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the Professorship of Botany ; Prof. Dewar an Elector to the Professorship of Chemistry ; Prof. Liveing an Elector to the Jacksonian Professorship; Prof. G. H. Darwin an Elector to ihe Cavendish Professorship of Physics ; Prof. Sir G. G. Stokes an Elector to the Professorship of Mineralogy ; Dr. J. Hopkin. son an Elector to the Professorship of Mechanism and Applied Mechanics ; Prof. Ray Lankester an Elector to the Professorship of Zoology ; Mr. W. H. Hudleston to the Woodwardian Professorship of Geology ; and Dr. Gaskell an Elector to the Professorship of Physiology.
At the Congregation on February 25, graces for the establishment of two lectureships in Agricultural Science, one of which should be held by a Director of Agricultural Studies, were rejected by 103 votes to 91. A grace for the appointment of a Syndicate to consider the question of degrees in science was rejected by 154 votes to 105. The latter was opposed by a number of the teachers in natural science, as tending to place their students in a position of isolation, and perhaps of inferiority, as compared with others,
The Rev. W. M. Campion, D.D., Fourth Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos of 1849, and formerly an Examiner for the Mathematical and Moral Sciences Tripos, was on February 23 unanimously elected President of Queen's College, in succession to the late Dr. G. Phillips.
The colour has not appreciably changed since the star was first observed.
Photographs of the spectrum were attempted on all the dates named. Those of February 11, 12, 16, and 23, however, were insufficiently exposed, but they show that the dark lines were still more refrangible than the accompanying bright ones, and that the same lines were present as in the previous photographs. A plate was exposed for 2 hours 35 minutes on February 24, but no impression was obtained. The photograph taken on February 13 is identical with those referred to in the notes which I have already communicated to the Society. In the three photographs of February 22, there appears to be a slight diminution in the intensity of the H and K lines, but otherwise there is no decided change.
There is no evidence of revolution during the twenty days of observation. In all the photographs the dark lines are more refrangible than the bright ones, and the relative velocity deduced from those of February 3, 7, 13, and 22 appears to be about 600 miles per second. As ihis only represents the velocity in the line of sight, we are still ignorant of the real velocities of the two bodies. The constant relative velocity indicated by the displacement of the bright and dark lines may be regarded as confirming the supposition that two meteor-swarms or coniets have collided, the velocities being so great, and the masses so small, that neither was captured by the other.
The relative velocity of 600 miles per second seems at first sight to be abnormally great, but if we regard each of the component swarms as moving at the rate of 300 miles per second, the velocities are quite comparable with those of other bodies in space. The star 1830 Groombridge, for example, moves at the rate of 200 miles per second across the line of sight, and its real velocity may be much greater.
Eye observations have been made on every available occasion. The chief variation from those previously reported is the general fading of the continuous spectrum, and the consequent unmasking of the lines between b and D. Micrometric measures of four new lines in this region were made by Mr. Fowler on February 23 and 24. These, with the other lines observed at Kensington in the region F to C, are shown in the table which follows. The corresponding lines observed in the spectra of new stars which have previously appeared, and those in the spectra of some of the bright-line stars, are added for comparison.
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
Since my note of February ii, observations of the new star have only been possible at Kensington on seven eveningsnamely, February 11, 12, 13, 16, 22, 23, and 24. The 13th and 22nd were the only two very fine nights.
The star now appears to be fading. In the photograph of the region taken on February 3, the Nova appeared to be brighter than x Aurigæ (magnitude 5'0), but in that taken on February 23 it is not brighter than the companion to this star, which is fainter than sixth magnitude. No marked diminution in brightness was noticed before February 22.
It will be seen that all the lines of Nova Auriga have pre- ' rapid fading of the star demonstrates that small bodies and not viously been recorded in other Novæ, or in the bright-line large ones are engaged, and this is further confirmed by the stars.
observed diminution in the brighiness of the continuous specThe complete spectrum, including the photographic region, trum relatively to the bright lines. If two condensed hodies is shown in a diagram (which was exhibited). This, and the light were in collision, it is evident that the lines would fade first. curve of the spectrum from F to C, were drawn by Mr. Fowler and Mr. W. J. Lockyer on February 22, and confirmed by Chemical Society, February 4.-Prof. A. Crum Brown, Mr. Fowler on February 23. The 3.foot reflector and McClean F.R.S., President, in the chair.— The following papers were spectroscope were employed in each case.
read :-Pedetic motion in relation to colloidal solutions, by W. The changes which are taking place in the Nova are exactly Ramsay. The pedetic or Brownian motion of small particles what would be expected according to my hypothesis that new depends (1) on the size of the particles, (2) on their density, stars are produced by the collisions of meteor-swarms. The and (3) on the nature of the medium in which they are sus. pended. If an electrolyte be added to a liquid containing such tiguous molecules may play the part of surfaces, and that there particles in a state of pedetic motion, the movement is soon can be little doubt that such actions are of primary importance arrested, owing to the particles touching one another, and co- may be inferred from the well-known fact that the extent to hering to form clots or clusters. If no electrolyte be present, which the dissociation of water vapour takes place depends on the particles do not tend to touch each other. From micro- the character of the surface in contact with which it is heated, scopic observations, it is calculated that a particle with a mass and not solely on the temperature. In fine, it seems permis. of 2.8 x 10- grams moves through, approximately, its own sible to doubt whether, under the conditions present in flames, diameter, 14 x 10-4 c.m., in a second. Such a particle has carbon is ever separated by simple heat changes. It will certainly one hundred billion times the estimated mass of a water mole. be unwise at present to infer ihat the oxidation of the hydrocule; hence, if its pedetic motion be produced by bombardment carbons, or the separation of carbon and also of hydrogen from from water molecules, these must exist in complex groups of them, takes place entirely in any one way.- Properties of alco
holic and other solutions of mercuric and other chlorides, by stopped by the addition of an electrolyte would appear to in- S. Skinner. The author has determined the variation in the dicate that the water complices are disintegrated in the presence boiling point of alcohol produced by dissolving it in mercuric, of ions. The effect of pedetic motion in a liquid is to cause lithium, magnesium, and calcium chlorides, as well as the hydrostatic pressure ; such hydrostatic pressure would be less
variation in the boiling point of a solution of hydrogen chloride on a membrane capable of penetration by the molecular aggre- of constant boiling-point produced by mercuric chloride. He gates or particles than on one not so permeable. It is not has also studied the distribution of mercuric chloride between unlikely ihat these particles obey gaseous laws in regard to the two solvents, water and ether. The results indicate that pressure on the sides of the containing vessel, as microscopic mercuric chloride affords a case in which the measure of the observations show that the relative velocity of the particles property is a simple function of the quantity of salt present, depends on their mass and density. L. Meyer has pointed out whereas in the case of the other chlorides, the measure of the the great discrepancies existing between measurements of the property involves some higher power. The isomeric a-bromoosmotic pressures of solutions and the pressures calculated on cinnamic acids, by S. Ruhemann. An account is given of the assumption that the dissolved substances obey gaseous laws. experiments on the action of ammonia and phenylhydrazine These discrepancies may be best explained by considering that on the a-bromocinnamic acids. combination of the dissolved substance with the membrane walls takes place, and that, subsequently, dissociation of the compound DuCane Godman, F.R.S., President, in the chair. - The
Entomological Society, February 10.-Mr. Frederick occurs at the other side of the cell wall, as in the case of hydrogen penetrating a palladium diaphragm. The author is dis
President nominated Lord Walsingham, F.R.S., Captain Henry posed to conclude that solution is merely subdivision and admix- | John Elwes, and Dr. D. Sharp, F.R.S., Vice-Presidents for ture, accompanied by pedetic motion, that the true osmotic specimens of Euproctis fulviceps, Walk., taken by. Mr. Barnard;
the session 1892-93. – Mr E. Meyrick exhibited a number of pressure has never been measured, and that a continuous passage showing the extraordinary variation of this Tasmanian species, all in solution. The acid action of drawing-paper of different the males of which had been sembled” by one female. The makes, by W. N. Hartley. An examination of numerous
males were represented by various forms ranging from black to samples of the best drawing-papers shows that they all con:
white, which had all been described as distinct species. Dr. tain free sulphuric acid. Water in which the paper has been Sharp, Mr. Hampson, Mr. McLachlan, Colonel Swinhoe, Mr. steeped yields a precipitate of barium sulphate, and solutions Elwes, Mr. Poulton, and Mr. Jacoby took part in the discussion of helianthin and azolitmin painted on 10 the paper give the
which ensued.-Dr. Sharp exhibited samples of pins which he acid reaction.— The interactions occurring in flames : a cor
had tried for preventing verdigris, and stated that silver wire respondence between Sir G. G. Stokes and H. E. Arm
was the best material to use, as insects on silver. pins remained strong: Sir G. Stokes considers that the facility with which I intact, whilst those on gilt pins were destroyed by verdigris. steam is decomposed by glowing carbon favours the view that,
Mr. G. T. Porritt exhibited a series of specimens representing at a high temperature, oxygen co ubines with carbon in preference Huddersfield forms of Polia chi, including nearly melanic speci
He said these to hydrogen. He considers it necessary to distinguish carefully mens, found there during the last two seasons. between the changes which take place in the partial combustion
forms had not hitherto been observed elsewhere. -Mr. Tutt of a molecule and those which are produced in neighbouring exhibited a series of Hadena pisi, comprising specimens very molecules as a result of the heat liberated. This latter change grey in tint, others of an almost unicolorous red with but saint may be termed a thermo-chemical one, in contradistinction to
markings, and others well marked with ochreous transverse a pure chemical change. In the blue base of a candle flame, lines; three distinct forms of Hadena dissimilis ; red and where oxygen is plentiful, pure chemical change may occur.
grey forms of Panolis piniperda, and a dark form of Eupithecia The blue part envelops for a little way the highly luminous fraxinala ; also a specimen of Sciaphila penziana. - The Rev. shell in which glowing carbon is present. This carbon may psyche
, A. thetis, and other species of the genus from the neigh
Dr. Walker exhibited specimens of Arge titea, A. lachesis, A. owe its origin io a thermo-chemical change, the heat being bourhood of Athens; also specimens of Argynnis præbe, taken derived from the pure chemical change occurring just outside it. The hydrocarbon spectrum may be due to a gas formed by a
in Grenada in May 1891.-Mr. W. Farren exhibited a series of pure chemical change; this gas is generally supposed to be specimens of Peronea variegana var. cirrana, and P. schalacetylene, but Sir G. Stokes considers that it is more probably leriana var. latifasciana, from Scarborough; Eupocilia vectimethane. This unknown gas is a hydrocarbon, which, when
sana, from Wicken Fen ; and Elachista subocellea, from Camburnt in the pure state, would show but feebly, if at all, the bridge. ---Mr. G. A. J. Rothney sent for exhibition a number hydrocarbon spectrum. For, in order that it should show its
of species of ants collected in Australia, in May and June 1886, spectrum, its molecule must be in a state of violent agitation ;
which had recently been named by Dr. Forel. The collection this might be expected to be the case if it had just been formed included: Iridomyrmex purpurens, Sm., 1. rufoniger, Lowne, as the result of partial decomposition, but would not be so
1. gracilis, Lowne, I. itinerans, Lowne, Ectatomma metallicum, merely because it was going to be destroyed by union with Sm., E. nudatum, E. mayri, Aphanogaster longiceps, Sm., oxygen. Dr. Armstrong, while admitting that the facts do not Polyrhachis ammon, Fab., Myrmecia nigriventris, Mayr, and justify the assertion that oxygen combines with hydrogen in nigrocincta, Sm., and a variety of Camponotus rubiginosus, preference to carbon when a hydrocarbon is burnt with
Mayr, from Brisbane ; also a few species from Honolulu; ficient oxygen, is unprepared to adopt the view, advocated by and a species of Monomorium, which Dr. Forel had not Sir G. Stokes and Prof. Smithells, that the carbon is the more
yet determined.--Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse read a paper en: combustible, and thinks that the actual condition of affairs is
titled “Some Observations on the Mouth Organs of Diptera,' far less simple than is expressed in the statement of either of
which was illustrated by numerous diagrams.--Mr. E. Meyrick these views. There seems to be very little opportunity in
read a paper entitled “On the Classification of the Geofames for simple heat changes to occur, the molecules of dif- metrina of the European Fauna.” Mr. Hampson, Mr. Elwes, ferent kinds being so mixed up together. Thus opportunity is
Mr. McLachlan, Colonel Swinhoe, Mr. Tutt, and Mr. Distant given for interactions to occur, the end result of which is the took part in the discussion which ensued. same as that of a simple heat change of the chief substance Zoological Society, February 16.-Osbert Salvin, F.R.S., concerned ; merely because a change occurring at one moment Vice-President, in the chair. --Mr. W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., is reversed the next, and so escapes notice. In this way, con- exhibited two heads and a skin of the Yarkand Stag, lent for exhibition by Major C. S. Cumberland, by whom they had been the phenological observations for 1891, by Mr. E. Mawley. obtained, and proposed the name of Cervus elaphus yarkandensis This report differs in many respects from the previous reports on for this form. -Mr. Sclater exhibited and made remarks on some the same subject. Among other changes, the number of plants, living specimens of what are commonly called Spinning or &c., selected for observation has been greatly reduced, while Japanese Mice.-Mr. Sclater also exhibited and made remarks the number of observers has considerably increased. The on some mounted heads of Antelopes from Somali-land, be- winter of 1890-91 proved in England very destructive to the longing to Captain Swayne, R.E., amongst which was an root-crops, as well as to green vegetables and tender shrubs. example of the recently described Swayne's Hartebeeste (Bubalis Birds also suffered severely. In Scotland and Ireland, however, swaynei). – Mr. A. Smith-Woodward exhibited and made there was scarcely any severe weather until March. The flowerremarks on examples of the supposed jaws and teeth of Bothrio ing of wild plants was greatly retarded by cold in the spring, lepis from the Upper Devonian formation of Canada.—Mr. F. but during the summer the departures from the average were not E. Beddard read a paper containing the results of his examina- so great. The harvest was late, and its ingathering much intertion of the Chimpanzee "Sally" and the Orang “George,” fered with by stormy weather.-Note on a lightning discharge lately living in the Society's Menagerie. The author's remarks at Thornbury, Gloucestershire, July 22, 1891, by Dr. E. H. referred principally to the external characters and the muscular Cook. anatomy of these Anthropoid Apes.--A communication from
EDINBURGH. Mr. A. G. Butler gave an accouni of a collection of Lepidoptera from Sandakan, North-East Borneo.--Mr. G. A. Boulenger in the chair. - Prof. C. G. Knoit read a paper on the mappetiza
Royal Society, January 18. — Prof. Chrystal, Vice-President, gave an account of a third collection of Fishes made by Surgeon- tion of iron by a current passing through it. The experiments Major A. S. G. Jayakar at Muscat, East Coast of Arabia. Amongst these was a specimen of Histiopterus typus, a fish magnetization as it exists in an iron wire carrying a current.
were an attempt to get some insight into the nature of circular described in “Fauna Japonica," but not since recognized; and
Direct experiment seemed hopeless. Accordingly, tubes were an example of a new species of Box, proposed to be called B; used, in which the circular magnetization was measured by the lineatus. -A communication from Dr. W. B. Benham contained induction current produced in a coil wound longitudinally round a description of three new species of Earthworms from British the wall of the tube. The circular magnetization could be proColombia and South Africa. These were proposed to be called duced either by an axial current along a copper wire threading Plutellus perrieri, Microchala papillata, and M. belli.—Mr. F. E. Beddard read a paper on some new species of Earthworms of tube itself. Several tubes of different bores were used in pairs,
the tube, or by a sectional current from end to end along the the genus Perichała.-A communication was read from Dr. H. Bolau, on the specimens of Heliaëtus pelagicus and H. branickii; adjustment of resistances in the secondary circuits, against the
the induction, axial or sectional, in one being balanced, by now living in the Zoological Gardens of Hamburg:, . Coloured induction, axial or sectional, under the influence of the same drawings of these nearly allied Sea-Eagles were exhibited.
current in the other. The average magnetic force acting round Anthropological Institute, February 9.-E. B. Brabrook, the tube was calculated in accordance with the usual assump. Vice-President, in the chair. -Mr. Walhouse exhibited the skull tions, and this, taken along with the observed induction, gave of a Dacoit leader from the Chin country on the Burmese and an average permeability. The general result was that the Chinese frontier ; also a quiver and several other Chin objects sectional induction acompanying a given current is greater sent to him by Captain E. S. Hastings.—The following papers by about 7 per cent. than it would be if the usual theory were also read :-On the exploration of Howe Hill Barrow,
as to the relation between it and the axial current were accurate. Duggleby, Yorkshire, by J. R. Mortimer ; and on the human Direct experiment appreciably showed that a current flowing remains found in Howe Hill Barrow, by Dr. J. G. Garson. through iron does not increase permeability to inductive forces
acting perpendicular to the current, so that the deviation menRoyal Meteorological Society, February 17.—Dr. C. tioned must be due to the faultiness of the theory. With Theodore Williams, President, in the chair. - The following greater current densities, such as exist in the circularly magpapers were read :—The untenability of an atmospheric hyro netized wire, this deviation may be even more pronounced.-A thesis of epidemics, by the Hon. Rollo Russell. The author is
paper, written by Mr. R. W. Western, on tactics adopted by of opinion that no kind of epidemic or plague is conveyed by certain birds when flying in the wind, was read. In this paper the general atmosphere, but that all epidemics are caused by an attempt was made to explain the advance of certain birds human conditions and communications capable of control. In against the wind without motion of the wings.-A paper, by this paper he investigates the manner of the propagation of Dr. A. B. Griffiths, on ptomaïnes extracted from urine in influenza, and gives the dates of the outbreaks in 1890 at a certain infectious diseases, was communicated. — Prof. Tait large number of islands and other places in various parts of the read the second part of a paper on impact. In the series of world, Mr. Russell says that there is no definite or known experiments described in this part of the paper, blocks of the atmospheric quality or movement on which the hypothesis of various substances dealt with, similar in shape to those used in atmospheric conveyance can rest, and when closely approached the first set of experiments, but larger in size than they were, it is found to be no more available than a phantom. Neither were used. The mass of the impinging body was also larger lower nor upper currents have ever taken a year to cross Europe than sormerly, and in some experiments the part of it which from east to west, or adjusted their progress to the varying rate impinged upon the substance was made of a V-shape instead of of human intercourse. Like other maladies of high infective flat. The paper contained a comparison of the present results capacity, influenza has spread most easily, other things being with the former.-Prof. Tait also read a note on the critical equal, in cold calm weather, when ventilation in houses and isothermal of carbonic acid as given by Amagat's experiments. railway.cars is at a minimum, and when, perhaps, the breathing Throughout a considerable range of volume this isothermal is organs are most open to attack. But large and rapid com.
practically flat. munications seem to be of much more importance than mere climatic conditions. Across frozen and snow-covered countries
February 1.—The Rev. Prof. Flint, Vice-President, in and tropical regions it is conveyed at a speed corresponding, not
the chair.-A paper by Dr. Piazzi Smyth, formerly Astrowith the movements of the atmosphere, but with the movements
nomer-Royal for Scotland, on the latest physical geography of population and merchandise. Its indifference to soil and air,
from Greenland, was read. --A paper, by Mr. R. Brodie, on apart from human habits depending on these, seems to eliminate the equilibrium and pressure of arches, with a practical method
The all considerations of outside natural surroundings, and to leave
of ascertaining their true shape, was communicated. only personal infectiveness, with all which this implies of subtle
method involves the use of a very simple and easily applied transmission, to account for its propagation. The origin of geometrical construction.-Prof. Tait read a note on the isotherinfluenza epidemics, by Mr. H. Harries. The author has made
mals of mixtures of gases. In this note reference was made to an investigation into the facts connected with the great eruption
a possible explanation of the flatness (indicated in Amagat's of Krakatao in 1883, and the atmospheric phenomena which
recent experiments) of the critical isothermal of carbonic acid were the direct outcome of that catastrophe. He has come to
near the critical point as due to the presence of a small quantity
of air. the conclusion that the dust derived from the interior of the earth
PARIS. may be considered the principal factor concerned in the propagation of the recent influenza epidemics, and that, as this Academy of Sciences, February 22.-M. d'Abbadie in the volcanic dust invaded the lower levels of the atmosphere, so a chair.-On a geometrical interpretation of the expression of an peculiar form of sickness assailed man and beast. ---Report on angle with two normals infinitely close to a surface, and on its
use in theories of the rolling of surfaces and gearings without the sky, which differ from ordinary sheet-lighting, but are friction, hy M. A. Resal.-- On the theory of elasticity, by M. certainly due to electrical discharges, and are most prevalent in H. Poincaré.-On the magnetic disturbance of February 13-14, winter, are always accompanied by changes of terrestrial by M. Mascart. It is stated that the instruments at the meteoro- magnetism. In connection with the above, Prof. Spoerer logical stations of Nice, Toulouse, Clermont, and Besançon pointed out that the solar activity had undergone a sudden were disturbed during the recent magnetic storm in the same reversal in April 1891, in so far as since 1883 the southern manner as those at Perpignan, Lyons, Nantes, and l'arc Saint hemisphere had been more active than the northern, in the ratio Maur. An account is also given of an aurora observed on of 15 and 18 to 10, whereas since April the activity had markedly February 14 by M. P. Lefebvre at Troyes, and M. de Roquigny increased in the northern hemisphere, so that it had exceeded Adanson at Parc-de-Baleine.--Note on a sun-spot observed at that of the southern in the ratio of 34 to 10.—Dr. Assmann Meudon Observatory from February 5 to February 17, by M. J. gave a preliminary short account of some observations made in Janssen.-On the measurement of high temperatures ; reply to a captive balloon in January last during a dead calm and the some remarks made by M. H. le Chatelier, by M. Henri Becque- lowest temperature of the winter. The balloon ascended rel.--Preparation of amorphous boron, by M. Henri Moissan. slowly at i o'clock, and was slowly pulled down at 5 p.m. ; (See Notes.)-On an improvement of automatic arrangements and since it was found that the self-registering apparatus for lifting water to great heights, employed in irrigation, hy M. was in perfect working order, it was again allowed Anatole de Caligny.-Researche; on ethyl monochlor-, mono- ascend, and remained up until 11 p.m. During the whole brom-, and monocyanacetoacetate, hy MM. A. Haller and A. afternoon the cable hung perfec:ly vertical, so that the Held. The monohalogen derivatives of ethyl acetoacetate react balloon reached its full elevation of 750 metres. In the sometimes as a and sometimes as y derivatives, and sometimes evening a slight south-easterly wind blew alost, although the calm as a mixture of a and y derivatives. On the deformation of the was continuous below. The temperature at midday at the earth's crust, by M. Marcel Bertrand. - Photographs of the star earth's surface was - 12° C. ; a few metres above the surface it Nova Aurigæ, taken at the Vatican Observatory, by M. F. rose oo:6, and was then constant up to a height of 250 metres, Denza. Two negatives were taken of the region about Nova and as far as the fine mist extended. At greater elevations it Aurigæ on February 7. The telescope was moved slightly in rose rapidly, and at an elevation of 750 metres stood at - 4°. declination between successive exposures, so that each of the That this considerable elevation of temperature at the higher negatives obtained showed five images of the Nova. The star altitude was not due to solar radiation was shown by the fact that on the date of observation was said to be undoubtedly of the in the evening the temperature at an elevation of 700 metres fifth magnitude. Its image is not so clearly defined as are the was as much as 12° above that at the earth's surface. The data images of other stars on the same plates. Careful measurements as to humidity and barometric pressure were less trustworthy. of position made with the meridian instrument of the Observatory give the values R.A. 5h. 25m. 3:46., Decl. 30° 21' 42"o.
Physiological Society, February 5.-Prof. du Bois Rey. -On algebraic integrals of differential equations of the first mond, President, in the
chair. --Dr. René du Bois Reymond gave order, by M. Léon Autonne.-On maximum elastic deforma
an account of his researches with chloroform purified by crystallization of metallic arcs, by M. Bertrand de Fontvioland.-- Relation chloroform and of the mother liquor from the crystals. Experi
tion at - 100°, and compared its action with that of ordinary of the magnetic disturbance of February 13-14 to solar phenor menting on frogs and rabbits, he found their action was practimena, by M. E. Marchand. - Researches on the realization of cally identical.-Prof. H. Munk made a short communication on the spheroidal state in boilers, by M. A. Witz. Experiments the function of the superior laryngeal nerve, on extirpation of have been made by the author to determine the duration of the thyroid gland, and on a centrally blind monkey. evaporation of water on heated metals.-On the solubility of tricalcic phosphate and hydrogen bicalcic phosphate in solutions of phosphoric acid, by M. H. Causse. - On the stereochemistry
PAGE of diacetyltartaric acid ; a reply to a communication by M. Le Deep-Sea Deposits. By Prof. John W. Judd, F.R.S. 409 Bel, by M. Albert Colson.-Thermal study of sodium isopro. Parasitic Fungi and Moulds
411 pylate, by M. de Forcrand. - Tartronic acid and the tartronates Our Book Shelf:of sodium and potassium, by M. G. Massol. The heat of com- M'Clelland: A Treatise on the Geometry of the bination of tartronic (oxymalonic) acid is greater than that of Circle'
412 malonic acid under the same conditions. This result is similar Lucas : “Kalm's Account of his Visit to England on to that obtained with oxysuccinic and succinic acids. --The his Way to America in 1748”
412 specific gravities of textile fibres, by M. Léo Vignon.-On the Letters to the Editor :vitality of germs of microscopic organisms in fresh and salt The University of London.-Prof. E. Ray Lanwaters, hy M. A. Curtis. -On some points in the embryology
413 of Oniscus murarius, Cuv., and Porcellio scaber, Leach, by Superheated Steam. (With Diagram.)- J. MacfarM. S. Jourdain. - Structure of the nervous system of the larva lane Gray; Prof. James A. Cotterill, F.R.S.; of Stratiomys strigosa, hy MM. F. Henneguy and A. Binet.
G. H. Bailey
413 On nutrition during diabetes, hy M. Hanriot.- Researches on the fall of the leaves of the vine and the ripening of grapes, by
Poincaré's “Thermodynamics.”—Prof. H. Poincaré 414
The Theory of Solutions.--Prof. W. Ostwald 415
The Formation and Erosion of Beaches, &c.-A. R.
415 Physical Society, January 29.—Prof. Schwalbe, President,
Torpid Cuckoo.-A. Holte Macpherson in the chair. - Prof. Lampe gave an account of the life and
A Swan's Secret. --Mrs. Jessie Godwin-Austen work of the late Prof. L. Kronecker; and Dr. Budde an address
A Simple Heat Engine. - Prof. Konstantin Karain honour of the late Astronomer-Royal, Prof. Airy.- Prof.
mate. König described experiments, made chiefly in collaboration with
New Extinct Rail.-Prof. Henry O. Forbes Dr. Ritter, on the luminosity of spectral colours under very
On a Recent Discovery of the 'Remains of Extinct widely different intensities of illumination.
Birds in New Zealand. By Prof. Henry O. Forbes 416
Special attention was directed to the curves of luminosity under very feeble The Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory
Gustav Plarr illumination, a condition under which only the outermost red of
Notes the spectrum is visible.
Our Astronomical Column: Meteorological Society, February 2.-Dr. Vettin, Presi- The Warner Observatory
422 dent, in the chair.—Dr. Arendt spoke on the relationship of the Measurement of Solar Prominences
422 electrical phenomena of the atmosphere to terrestrial mag. The Australasian Association for the Advancement netism. Neither the aurora nor the sudden discharges during of Science
422 thunderstorms have exhibited any regularity in their relation The Draper Catalogue of Stellar Spectra. By A. ship to variations of terrestrial magnetism. The speaker's Fowler
427 observations at the magnetic observatory of Potsdam, extend University and Educational Intelligence ing over a whole year, have shown that sudden luminosities in Societies and Academies .
THURSDAY, MARCH 10, 1892.
geology, for which a special Museum exists in Jermyn Street.
One hundred and fifty thousand square feet being reTHE SCIENCE MUSEUM AND THE TATE
quired, a plot of 500,000 square feet was provided ; and GALLERY.
it is quite certain that, at some not very distant time, THE 'HE men of science of this country owe a deep debt the space not yet built on will be required. We cannot,
of gratitude to Mr. Goschen. As a result of his therefore, call this generous appropriation unwise from careful inquiry into the questions raised by the suggested the point of view of possible, or rather certain, future use, for Mr. Tate's gallery, of land bought for scientific extensions ; while all will agree that a national building purposes, he has decided that the scientific claim must of this class is all the better for standing a little away hold good. It is impossible to over-estimate the import- from noisy and dusty roads. ance of this decision. Had it been otherwise, the possibility This, then, is the available fact with which we can deal, of establishing in London an institution which should be and we must again state whither it leads us; for in Mr. for Science what the National Gallery is for Art and the Goschen's letter to Mr. Tate, admirable though it is as British Museum Library for Literature would have been a complete statement of the case, there is one phrase wrecked for a generation.
to which we must take exception. To show its force, One can easily imagine that it was not easy for a we quote the whole sentence :Chancellor of the Exchequer to come to such a conclusion-not easy, that is, to one who was prepared only to
" In conclusion, allow me to say that I can well underlook at the surface of things.
stand that the difficulties in finding a suitable home for On the one hand, there was the tempting offer of build yourself
, may not unnaturally have caused you some
your collection, notwithstanding your munificent offer to £80,000 from a well-known public benefactor, about vexation. I think you will, however, admit that the which large sum so much has been said that very few Government have shown their desire to meet you in have thought it worth while to consider either the value every possible way, and are willing to incur considerable of the plot or what capital sum would represent the annual outlay themselves in carrying out your plan. In the first
instance, we not only offered the eastern and western outlay necessary to keep up the gallery when once built ; galleries for housing British art, but adopted the plan of an outlay which, of course, would fall upon the nation. uniting them by a cross gallery, which seemed to remove
On the other hand, the Lord President of the Council, many of the objections. When you came to the conwho is responsible for the Science and Art Department clusion that the proportions given to the plan were not (and, as many people think, however erroneously, for the large enough or distinct enough to suit your views, and proper setting out and consideration of any national ques. Institute Road, I hoped that a solution had been found,
when you suggested the site at the corner of the Imperial tion touching Science or Art), seemed to be willing that
and that this arrangement would meet with general Mr. Tate should have his way. Nor was this all ; the acceptance.
aware of the storm which folReport of the Committee appointed by the Treasury lowed, and though, in my own judgment, the Governa few years ago is so vaguely drafted that it now ment land at Kensington was of so large an area that, appears that the view which we and others took in by some understanding between the representatives of discussing its recommendations at the time was in- vided for assigning sites for every purpose, I was never
science and those of art, satisfactory means could be procorrect. The question referred to this Committee dealt theless so anxious that no obstacles should prevent the with the space necessary for the housing of the science execution of your plans, that I consented to recommend collections which had been brought together as a the Government to incur a very considerable pecuniary nucleus for the Science Museum, the establishment of liability if the Corporation of London should, on their which was recommended in 1874 by the Duke of Devon
part, offer the site on the Embankment on terms which shire's Commission. The Committee's Report recom
were suggested to me as not impossible.” mended that 90,000 square feet should be provided. We Now, the land at Kensington, of “so large an and others naturally took this to mean that this was in area," consists of something like 300,000 square feet, addition to the existing space. The modern gloss, how- say three-fifths of the site occupied by the Natural ever, is that this represented the whole space necessary, History Museum: of this, Mr. Tate demanded roughly in the opinion of the Committee, for a complete Museum 100,000 square feet-thus leaving 200,000. dealing with all the inorganic sciences (except geology Of this, the new laboratories for physics, astronomical and mineralogy) and their industrial applications! It physics, and chemistry, if these are to be on the scale of may even be that this idea has been placed before Mr. similar institutions in a second-rate German town, will, Goschen. If so, all the greater credit to him for having including the necessary lighting spaces, &c., require seen through the fallacy of a view which it is absolutely 100,000 square feet. This leaves 100,000. impossible can ever have been in the heads of the scien- But this remainder, on which there is to be built a tific members of the Committee.
Science Museum, is less than two-thirds of the exhibiting As we pointed out recently, it is better not to deal space of the Natural History Museum as it stands at with opinions in such a matter as this, if facts are avail- present, to say nothing of the total area devoted to it! able ; they exist. The space considered necessary not It is clear, then, that Mr. Goschen has not had the very many years ago for the sciences represented in the facts placed before him by those upon whom he has Natural History Museum was 150,000 square feet, nearly relied for his information. While the official prompting double that already mentioned. In the case of these has tended one way, the opinions of the President and sciences, moreover, “industrial applications” cannot be Officers of the Royal Society and other men of science exhibited at all-except, by the way, in the case of have clearly tended another; and Mr. Goschen's final