiza In the last sentence of Mr. Frederick J. Smith's letter on schæniclus), British, purchased ; seven Coypus (Myopotamus "A Simple Heat Engine” (Nature, p. 294), for "fall” read coypus), born in the Gardens. "pull." A SERIES of remarkable compounds of the halogen salts of

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. the rare metal cæsium with two more atoms of chlorine, bromine, New STAR IN THE MILKY WAY.—The following circular or iodine, are described by Messrs. Wells and Penfield in the was issued from the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, 1892, January number of the American Journal of Science. The fact February 2:was accidentally discovered that when bromine is added to a

Yesterday an anonymous post-card was received here bearing

the following communication :concentrated solution of cæsium chloride, CsCl, a dense bright. Nova in Auriga. In Milky Way, about two degrees south yellow precipitate is produced. When the contents of the test. of x Aurigæ, preceding 26 Auriga. Fifth magnitude, slightly tube are warned, this precipitate dissolves, but on cooling the brighter than x; same substance separates out in the form of large orange

Åt 6h. 8m. G.M.T. the star was easily found with an operacoloured crystals. Upon analysis these crystals are found to

glass. It was of a yellow tint, and of the sixth magnitude,

being equal 10 26 Aurigæ. Examined with a prism between possess the composition CsCIBrg. This remarkable observation

the eye and the eye-piece of the 24-inch reflecior, it was imhas led to the preparation of a series of eight such salts, each mediately seen to possess a spectrum very like that of the Nova containing one atom of cæsium and three halogen atoms. The

of 1866. The C-line was intensely bright, a yellow line about formula of these compounds are Csiz, CsBrl., CsBr,1, CsClBri,

D fairly visible ; four bright lines or bands were conspicuous in CsC1,I, CsBrg, CsClBrn , and CsCl.Br. They all crystallize was easily seen.

the green; and, lastly, a bright line in the violet (probably Hy) well, generally in large brilliant prisms. Those of Csiz are

A telegraphic notice was sent to Greenwich in the afternoon, and later on, when the true nature of the object was recognized, out as closing the second decade of its life; a year which sees to Kiel for general distribution. The star was photographed the second thousand added to our roll of members ; and a year last night at Greenwich.

which the Electrical Exhibition at the Crystal Palace distinIts place for 1892'o is 5h. 25m. 35. + 30° 21'. It does not guishes as inaugurating the second decade of electric lighting in occur in the Bonn Maps.

RALPH COPELAND. Great Britain. OBSERVATIONS OF MARS.Publikationen des Astrophysikal.

It has gradually become the custom for your incoming Preischen Observatoriums zu Potsdam, No. 28, contains the results

sident to select, as the subject of his address, some investigation of some observations of Mars, made by Dr. Lohse during the

that has been engaging his attention. Following this custom, I oppositions of 1883-84, 1886, and 1888. A series of measure

purpose to-night to discuss an experiment in which, for the last

nineteen years, I have taken some part--an experiment which, ments of the position-angle of the northern snow-cap has been

of all others, has been the one I have had most at heart-and made with the idea of accurately determining the direction of the polar axis of the planet. On February 8, 1884, the mean

that is, how best to train the young electrical engineer. value obtained differed froin Dr. Marth's ephemeris by 0°-216,

To some it may appear ihat I am treading on well-worn being identical with that deduced from the corrected elements of ground; but as the problem is one that is as yet by no means the axis employed aster 1884. In 1888 the distance of the centre of solved, and as it involves the preparation of the machine that is the northern snow-cap from the Pole was found to be 2°-39, and daily used alike by the dynamo constructor, the cable manuthe mean correction of position-angle oo-896. Reproductions of facturer, the central station engineer, and the lamp maker

viz. the human machine—the problem of fashioning this tool so thirty-six sketches of Mars made in 1884 and 1886 accompany the paper. These show the principal markings, but not the

that it may possess sharpness, an even temper, moral stength,

and a mental grain capable of taking a high polish, is one that, canals and minute details seen by that perspicacious astronomer Schiaparelli, although the instrument used was an 11-inch re

in truth, deeply concerns every member, every associate, every fractor. The sketches are combined to form a map, on which

student of this Society. the position determined with special accuracy is indicated.

It is only fifteen years ago since I wrote from Japan to my old At the conjunction of Mars and Jupiter, in October 1883, a

and valued master, Dr. Hirst, then the Principal of the Royal determination was made of the comparative intensities of the

Naval College, Greenwich, asking whether he thought that the actinic rays emitted by the two planets. A series of photo- time had come for starting in this country a course of applied graphs of these bodies was taken with exposures varying from physics somewhat on the lines of that given at the Imperial one to twelve seconds, and these were compared with a scale College of Engineering in Japan. He replied that England derived from a series taken with an artificial source of light at

was not yet ripe for such an innovation-an opinion which various distances, and another derived from Vega. The actinic appeared to be borne out by the fact that after the authorities at intensity of Jupiter's southern hemisphere was found to be

L'niversity College, London, had in 1878 actually advertised for 2'176 times greater than that of the Martian surface, which,

applications for a new chair of " Technology," they decided that when the distances of the two planets from the sun are taken

it would be premature to take the responsibility of creating such

a Prosessorship. into account, gives 24:4 : 1 as the relative albedos. The ratio of the amount of light emitied by the southern hemisphere

But matters were advancing more rapidly than was imagined of Jupiter to that emitted by the northern hemisphere was by collegiate bodies ; for in that same year this most valuable incidentally found to be as I'192 : 0'597.

report on technical education which I hold in my hand was

issued by a Committee of the Livery Companies of London, SOLAR PROMINENCE PHOTOGRAPHY.-Some interesting based on the opinions expressed by Sir w. (now Lord) Armrecent results in the photography of solar prominences are stated strong, Mr. G. C. T. Bartley, Colonel (now General) Donelly, by Prof G. E. Hale in the first number of Astronomy and Astro- Captain (now Sir Douglas) Galton, Prof. Huxley, and Mr. (now Physics. In the first place, the line a little less refrangible than Sir H. Truman) Wood. And although it is twelve years since H, which Prof. Hale suggested was probably due to hydrogen, this book was published, I can recommend it to your notice, has been proved by M. Deslandres to have its origin in this for it supplies most interesting reading even at the present element, by direct comparison with a Geissler tube. Prof. day. Young has also succeeded in photographing this line, which was Under the guidance of three joint honorary secretaries, Mr. first visually observed by him in 1880. With regard to the line John Watney, Mr. Sawyer, and Mr. (now Sir Owen) Roberts, the at 1 3888.73, which forms a double with the hydrogen line i City and Guilds of London Institute for the Advancement of a (3889-14) of the stellar series, Prof. Young has not found the Technical Education started, with a name that was very long, duplicity which very o'ten distinguishes the Kenwood Observatory but in a way that was very modest, to develop a “Trades photographs. The hydrogen line a occurs on eighteen plates, School” in accordance with this report. They borrowed some but it is only certainly :ingle on iwo of them. And it is a sig rooms, but for use in the evening only, from the Middle Class nificant fact that in one of these cases only the upper part of Schools in Cowper Street, Finsbury, and decided to erect the prominence lines was photographed, the light irom a short ultimately a chemical laboratory in that neighbourhood. distance above the sun's limb being cut off by a diaphragm. But neither the building of a physical nor even of a mechani. There seems little doubt that the line is a true one, and not a cal laboratory formed any part of the scheme for this “ Local false appearance brought about by the reversal of the hydrogen Trades School.” For at that time the teaching of the applications line on account of which it is apparently duplicated. Its origin, of physics to industry hardly existed, and certainly not its appli. however, is unknown. Prof. Hale thinks that both H and K

cation to any electrical industry other than telegraphy. To in prominences are due to calcium, the absence of the strong make a start, however, in such teaching was most desirable, and line at 1 4226'3 being said to follow from its different appear- therefore Dr. Wormell, the enlightened head master of the ance and behaviour in the arc, as compared with H and K. By Cowper Street Schools, consented to give up the use of some a remarkable coincidence an eruption on July 9, 1891, was rooms not merely during the evening, but also during the day, simultaneously photographed at Kenwood Observatory and to enable Dr. Armstrong and myself to carry out our plan of visually observed by Herr Fényi at Kalosca, Hungary. Copies ' fitting up students' laboratories with a small amount of apparatus are given of the drawing and photograph, and the general agree. kept permanently ready in position. ment in the form of the prominence is very striking.

For the devotion of these rooms to the carrying out of this RE-DISCOVERY OF Brooks's COMET (1890 II.).—A tele

new experiment we must always feel grateful to Dr. Wormell, gram from M. Perrotin to Prof. Krueger announces that

for it was necessarily accompanied by a reduction in the size of Brooks's comet was found by M. Javelle, of Nice Observatory,

his school, and consequently by a pecuniary loss to himself. on January 6 ( Astr. Nach. 3074).

The first laboratory course of the City and Guilds Institute was then advertised, and on January 9, 1880, three students presented themselves—a little boy, a gray-haired lame man,

and a middle-aged workman with emphatic but hazy notions ELECTROTECHNICS.1

about the electric fluid. I BEG to thank you for the great honour you have done me in

In order to further utilize these rooms, the Institute sanctioned electing me your President for this year-a year which the

laboratory teaching during the day, and one of the cellars of the need for a new complete index of this Society's Journal marks Cowper Street Schools was borrowed in order to fit up a gas1 Inaugural Address of Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S., President of the tained 'out of the funds of the Institute ; an A Gramme dynamo

engine, coned shafting, and a transmission dynamometer, obInstitution of Electrical Engineers, delivered on January 28, 1892.

lent by Mr. Sennett, then one of the students ; and two arc better and better ways of teaching the applications of science to light dynamos for transmission of power experiments, lent by industry. the Anglo-American Brush Corporation, whose cordial interest And there need be no fear that with this freedom the teaching in the work of the City and Guilds Institute has been marked will become stereotyped, and gradually cease to deal with the throughout. And as these dynamos were used, not for electric living science of the factory, for, being bound by no code, we lighting, but as laboratory instruments for educational purposes, are able to vary our methods, our experiments, and our appaEngland can claim to have been one of the first in the field of ratus, according to the continually changing conditions of the teaching electrotechnics.

profession. In order that the Guilds Institute should fulfil its Rapidly grew these electrotechnical classes ; soon the tem aim, it is absolutely necessary that its teaching should keep pace porary laboratories in Cowper Street were overcrowded, espe with industrial progress. Now, even if it were possible for outcially as applied mathematics and mechanics, under Prof. Perry, side examiners, with fixed scholastic notions, to aid in securing were added to the subjects taught ; the £3000 which had been this result, would not their efforts be superfluous ? for are there set aside for the building of this “Local Trades School ” grew not you, the employers of labour, to uliimately decide whether into £35,000, thanks to the combined donations of the Drapers' the human tool we fashion is, or is not, adapted to your require. Company and of the Institute, and in 1881 was laid the founda. ments ? tion-stone of the present Finsbury College.

Leaving now the consideration of the direct work of the City Daring the many years that Prof. Perry and I were linked and Guilds Institute, including their extended system of technotogether, the work of either was the work of both ; but now I logical examinations, at which last year 7322 candidates were wish to take this opportunity of acknowledging my personal examined in 53 different subjects at 245 different places in Great debt of gratitude for the fund of suggestion which he put forth | Britain and the colonies, the indirect results that have proregarding the teaching of science through its practical applica- ceeded from the initiative of this Institute are even greater. For, tions—the keynote of true technical education. The value of while twelve years ago, education in applied science in this these suggestions you will fully appreciate, for they form the country was a tender little infant, requiring much watching and basis of those characteristic and attractive lectures familiar to so support, combined with constant encouragement, to-day Techmany of you who have been his pupils.

nical Education-with a capital T and a capital E, bear in As we have seen, then, the present Finsbury College grew mind—is a stalwart athlete, the strong man on the political out of the “ Local Trades School,” and formed no part of platform, exercising the minds of county councillors, and actually the original scheme of the Institute. And it was because Lon- regarded as of more importance than the vested interests of the don was really in want of practical laboratory teaching about publican. dynamos, motors, electric lamps, and engines, and because that Until quite recently it was the technical education of the want was supplied in a form suitable to the comprehension and young engineer that had to be considered ; but now the problem to the pockets of workmen in the basement and cellars of the has become a far wider one, for the education of the British Cowper Street Schools, and last, but by no means least, because workman is being vigorously pushed forward, and I think that one of the Executive Committee of the Institute, Mr. Robins, it has become incumbent on you—the representatives of the strenuously exerted himself to further technical education in electrical profession-to express your decided opinion as to what Finsbury, that the various electrical, physical, and mechanical this education of the electrical artisan ought to be. laboratories now in Leonard Street, Finsbury, came into The technical education snowball set in motion twelve years existence.

ago by the City Companies has been rolling-nay, bounding But the establishment of a Central Technical Institution forward-so swiftly during the last year or two that probably " for training technical teachers, and providing instruction for some of you have hardly followed it in its rapid growth, both in advanced students in applied art and science," had been recom. size and speed. £30,000 has been spent on the Polytechnic in mended in all the reports sent in to the Committee of the Livery the Borough Road; the Charity Commissioners have already Companies by the six authorities to whom I have reserred. So endowed this school with an income of £2500 a year, and that in the same year that the foundation stone of the Finsbury it is hoped that before the building is opened, this income College was laid by the late Duke of Albany, that of the will have been doubled. £50,000 has been already promised for Central Technical Institution was laid by the Prince of Wales. the Battersea Polytechnic, the Charity Commissioners having also

And, if you will allow me to say so, the success of the latter undertaken to provide this technical school with an income of institution has been no less marked than that of the former, £2500 a year as soon as the subscription reaches £60,000 ; and for, in spite of the rather stiff entrance examination, the number for the establishment of a polytechnic in the City, £50,000 has of students who attend all four of the departments at the been set aside out of the funds of the Charity Commissioners, Central Institution is more than threefold what it was five years as well as a yearly grant of £5350. Finally, not to speak of ago. In fact, in the mechanical and electrical engineering de- polytechnics in North, South, East, and West London, Mr. partments there are already about as many students under Quintin Hogg has himself spent £100,000 on the Regent Street instruction as class room and laboratory accommodation will Polytechnic, while the Drapers' Company have alone given admit. Hence this year will see a considerable increase in the £55,000 to the technical department of the People's Palace at amount of apparatus and machinery, as well as in the space Stepney, and endowed it with an income of 27000 a year. devoted to dynamos and motors, in Exhibition Road.

And, most recently of all, the Goldsmiths' Company have put While, on the one hand, the rapid growth of the work of the on one side nearly a quarter of a million sterling for the land, Guilds Institute is no little due to the fact that the latter end of the buildings, and for an endowment of £5000 a year in perthis century has ushered in the electric age of the world ; the petuity, for their Technical and Recreative Institute recently electrical industry of our country, on the other hand, is no little opened at New Cross. indebted to the aid so generously given by our City Companies The following table gives an idea of the sort of sums that are to the teaching of electrotechnics. For the students who during being spent on polytechnic education in London, but it does not the last eleven years have, for an almost nominal fee, worked in profess to give the entire amounts that have been devoted to the electrical laboratories at Cowper Street, at the Finsbury capital expenditure and yearly maintenance, even for the six College, and at the Central Institution, number several thou- polytechnics named in the table :sands, and nearly every electrical works, every place giving electrotechnical instruction throughout this country, employs


Polytechnic, Borough Road. The success which these students have thus achieved, through | Already spent £30,000 Charity Commissioners their own ability and exertions, is, I think, in no small measure


£2,500 due to the Institute having so wisely left the teaching it gave un

(Endowment expected to be trammelled by any outside examining body, so that it was

doubled before opening.) possible for this teaching to be directed solely to the professional

Battersea Polytechnic. needs of the students, and to be modified from time to time as it seemed necessary.

Already subscribed £50,000 | Charity Commissioners


alone My hearty thanks are indeed due to the Japanese Govern.

£2,500 ment and the City and Guilds Institute, my masters during the

City Polytechnic. last nineteen years, for having left my colleagues and myself Charity Commissioners Charity Commissioners unsettered liberty to carry on this experiment of finding out alone to spend... £50,000 alone



Regent Street Polytechnic.

the hearts of the school-men, or on semi-popular lectures deSpent by Mr. Quintin

Charity Commissioners scribing in a bewildering sketchy fashion the whole vast field of Hogg £100,000 alone

... £3.500

electrical engineering. Spent by Charity Com

The workmen you employ are of two classes. In the one missioners

class is the man who is all day long, say, stamping out iron 11,750 disks for armature cores, and the boy who, say, feeds

the screwPeople's Palace, Mile End Road.

making machine with its proper meals of brass rod. For such Given by Drapers'

work no technical education is necessary; the workers are mere Draper's Company

alone £7,000 adjuncts to the machines, to be dispensed with as the machines Company alone £55,000 Charity Commissioners Given by Charity

become more and more perfect. Hence, unless the machinealone

3,500 minder has the ambition and the ability to rise to some less Commissioners alone 6,750

mechanical occupation, his activity, if any be left him after a Technical and Recreative Institute, New Cross.

hard day's work, had probably better be spent in effort of a

lighter and more recreative character than would alone be Given by Goldsmiths'

Goldsmiths' Company £5,000 necessary to make him a higher class of artisan. Company $70,000

For him the polytechnic variety course of instruction is an (Representing a total expenditure of nearly £250,000.) inestimable blessing, for he can do a little type-writing, learn Other contributions to Yearly endowments of

violin-playing and modelling in clay, attend an ambulance class, polytechnics in Lon.

Charity Commission

recite a poem, and devote the remainder of his leisure to the don by Charity

ers to other technical

piano, botany, sanitary science, reading books and learning how Commissioners £6,000 institutions in Lon

to keep them. don... ..


His general interests will be roused, the human side of his

nature developed, and during the evening at any rate he may Totals from the above sources alone :

forget that he is the slave of the Gramme ring, or the slave of the electric lamp.

No wonder, then, that within two months of the opening of

£32,500 the Goldsmiths' Institute at New Cross 4000 members were Large as are these sums, they are, however, even small com

enrolled. pared with the amount raised by Mr. Goschen's beer and spirit

But your workmen of the other class must, or at any rate tax, which it has been decided shall be used for the public

ought to, think. Take, for example, the man engaged in wiring benefit, and not for the benefit of the publican. The counties houses, whose work is continually changing, and offering small and county boroughs of England now receive nearly three

problems to be solved. Here, common sense-or uncommon quarters of a million sterling per annum, of which the whole may

sense, if you prefer it—is of great value, and the work, to be be devoted to technical education. The majority of the counties good, must be done by a man with a knowledge of principles, and county boroughs propose to utilize this magnificent oppor

and not by a mere machine-minder. tunity and devote to technical education the entire sum allocated

Many joints—bad joints—wires laid'in cement under mosaic, to them, while the remainder use at least a part for this purpose.

which cannot be replaced except at vast expense, even although Middlesex and London, however, stand alone, and employ their

the insulation has rotted away—parqueterie foors nailed to whole yearly grant of £163,000 for the relief of the rates, on the

insulated wire-switchboards screwed on to damp walls-lampplea that they consider that the City Companies are well able to

holders that only make contact when the lamps are twisted look after the technical education of London.

askew-high-class insulated mains terminating in snake-like Besides this spirit duty, 106 towns are levying rates in aid of

coils of flexible wire running against metal in shop windows, technical education under the Technical Instruction Acts of under shop fronts-heavy Oriental metal lamps hanging from 1889 and 1891, the number of these towns having increased by

lightly insulated cord-all this would be avoided, if the worktwenty in the last seven months, showing how rapidly is this

men had been taught to use their brains as well as their hands. desire for technical education spreading throughout Great

Now, do you think that the teaching necessary for this purpose Britain.

is likely to be given at the ordinary English polytechnic school? In addition to the sums contributed for technical education

In the case of the Goldsmiths' Institute the electrotechnical by the City Companies, collegiate bodies, and private persons

department has been put under the charge of Messrs. Dykes and who have the practical education of the nation at heart, the

Thornton, two diploma students of the Central Institution; and following represent, as far as I have been able to ascertain, the the fact that these men are, in addition, both employed in amounts that it has been already decided shall be actually spent,

Messrs. Siemens's works at Charlton leads one to hope that yearly, on technical education in England alone, exclusive of

their teaching, at any rate, will breathe the spirit of the factory. Scotland, Ireland, and Wales :

And therefore, if ample funds be forthcoming for keeping the

apparatus at New Cross always up to date, so that the meters, Received from the Customs and Excise duties ... £500,000 the models, the dynamos—not merely now at the start, but three Rates ...

18,046 years hence, six years hence—are truly representative of the Given by the Charity Commissioners

20,550 industry, there will be a fair prospect that the electrical depart

ment of the Goldsmiths' Institute, although but a fraction of the £538,596 whole undertaking, may really benefit the electrical workmen in

the East End of London. The yearly amount that will be actually raised under the But my colleagues and I view with considerable apprehension Technical Instruction Acts will be far larger than the £18,046 the way in which the present wide demand for teachers in stated above, for this represents only the sum of the amounts technical schools is being supplied. Several of our own students, raised in the very few towns who have already made returns. for example, tempted by the comparatively high remuneration

Hence the total sum to be spent in England alone on so-called that is offered, have become teachers in technical schools imtechnical education amounts to certainly over £600,000 per mediately on leaving the Central Institution. In many respects

they are undoubtedly well qualified; but if they had first spent As the teaching of electrical technology has been started, in some time in works before attempting to teach technical subsome form or other, in nearly every important town in Great jects, they would have better understood the wants of the Britain, there is no occasion for me to advocate, as I did in this persons whom they have undertaken to instruct. room ten years ago, that a student of electrical engineering should No greater mistake can be made than to think that a student have an education in applied science ; but what I desire to most who has distinguished himself at a technical college can dispense strongly urge on you to-night is, that it is your bounden duty with the training of the factory, unless it be the opposite mistake to see that some portion of the vast sum that is about to be of imagining that the factory training is equivalent to or even spent on the education of the people is used to give such a something better than that given at a modern school of training to your workmen as shall really benefit your industry. engineering. For otherwise there is a great fear that most of the money de- It is the province of the manufacturer to turn out apparatus voted to electrical teaching will either be frittered away on the and machinery as quickly, cheaply, and as well made as is natural loadstone, rubbed amber order of instruction so dear to possible ; it is the province of the technical teacher to prepare


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