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The following papers were contributed by Mr. J. B. Kirkland, Javas and tuffs at the lalier locality were erupted prior to the Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator of Chemistry, University deposition of the Bulli coal-measures, as marine sossil shells of of Melbourne :-(1) “Notes on the Electrolysis of Fused Salts Permo Carboniserous age have been found in the volcanic tuffs of Organic Basis” ; (2) “Occurrence of the New Elements of that series. The great plateau of diabasic greenstone, which Gallium and Indium in a Blende from Peelwood, New South occupies so large an area in the south-eastern portion of TasWales"; (3) “Notes on the Volatility of Magnesium"; (4) mania, was considered by the author to be probably of later “Lecture Experiment on Gaseous Diffusion.” A paper on The origin than the Mesozoic coal-measures of Fingal, Jerusalem, Analysis of the Cavendish banana (l/usa Cazendishii) in Relation &c., and then the Palæozoic coal-measures of the Mersey coalto its Value as a Food," by W. M. Doherty, was also read. Profs. field. The greenstone forming the upper portion of Mount Liversidge, Jackson, the President, Messrs. Clemes, Wilsmore, Wellington was, in the author's opinion, or later origin than and Taylor took part in an interesting discussion that followed the New Town coal-measures near Hobart. He considered the the reading of these papers.
greenstone to be a variety probably of gabbro, which bad burst Papers were contributed by Mr. W. M. Ilamlet on "The through the marine mudstones and overlying coal-measures in Oleo-resractometer in Organic Analysis "; by Mr. A. H. Jack- the neighbourhood of Hobart in the shape of broad dykes and son on “ The Analysis of Storage Battery Plates "'; by Mr. A. vosses, and which had spread over the top of the measures in J. Sachs on " The Jarvis Field Mineral Waters of Picton, New the form of a thick broad capping. If this view were correct, South Wales”; and by Mr. Mingaye on Some Mineral Waters there would be underneath the liers of greenstone large areas of of New South Wales."
coal-measures which might contain workable seams of coal, Mr. A. Liversidge, F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry, Uni- undamaged by the overlying greenstone. A brief description versity of Sydney, read a paper on “ The Rusting of Irod.” It having been given of the basaltic lavas of Tertiary age in was usually staied in books upon chemistry, he said, that iron Australia and Tasmania, the relation of the various manifestarust consisted of the hydrated sesquioxide of iron ; but on tions of volcanic activity to oscillations of the earth's crust and examining a very large number of specimens of rust from very to heavy sedimentation was next examined. The evidence col. many different places, and from iron articles of various kinds, lected by Australian and Tasmanian geologists showed that and formed under very varied conditions, he found that in almost volcanic action had taken place most frequently aster periods of every instance the rust contained more or less magnetic oxide; in prolonged subsidence had culminated in a compensating refact, in some cases the rust, although presenting the usual "rust elevation of the land. Instances were cited to prove that in brown” colour and appearance, was, when powdered, prac- many cases the subsidence which preceded volcanic outbursts tically wholly attracted by the magnet. The specimens which was directly due to the local loading of the earth's crust with first drew his attention to the subject were some large scales of thick masses of sediment, the weight of which bulged the rust obtained from the rails of an old tramway at Clifden earth's crust downwards, displacing in the process the lighter Springs, in Victoria, and he was led to collect and examine granitic magma which is considered to immediately underlie these on account of their resemblance to the crust so often the earth's crust, and bringing the under surface of the crust in present on metallic meteorites. On crushing this rust in a proximity to the heavier basic magma. This was suggested as porcelain mortar and testing it with a magnet, it was found to an explanation of the fact that the products of volcanic action be practically wholly attracted, the small quantity of iron from such areas of subsidence were usually basalts rather than magnetic oxide present being mechanically inclosed, listed and rhyolites or obsidians, both of which last are derived from the removed by the magnetic particles (in consequence of the granitic magma. magnetic particles being joined end to end, parallel to the lines Mr. W. J. Clunies Ross read a paper entitled “Remarks on of magnetic force and forming a mesh-work inclosing the non- Coral Reels.” Mr. W. J. C. Ross read a paper “On the Dismagnetic matter); but by repeatedly applying the magnet, and covery of two Specimens of Fossil Lepidodendrons in the especially urder water, the magnetic powder was fairly-well Neighbourhood of Bathurst, New South Wales, and the separated from the non-magnetic powder. Bright iron wire, Inferences to be drawn from their Occurrence.” One speciplates, rods, nails, &c., were artificially rusted in many ways men was from the gravel of the Macquarie River, but its source with free access of oxygen, and in almost every instance a large was to uncertain to be of much value. The other specimen, amount of magnetic oxide was formed.
although not actually sound by the writer in situ, was received Prof. Liversidge also read a paper on " The Presence of by him from the finder, who was able to point out the exact Magnetite in Certain Minerals.”
place from which it was obtained. This was about ten miles to Some notes on the analysis of water from Lake Corangamite the east of Bathurst, in some one of a series of beds of grit and were given by Mr. A. W. Craig and Mr. N. T. M. Wilsmore. quartzite forming the sides of a short valley, at the head of Notes on a “Natural Bone Ash," from Narracoorte, South which there was a succession of three waterfalls over hard bands Australia, were given by Mr. N. T. M. Wilsmore (Mel. of quartzite, the uppermost fall being over a massive conglobourne University). This was an account of a fossil guano merate. The grit bands contained abundant casts of Brachiopods, which might be successfully used for making cupels for silver Spiriser, and Rhynconella, and the whole series of beds was
Other papers read were Minerals of East Gipps. coloured on the geological sketch map of the colony as Silurian. land," by Mr. Donald Clark ; and "Notes on the Exudations. The late Mr. Wilkinson, however, classed the beds as Siluroyielded by some Australian species of Pittosporum,” by Mr. J. Devonian ; and a very similar series at Rydal on the Western Marden. A Committee was appointed to make a complete Railway Line was mapped by him as Devonian. Rydal was census of the minerals of Tasmania for the next meeting of the at least sixteen miles in a straight line from the locality at which Association,
the fossil was found. Near Rydal there were beds containing a SECTION C.
Lepidodendron considered by Dr. Feistmantel and Mr. CarruGEOLOGY AND PALÆONTOLOGY.
thers as Lepidodendron nothum, and to be of Devonian age.
Mr. R. Etheridge, Jun., however, questioned the identification Prof. T. W. E. David, of Sydney University, President of of the species, and seemed to think it was Lepidodendron australe, this Section, delivered an address on volcanic action in Eastern McCoy, which was generally considered to be Lower CarboniAustralia and Tasmania, with special reference to the relation serous. It was pointed out that the fossil now sound was almost of volcanic activity to oscillations of the earth's crust, and to certainly derived from the grit beds containing Devonian heavy sedimentation. The evidences of volcanic action in past | Brachiopods, and was probably of that age. If it were taken as geological time in East Australia and in Tasmania were re- Carboniserous, then a rearrangement of the generally received viewed historically, commencing with the oldest known lavas.- geology of a large part of New South Wales would be necessary. the Snowy River porphyries--and concluding with the most As bearing on the probable Devonian age of the fossil, attention recent--those of Tower Hill, near Warrnambool, in Victoria. was called to the fact that in the Lower Carboniserous beds of The geological age of the former has been established as being Strand, N.S. W., there were two species of Lepidodendron, viz. lower Devonian, whereas the occurrence of the skeleton of a L. Veltheimianum and L. Volkmannianum. The fossil in dingo under beds of volcanic tuff at the latter locality shows question did not resemble either of these forms, but appeared to that those volcanic rocks are of recent geological age. Special | be either L. nothum or L. australe, and, whichever it was, ir reference was made to the vast development of contemporaneous was likely to be older than the Strand beds, and therefore can lavas and tuffs in the Upper Palæozoic coal-fields of New South hardly be younger than Devonian. The specimens in question Wales, at Raymond Terrace, near Maitland, and at Kiama, in were exhibited, and the opinion of geologists desired on the the Illawarra coal-field. Proofs were adduced to show that the questions raised.
Mr. J. H. Harvey discussed “ The Application of Photo- Mr. W. A. Weymouth contributed a classified list of Tasgraphy to Geological Work." He urged the desirability of manian mosses, based on Hooker's “Flora of Tasmania " having a photographer attached to every Geological Survey, and 1853-59), Mitten's “ Australian Mosses (1882), Bastow's the importance of conducting the photography of the various “Mosses of Tasmania" (1886), and his own collections surveys in a systematic and uniform manner. He submitted a (1887-91), as determined by European specialists. scheme in connection with the same, which, without a great increase in the present expense, would, he considered, vastly
SECTION E. increase the value of the survey.
GEOGRAPHY. Among the remaining papers were the following: “Sample of Cone-in-cone Structure found at Picton, New South Wales," Captain Pasco, R.N., President of the Section, referred in his by Mr. A. J. Sachs ; “Notes on the Permo Carboniferous opening address to early discoveries in Australia. The exploration Volcanic Rocks of New South Wales,” by Prof. T. W. E. of the island of Tasmania, and the opening up. of its varied reDavid ; “Notes on the Advantages of a Federal School of sources, were begun by Sir John Franklin. He might be recognized Mines for Australasia," by Mr. T. Provis.
as the founder of the Royal Society of Tasmania, and distinguished
himself in 1842 by crossing the island from New Norfolk to SECTION D.
Macquarie Harbour. Half a century ago Australia was considered to be a vast desert, containing possibly an inland sea, but
Stuart, McDowall, Gregory, Forest, Giles, and others had disProf. W. Baldwin Spencer, of the Melbourne University sipated that idea by exploring the continent from one side to dealt in his presidential address with the fresh-water and terres
the other. He further dealt with the tides and currents of the trial fauna of Tasmania. He described the various species ocean, and their effects generally upon the earth, the temperafound in Tasmania, and the distribution of these in other parts ture and saltness of sea water, and the direction and force of of Australia, showing that, in such forms as the fresh-water fish, the currents and times of high and low water. He concluded reptiles, and amphibia, those found in Tasmania and some in | by saying there was still a considerable area of this globe to be Victoria were very closely allied. He dealt with the original subdued and peaceable dominion obtained within the Antarctic introduction of the ancestors of the present animals of Aus-Circle. Though Sir James Ross unfurled the British banner on tralia, and the way in which the descendants of these had an island contiguous io the continent or extensive archipelago become distributed over the various parts, including Tasmania. (as the case might be), yet almost a blank upon the map Prof. Hutton, of Christchurch, New Zealand, read a paper on
awaited the enterprise of the Anglo-Saxons located in the “The Origin of the Struthious Birds of Australasia.' The southern hemisphere to emulate their forefathers in the north struthious birds—that was, the ostriches, emus, cassowaries, and by opening up the frozen zone. kiwis--were confined to the southern hemisphere, except the
Mr. James M. Clymont, Koonya, Tasmania, read a paper on African ostrich, which ranged into Arabia, and they were sup:
“ The Influence of Spanish and Portuguese Discoveries during posed to have originated in the northern hemisphere and
the First Twenty Years of the Sixteenth Century on the Theory migrated southwards. But by this hypothesis there were great
of an Antipodal Southern Continent.” Mr. D. Murray gave difficulties in explaining how the struthious birds reached an account if Mr. Lindsay's expedition in Western Australia Australia and New Zealand without being accompanied by under the auspices of Sir Thos. Elder, giving extracts from his placental mammals. Also the struthious birds of New Zealand, despatches, narrating the journey from Fort Mueller to Queen including the lately extinct moas, were smaller, and make a Victoria Springs, and thence to the Frazer Ranges. Want of nearer approach to the flying birds, from which the struthious water had been a great and unexpected difficulty. There birds were descended, ihan did any of the others, and they seemed to have been a complete drought for at least a year over should expect to find the least altered forms near the place of this part of the continent. In the discussion ensuing, the origin. The tinamus of Central and South America, although question of artesian wells was raised, and Mr. Murray explained Aying birds, resembled the New Zealand struthious birds in
that while some of these wells in South Australia were unfit for several particulars; and as a former connection between New irrigation purposes, owing to the superabundance of salts of Zealand aud South America was shown by the plants, the frogs, soda, yet they were good enough for stock, &c., and that both and the land shells, it seemed more probable that the struthious further north and further east over large areas the wells gave birds of Australasia originated in the neighbourhood of New water suitable for all purposes. Zealand from flying birds related to the tinamus, and that they Papers were contributed by Dr. Frazer, on “ Volcanic Phenospread from thence into Australia and New Guinea, rather than mena in Samoa in 1886”; by the Rev. J. B. W. Woollnough, that they should have migrated southwards from Asia. Prob- on “ Iceland and the Icelander”; by Captain Moore, R.N., on ably the ostriches of Africa and South America have a different “A Magnetic Shoal near Cossack, W.A. ”; and by Mr. A. C. line of descent from the struthious birds of Australasia, and Macdonald, on "The Life and Works of Sir John Franklin.” might have originated from swimming birds in the northern
An elaborate and valuable paper on Recent Explorations hemisphere.
and Discoveries in British New Guinea," was read by Mr. J. P. Prof. Spencer read a paper “On the Habits of Ceratodus, the Thomson. Referring to the natives, Mr. Thomson spoke of Lung Fish of Queensland. This fish, he stated, lives only in their numerous tribal divisions, and of the almost correspondingly the Burnett and Mary Rivers in Queensland, and belongs to a different languages or dialects spoken by them. Even in localities small group which may be regarded as intermediate between separated by only a few miles, ihe dialects spoken differ the one fishes on the one hand and amphibia on the other. The swimming from the other in some cases considerably. The Motu, which bladder present in ordinary fishes has become modified so that is the language spoken and taught by the missionaries at Port it functions as a lung. In Africa, Protopterus, a form closely Moresby, is understood over a considerable area, both east and allied to Ceratodus, makes for itself a cocoon of mud, in which west of that place, but outside that neighbourhood changes during the hot, dry season it lives and can breathe by means of and variations occur, so that at the head of the Great Papuan its lung The Ceratodus, however, does not appear to do Gulf, and in the Fly Basin, the Motu language is a foreign this, and probably never leaves the water. it comes continually tongue. The same applies to the eastern end, and to the to the surface, and passes out and takes in air, making a faint islands adjacent thereto, where the philological variations are spouting noise. The author suggested that the lung was of numerous and conflicting. While in the one case the people the greatest service to the animal, not during the hot, but met with in the highland zones of the Owen Stanley Range during the wet season, when the rivers were flooded, and the spoke a dialect akin to that of the Papuan, those encountered on water thick with the sand brought down from the surrounding the Upper Fly River expressed themselves in a longue, every country. With regard to its food, Ceratodus appeared to be word of which apparently differed from that spoken by the herbivorous, feeding, at all events largely, on vegetable matter, tribes of the lower regions, and from that spoken by any known such as the seeds of gum-trees which tumble into the water. coastal community, notwithstanding that the people themselves
Papers were contributed by Mr. F. M. Bailey, Government exhibited no evidence of possessing distinctive characteristics of Botanist of Queensland, on Queensland Fungus Blights" race, the only marked contrast being in lightness of colour. by Colonel W. V. Legge on "The Geographical Distribution of In the western division the same diversity of speech is met Australian Limicole ; by Mr. John Shirley on “A Re- with, where neighbouring tribes are unable to hold intercourse arrangement of the Queensland Lichens"; and by Mr. A. F. one with the other, even if friendly, by reason of incompatibility Robin on “ The Preservation of Native Plants and Animals." of language. No doubt this may in some measure be accounted
LITERATURE AND FINE ARTS.
for by local environment ; constant civil intertribal war being the
which have been proposed for disposing of the sewerage of means of isolating communities, so that no friendly intercourse is held, by reason of which, together with other attendant causes, an Dr. James read a paper on “ Cremation as a Step in Sanitary incongruity of language may have unknowingly been established. Reform.” Papers were also contributed by Dr. E. O. Giblin, on With reference to geology, Mr. Thomson said it was some- “ The Etiology of Typhoid ” ; by Miss Violet Mackenzie, on what remarkable that the general geological features of British “ Physical Education and Exercise in Schools" ; by Dr. BarPapua are in a very considerable degree identical in character nard, on “Infection in Disease”; and by Dr. A. Moulton, on with those of Australia, several specimens being coincident with “Sewerage of a Seaside City.” those of the Silurian series from gold-fields in New South Wales, while some of the fossiliferous rocks were obtained from beds of
SECTION I. clay similar to those at Geelong and Cape Otway in Victoria. Mineral areas of great value might yet await discovery by the penetrating eyes of British pluck and enterprise in Papua. This Section, although it assembled for the last time at the
Hobart meeting, proved to be very popular. The President, SECTION F.
Prof. Morris, of the University of Melbourne, referred in his
opening address to the subject of Universities in Australia. ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE AND STATISTICS.
He urged that it was not wise to multiply Universities. “In this Mr. R. Teece, President, chose for the subject of his open- matter," he said, “the law of supply and demand cannot be ing address, “ The New Theory of the Relation of Profit and trusted, if it ever can be in the matter of education ; and the Wages." Papers were contributed by Mr. Alfred de Lissa, Legislatures should be very careful not to permit the promiscuous Sydney, on “ The Organization of Industry”; by the Hon. N. J. conferring of degrees. Let them increase teaching facilities as Brown, Tasmania, on “ The Incidence of Taxation”; by Mr. much as generosity may make possible ; do not lower the stanH. H. Hayter, Government Statistician, Victoria, on Disturb
dard, as at least in the higher education competition does. In ance of Population Estimates by Defective Records " ; by Mr. America there are five or six degree.giving Universities to every A. J. Ogilvy, on “ Is Capital the Result of Abstinence ?”; by million inhabitants, and a degree by itself has no value. If Mrs. A. Morton, Tasmania, on “ The Past Attitude of Capital | Australia were one country, as it ought to be, two Universities towards Labour, and the Present Attitude of Labour towards would probably be quite enough, or, better still, even one, but it Capital”; by Mr. T. A. Coghlan, Government Statistician, would need to be arranged somewhat on the pattern of the UniverN.S.W., on “The Wealth of Australasia"; by Mr. A. J. sity of New Zealand, with teaching bodies in different places, but Taylor, Hobart, on “The Value of Labour in relation to the one uniform standard of examination for each degree. This Production of Wealth regarded froin the Standpoint of a would lead to emulation between the different teaching Colleges, Physicist "; and by Mr. E. P. Nesbit, South Australia, on and would surely bave bappy results. Unfortunately Australia “Insanity and Crime."
is not one, and at present it looks as if, in spite of the wishes of SECTION G.
the people, our absurd divisions were likely to continue. Yet it
is worth consideration whether the Universities might not agree ANTHROPOLOGY.
upon a common standard, and arrange that the courses in the The Rev. Lorimer Fison, President, said in the course of his Universities of the different colonies should be parallel and opening address that in antbropological study the two main homogeneous. Educated men should be the first to show that things required were first a patient continuance in collecting the day of discord is over, and to welcome the arrival of unity facts, and second the faculty of seeing in them what is seen by
and co-operation." the natives themselves. But the natural tendency to form a Among the contributions to the proceedings of this Section theory as soon as a fact was seized, and looking at facts in
were papers on * Elementary Science in Primary Schools,” by savagery from the mental standpoint of civilized man, would Mr. James Rule, senior inspector of schools, Tasmania ; lead investigators into fatal mistakes. The best way to gain Secondary Education in Australia," by Mr. Percy A. Robin; information was to live with the natives, learn their language, and “The Rationale of Examinations,” by Mr. F. J. Young. and gain their confidence, or get information from the men living A Committee was formed to establish a Home Reading Union amongst them.
References 10 aborigines, their manners and for Australia. customs, in books, might be collected and classified by many
SECTION J. readers, and thus facilitate investigation. In conclusion he
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE. dwelt upon the magnificent and all but untrodden field afforded by British New Guinea and its outlying groups of islands; and Mr. C. Napier Bell, President, referred in his opening two extremely valuable books—the Rev. Dr. Codrington's on address to sanitary engineering. In Australia, he said, the “The Melanesian Tribes,” and “The Maori Polynesian Com- best attention of engineers should be devoted to sanitary parative Dictionary,” by Mr. Edward Tregear, of New Zealand engineering ; first, to cleanse the towns, and second, to save the -- were recommended for study.
sewage 10 irrigate the land. On this subject Australian The Rev. Dr. Gill, who has spent thirty-three years as a engineers should pause before copying the practice of Europe, missionary in the Hervey Islands, read papers on “ The Story which, enjoying an abundant rainsall, has never felt the same of Tie and Rie” and “The Omens of Pregnancy,” the latter necessity for irrigation, and has had abundant stores of fossil baving reference to superstitions still current in ihe island of manure to draw upon. Water irrigation was even more Mangaia.
important, and he foresaw for engineers a noble task in providing A paper on " New Britain and its People ” was read by the irrigation for Australia. Alter dealing with the irrigation works Rev. B. Danks. According to the author, the bush people of the older countries, he touched upon the importance of differ very much from the coast tribes, the latter being evidenily mining and electrical engineering. Then he remarked the invaders and conquerors..
neglect of warming and ventilation by architects and engineers, Some interesting details as to “Sydney Natives Fisty Years and argued that in the climate of Australia the art of cooling ago,” were given by the Rev. W. B. Clarke.
Among other must certainly become as important as that of heating. In papers were the following: Group Marriage and Relation conclusion, he explained the necessity for sound theoretical and ship” and “The Nair Polyandry and the Dieri-Dieri Pirauru," scientific knowledge in the engineer, and said that if the people by ihe Rev. L. Fison ; “The Samoa and Loyalty Islands," hy of the colonies would entertain the honourable ambition, once the Rev. S. Ella ; “The Cave Paintings of Australia,” by the more popular than now, of being remembered to the distant Rev. J. Matthew ; “The New Hebides,” by the Rev. D. Mac- ages of the future, they must emulate those mighty peoples of donald ; " The Origin of the Sense of Duty," by Mr. Alex. the past who lelt imperishable records of their life in the ruins of Suiherland ; “Notes on the Taunese,” by the Rev. W. Gray. their vast public works.
Among ihe papers read in this Section was one by Mr. Edward
Dobson, on "The Evidence for the Prevalence of Human
showing that, whilst rectangular forms prevailed in the early Prof. W. H. Warren, of the Univer-ity of Sydney, gave in his buildings of ihe East and in North America, the circular form residential address a sketch of sanitary engineering from its had prevailed through Africa (with the exception of the Nile earliest days, and then proceeded to discuss the various schemes Valley) and through Switzerland and Northern Europe, in
SANITARY SCIENCE AND HYGIENE.
Lapland and Greenland, and inquiry was raised as to the causes An important feature of Prof. Pickering's work is the method of these facts.
of enlargement of the negatives, which renders the fainter Mr. A. North read a paper on “ The Truthful Treatment of lines clearly visible. "The negative is covered by a diaphragm, Brickwork.”
having a slit in it which is made to coincide with the spectrum. At the closing meeting of the Council, on February 14, the
An image is then formed by an enlarging lens in the usual way.
A cylindrical lens is next interposed near tbe enlarging lens, following general officers were appointed : - Treasurer, Mr. H.
The C. Russell, Sydney : Secretary for Tasmania, Mr. A. Morton ;
with its axis perpendicular to the lines in the spectrum. for New Zealand, Prof. Packer, Prof. Thomas, and Mr. D. B.
width of the latter may thus be increased indefinitely without
In the case of faint stars very narrow Brandon : for Victoria, Mr. A. H. S. Lucas ; for Queensland, changing the length. Mr. I. Shirley.
spectra only can be obtained. Their energy is so feeble that they are capable of decomposing the silver particles only if
allowed to fall upon them for a long time. In the enlargement THE DRAPER CATALOGUE OF STELLAR
the energy of the sun is substituted for that of the star, and thus
an indefinite number of silver particles may be decomposed.” SPECTRA.
(Introduction, p. xix.) The original negative may, perhaps, The Observatory of Harvard College has played a promi: be compared to a “relay," in electrical
. nent part in the development of astronomical photography, The preparation of the Draper Catalogue involved five It was here, on July 17, 1850, that Prof. Bond obtained the different steps, which are thus stated on p. 74 :first photographic image of a star, and from that time forward 1. Measurement of the spectra on each plate, including the much important work has been accomplished, culminating in determination of their positions, intensities, and the classes to the Draper Catalogue of the photographic spectra of 10,347 which they belong.
The progress of this latter branch of astronomical work II. Identification of each spectrum with that of a star in the has been but slow, and it is a remarkable fact that its extra- Durchmusterung or other catalogue. ordinary development during the last few years has followed III. Reduction of the measures of brightness to the scale of from the revival by Prof. Pickering of the method of observa- the Harvard Photometry. tion first employed by Fraunhofer in 1824. Accounts of the IV. Catalogues of plates. progress of the work have been published from time to time, and V. Preparation of the final catalogue, bringing forward the have been noticed in our columns. A complete account of the places of all the stars to 1900, including various methods of “ Preparation and Discussion of the Draper Catalogue,” which checking and correcting the results. has recently been issued, forms vol. xxvi., part i., of the That a catalogue of spectra may be of service to astronomers, Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College. a sound system of classification is essential, and this, as far as
The earlier attempts to photograph the spectra of the stars possible, should have some reference to chemical or physical were made with spectroscopes having slits, although, from the constitution. The notable classifications which were suggested time of Fraunhofer, it was recognized that a slit was not an by eye observations were those of Secchi, Vogel, and Lockyer, essential part of a stellar spectroscope. In 1863, Dr. Huggins but it is not surprising to find that the greater detail shown on succeeded in photographing the spectrum of Sirius, but none of the photographic plates requires modifications of these in order the characteristic lines were visible. In 1872 Dr. Henry that all the spectra may be included. A detailed but someDraper, to whose labours in the field of astronomical photo what arbitrary classification has been adopted by Prof. Pickering, graphy the Draper Catalogue forins a fitting memorial, suc- the chief merit of which is that it readily lends itself to translaceeded in obtaining a photograph showing four lines in the tion into other systems. Varieties of Secchi's first type are spectrum of Vega. Dr. Huggins again took up the work, and indicated by the letters A, B, C, D, those of the second iype by since 1879 has obtained a considerable number of photographs, the letters E to L, of the third type by M, and of the fourth none of which, however, appear to show anything approaching type by N ; bright line stars are referred to as O, planetary the amount of detail now obtainable. In all these attempts the nebulæ as P, and other spectra as Q. Of the varieties of the spectroscope was attached to the eye end of the telescope, so first type, A includes all the stars with spectra similar to Sirius, that the image of the star was formed on the slit, a cylindrical and B those with spectra of the Rigel type, in which, in addition lens being interposed in order to give width to the spectrum. to lines of hydrogen, there is a small number of strong lines of
In the method which has been so pre-eminently successful, which the origins are at present unknown. the slit and collimator, which form an essential part of an Results of special interest, such as the discovery of bright ordinary spectroscope, are dispensed with, the rays from a lines in the spectra of variable stars of long period, have already star already possessing the necessary parallelism and its image been referred to in NATURE, and we shall now confine ourselves being almost a perfect slit without length. It is only necessary, to the more general results. As some of the most interesting therefore, to fix a prism in front of the objective of a telescope, spectra belong to stars of small magnitude, it is necessary to be and to introduce some means of widening the spectrum, to very guarded in making generalizations. Still, the fact that obtain a complete stellar spectroscope. For eye observations Prof. Pickering's researches have extended in some cases to the necessary width is obtained by the use of a cylindrical lens stars of the ninth and tenth magnitude perhaps justifies the in conjunction with the eye piece of the telescope. For photo- assumption that all types of spectra are now included. We graphic work, the prisms are so arranged that the spectrum lies cannot do better than let Prof. Pickering speak for himself. along a meridian, and it is then only necessary to allow the “The general conclusion derived from the study of these driving clock to be slightly in error to obtain a widened spectra, is the marked similarity in constitution of the different spectrum. The clock error must of course vary according to the A large part of them-those of the first type—have a magnitude and declination of the star.
spectrum which at first sight seems to be continuous, except that The great advantage of the “slitless spectroscope" depends it is traversed by broad dark bands due to hydrogen. Closer upon the fact that every scrap of light passing through the object inspection shows that the K line is also present as a fine dark glass is utilized ; with the ordinary spectroscope it will seldom line. If the dispersion is large and the definition good, many happen that all the light passes through the slit, and it is further more dark lines are visible, as stated above. These lines may reduced by absorption in the lenses and prisms of the spectro- be divided into two classes--first, those which predominate in scope. Further, on account of the large focal length of the many stars in the Milky Way, especially in the constellation of telescopes employed, a high dispersion is obtained even with a Orion; and, second, ihose present in the solar spectrum. prism of small angle; and a large number of spectra can be | Nearly all the brighter stars may be arranged in a series, beginphotographed at a single exposure. Prof. Pickering has photo- i ning with those in Orion, in which the auxiliary lines are nearly graphed the spectra of as many as 260 stars on the same plate, as intense as those due to hydrogen. Other stars may be found, and the labour involved in the construction of the Draper in which these lines successively become fainter and fainter, Catalogne has thus been enormously reduced. Indeed, ihe until they have nearly disappeared. The more marked solar whole of the 10,347 spectra were photographed on 585 plates. lines then appear, become stronger and stronger, and the The improvement in photographic processes has undoubtedly hydrogen lines fainter, until they gradually merge into a done much to facilitate the work, but it is lamentable that the spectrum identical with that of the sun. At least, several “wholesale" method was not applied twenty years ago, for hundred lines appear to be identical, and no differences can be even with the less perfect processes then in vogue, our knowledge detected. Continuing the sequence, the spectra pass gradually would have been much advanced.
| into those of the third type. Certain bands become more
marked, and the spectra of the third type may be divided into * According to Secchi's classification, placing Classes A, B, four clas-es. In the fourth of these classes the hydrogen lines and F in the first type, G and K in the second, and M in the are bright instead of dark. This spectrum seems to be charac- third, we have of the first type 0.75, of the second 0'23, of the teristic of the variable stars of long period when near their third o'oi, peculiar o'on” (p. 151). maximum. As stated above, it has led to the detection of several To study the distribution in space, the sky was divided into new variable stars, and has been confirmed in many of the 48 zones, and the results are thus summarised on p. 152. “It known variables. Slight peculiarities are noticed in the spectra appears that the number of stars of the second and third type is of many stars, so that they cannot be arranged in an exact nearly the same in the Milky Way as in other parts of the sky. sequence; but these deviations are not sufficient to affect the Considering, therefore, only the stars whose spectra resemble general law. The number of stars not included in the above that of our sun, we should find them nearly equally distributed classification is very small. A few stars like y Cassiopeiæ, in the sky. The stars of Class A, on the other hand, are twice B Lyræ, and 8 Centauri resemble the stars of the Orion type, as numerous in Region M (through which the Milky Way but some of the lines are bright instead of dark. Siars of the passes) as in Region N (an equal area away from the Milky fourth type, whose spectra appear to be identical with that of Way), and in the case of Class B this ratio exceeds four. The carbon, are not included in the above classification. Other stars, Milky Way is therefore due to an aggregation of stars of the whose spectra consist mainly of bright lines, like those of the first rype, a class to which our sun seems to bear no resemblance planetary nebulæ, may be included with them in a fifth class. as regards its spectrum. Spectra of Class B seem to conform It also appears that the position of the lines in both cases is still more closely to the region of the Milky Way, although probably identical with that of corresponding lines in stars of probably they are not sufficiently numerous to materially affect the Orion type.” (Introduction, p. xvii.)
its light. The Milky Way must therefore be described as a It would be difficult to find fault with the masterly way in distinct cluster of stars to which, from its composition or age, which Prof. Pickering and his assistants have done their work. the sun does not seem to belong." Our chief source of complaint, which no doubt arises more from The statement that the sun bears no resemblance to stars like impatience than anything else, is the lack of detail with regard those which chiefly constitute the Milky Way is not quite so to the spectra themselves. For investigations to which such precise as it might be. The lines in the spectra, so far as we a work as the Draper Catalogue should naturally lead, a mere know them, indicate the same substances in each, and the estimation of the type of spectrum serves for little more than a tendency of evidence is to show that the sun is a type of what determination of the relative numbers and distribution of the the stars of the Milky Way will become. spectra of the various types. For the present, however, this is Not the least interesting part of the researches connected with practically all that Prof. Pickering tells us. We are left quite the formation of the Draper Catalogue is that dealing with the in the dark, for instance, as to what is actually seen in the determination of photographic magnitudes. Elaborate investiphotographs of the spectra of stars of Secchi's fourth type, gations have been carried out by Prof. Pickering with his usual although we are informed that the photographic spectra are as skill and care, and we hope to refer to them in some detail on characteristic as the visual. It would be interesting too, to know
another occasion. the differences in the sub-divisions of Secchi's third type.
No satisfactory method of applying the slitless spectroscope to All stars north of - 20° of the fourth magnitude and brighter the determination of velocities in the line of sight, except in the have been photographed on a large scale with the 11-inch re- special case of a spectroscopic binary, has yet been devised, and fractor, and a discussion of these will occupy a subsequent this branch of research must therefore be carried out in the usual volume of the “ Annals.” This will be awaited with interest way.
A, FOWLER. by all who are engaged in researches in astronomical physics.
We are delighted to find that the work of the Henrv Draper Memorial is to be extended beyond the mere routine of photographing stellar spectra. “A broader field has been assigned
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL to the Henry Draper Memorial by Mrs. Draper than was at
INTELLIGENCE. first proposed. Instead of confining its work to the study of the spectra of the stars, their physical properties in general will OXFORD.-We regret to notice that the Savilian Professor of be investigated. The liberal support given to it should give yet Geometry (J. J. Sylvester, Hon. D.C.L.), has had to apply for more striking results in the future than have hitherto been leave of absence and dispensation from the performance of attained.” (Introduction, p. xxiv.)
statutory duties on account of ill-healih. Mr. J. Griffiths, Laboratory work has already been commenced, and to aid Fellow and Tutor of Jesus College, will lecture on the “ Recent the study of spectra in the electric arc, a 10-h.p. dynamo has Geometry of the Circle and Triangle” for the Professor. been generously presented by the Edison Electric co.
At a meeting of the Hebdomadal Council, Rev. W. Inge, In the final chapter the Draper Catalogue is discussed with Provost of Worcester College, and Rev. W. W. Jackson, reference to the visual observations of Vogel and Konkoly. A Rector of Exeter College, were elected to be members of the similar comparison has already been given in NATURE, vol. xliv. Delegacy for the Training of Teachers under the provisions of p. 133, by Mr. Espin, and we need not further refer to it. We the Statute approved by Convocation, November 24, 1891 ; and regret to find, however, that a discussion of the photographic in a Congregation holden February 23, Joseph Wells, Fellow of spectra in relation to the new cla-sification suggested by Mr. Wadham College, and George R. Scott, Fellow of Merton Lockyer has not been included.
College, were likewise elected members of the same Delegacy. It will be a source of gratification to Mr. Lockyer to find that In a Convocation holden on March 1, Mr. Henry Balfour, his suggestion that stars of the Wolf-Rayet type are the first Trinity College, was appointed Curator of the Pitt-Rivers results of nebulous condensations is fully confirmed by Prof. Museum, to hold office until December 31, 1898, and during Pickering's work. Their spectra greatly resemble those of the that period to enjoy the same status in regard to the University planetary nebulæ, the chief difference being that the charac Museum as the "Prosessors teaching in the Museum, and teristic nehula line near wave-length 500 is absent. This, Mr. to receive a stipend of £200 a year from January 1, 1892. Lockyer explains, is due to increased temperature, and this The Curators of the University Chest were authorized to view is strengthened by the fact that the line was seen only during expend a sum not exceeding £150 a year from January 1, 1892, the later stages of the visibility of Nova Cygni. Nebulæ and for seven years, on assistance and current expenses in the Pittbright line stars form Group I. of his classification.
Rivers Museum. So far, this is the chief point where the Draper Catalogue throws any additional light on Mr. Lockyer's views, and further
CAMBRIDGE.-Mrs. Phillipps offers to the University a sum discussion must be reserved until more details of the spectra are
of £2000 to found an “Arnold Gerstenberg Scholarship "in published.
memory of her brother. The Scholarship is to be held by men The " distribution of spectra” forms the subject of chapter Sciences Tripos, and intend to pursue the study of mental and
or women who have passed the examination for the Natural vii., and we gather that the stars down to magnitude 6'25 are distributed as follows among the different classes of spectra :-
A grant of £40 has been made to H. Kynaston, B. A. of Class A
0:18 King's, from the Worts Fund, to enable him to investigate B
ο ο13 the geology of the Eastern Alps in the ensuing summer. F
" Peculiar" 0'007 Prof. Fosier is appointed an Elector to the Downing ProfesG 0'05
sorship of Medicine, to the Professorship of Zoology, and 10