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Crustacea, by C. Warburton ; Arachnida and Myriopoda, I had noticed, a quarter of an hour previously, that the rays by R. Innes Pocock ; Insecta, by D. Sharp; Echino- of the sun, when behind a cloud, stood out in an unusually solid dermata, by E. A. Minchin ; Vermes, by P. C. Mitchell; and clearly defined manner. There was a good deal of antiCoelenterata, by S. J. Hickson ; Spongiæ, by E. A. cyclonic stratus (about 5000 feet) at the time, and the upper Minchin; Protozoa, by C. Warburton. The utmost
part of the atmosphere was inore hazy than is usual with a
north-east wind at this period of the year. At the earth's pains have been taken to make the lists complete and
surface the wind had dropped to an almost persect calm. accurate, and to students of zoology they are practically
Lutterworth, March 5.
ANNIE LEY. indispensable. In the introduction to Mammalia, Mr. Lydekker notes that the number of new recent species is
New Comet. extraordinarily large. He adds, however, that this is
The comet discovered here on the evening of Friday, March “due to the elevation to specific rank of a host of North 18, is extremely small, though not very faint, and it has a American forms which would be regarded by most zoo- decided central condensation or nucleus. Its position at about logists as varieties." No fewer than forty of the “new
8h. 30m., March 18, was roughly determined as R.A. 341", species” belong to this category.
Decl. N. 59o. The comet was therefore situated in Cepheus, and about 3° east-north-east of the star Delta in that constel
lation. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.
On March 19, at Sh., I reobserved the comet, and found its
rate and direction of motion to be 47' of arc east, and 12' north. [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions ex
It will therefore shortly traverse Cassiopeia. pressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake The comet was discovered with a 10-inch reflecting telescope, to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected with eye-piece magnifying 40 times, and having a field of 65 manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. of arc.
W. F. DENNING. No notice is taken of anonymous communications.]
Bristol, March 21.
[This is stated to be Winnecke's comet. -Ed.] Sun Pillar. A REMARKABLY well-defined instance of this phenomenon
First Visible Colour of Incandescent Iron. was seen by me at this place (460 feet above mean sea-level) DURING the discussion which followed the reading of the this afternoon. At 5.32 p.m. the sun was sinking behind a raper on “Colour Photometry" by Captain Abney and General thick layer of stratus cloud. There was a bank of dust haze, Fe-ting at the Royal Society on January 28, some interesting so defined as almost to resemble cirrus, which apparently formed remarks were made by Lord Rayleigh as to the colour exhibited a background 10 the clouds. When the phenomenon was first by heated iron when raised to such a temperature as only to be noticed, about three-quarters of the sun's disk was below the just visible in a dark room. edge of the cloud bank ; and from The centre of that portion of Lord Rayleigh stated that Weber, who, so far as I know, first the disk visible there rose a iall column of brilliant light, ex- drew attention to this subject, described the first visible light as ending upwards to about 5°, of the same width as the apparent a greenish-grey. Lord Rayleigh himself repeated the experi
diameter of the sun, and narrowing almost to a point as it ment by making a piece of thin iron part of the wall of a very touched the sun's rim. This convergence became more marked dark room, and heating the iron gradually by a Bunsen burner as the rest of the disk disappeared, until at the point at which upon the other side. Lord Rayleigh could not satisfy himself the latter was finally lost to sight the apex appeared to rest on the as to the greenish tint, but was satisfied that no redness was edge of the cloud bank. The cone-shaped part at the base of apparent. the pillar was the most luminous portion, and glowed with a bril- It struck me that a very convenient method of trying this exliant orange-red tint, which gradually merged into the yellow- periment would be to introduce a round bar of heated iron into white of the upper part of the column. The effect lasted for a thin sleeve, as shown in the annexed sketch, the sleeve being some minutes after the sun's disappearance, but the pillar lost closed with a cover lined with asbestos. In this way the heat its conical base and became less defined, while the clouds reced- would slowly penetrate the sleeve, and the observers could note ing gave the appearance of the base of the pillar having risen in the first appearance of visibility and the changes of colour that the sky.
I accordingly had two sleeves prepared, one of turned and polished iron, the other left with a thick coating of oxide. Two sets of experiments, in each of which six observers took part, were made. In each set of experiments three observations were made with the polished, and three with the oxidized sleeve. In each case the observers were in the dark room for some minutes before the experiments began.
In the first set of experiments the observers gave their opinion, at the conclusion of the experiments, as a body, that the first appearance of colour was a greyish-white; as the sleeve became hotter the colour was yellow, and gradually changed into orange. There was little or no difference between the observers as to the instant of visibility ; it was generally over a minute before the sleeve became visible, the light generally showing first on the generating line of the cylinder between the eye and the axis.
(8) For all experiments except last, first grey white, gradually becoming warmer till it reached orange.
(e) First white like phosphorus in the dark, gradually getting to rose, and winding up with a reddish-orange not reached in the last experiment.
(6) First white with a dark shade, second yellow, third orange ; no difference in any of the experiments except the last, where the temperature was lower, and the orange was not reached.
I may add that the temperature of the heating bar was a little reduced each experiment, the colours changed very slowly, and gave ample time for observation.
Poincaré's “ Thermodynamics." M. Tait ne répond pas à mon objection sous prétexte qu'elle est sans importance. Je maintiens que nous n'avons aucun moyen non seulement d'assigner l'origine des forces électromotrices Thomson, mais encore d'en constater l'existence. Si M. Tait veut répondre, et s'il connait ce moyen, qu'il l'indique. Dans le cas contraire, s'il n'est pas en mesure de soutenir une quelconque de ses critiques, et s'il préfère un autre terrain de discussion, je suis prêt à l'y suivre.
Seulement je serai forcé d'être un peu plus long, car il me faudra passer en revue les trois reproches de M. Tait.
(1) La forme de mon ouvrage est trop mathématique.
C'est là une appréciation personnelle dont il n'y a pas à disputer. Je veux bien d'ailleurs d'une polémique sur une question de doctrine, mais non d'un procés de tendance où je jouerais le rôle d'accusé.
Toutefois il est certain que je consacre relativement peu de place à la description des expériences, et on aurait le droit de s'en étonner si je n'en donnais l'explication. Mon livre est la reproduction textuelle de mon cours; or mes auditeurs avaient tous suivi déjà un cours de physique experimentale, où ces expériences leur étaient décrires en détail. Je n'avais donc qu'à leur en rappeler brièvement les résultats.
(2) J'ai mal parlé de la définition de la température absolue. Auiant que je puis comprendre, M. Tait ne trouve pas ma définition mauvaise, et n'en propose pas une autre ; mais, dit-il, j'aurais dû parler des expériences de Joule et Thomson, qui permettent de mesurer la température absolue.
Or j'ai décrit ces expériences à la page 164, et j'ai montré à la page 169 comment elles permettent de déterminer la température absolue.
(3) J'ai laissé complètement de côté une explication mécanique du principe de Clausius que M. Tait appelle "the true (.e. the statistical) basis of the second Law of Thermodynamics.
Je n'ai pas parlé de cette explication, qui me paraît d'ailleurs assez peu satisfaisante, parce que je désirais rester complètement en dehors de toutes les hypothèses moléculaires quelque ingénieuses qu'elles puissent être ; et en particulier j'ai passé sous silence la théorie cinétique des gaz.
Ornithology of the Sandwich Islands. HAVING just returned from an exploring expedition into the interior of Australia, on my way home I lingered in this group of islands, and was sorry to find that some species which have been obtained here are now no longer to be found.
My attention has been called to an interesting paper hy Prof. | Newton in your last issue (p. 465), on this subject, which seems · to imply that the ornithological collection made by Sir Joseph
Banks during his voyage in the Endeavour with Captain Cook
no longer exists, which I beg to be allowed to make a few There was no difference in colour between the bright and the remarks upon. After the return of Sir Joseph Banks he had oxidized sleeves.
several cases of birds carefully mounted and arranged according In the second set of experiments, the observers had no to the localities in which they were collected. In one group of communication with one another, had no idea what colour they land birds from Owhyhee, another case contained a number of were expected to see, and their impressions were written specimens from Botany Bay, conspicuous in the centre of down separately and independently. Their impressions were which was a very fine specimen of the Black Swan, which was as follow, the observers being designated by a, B, &c. :
shot by Captain Cook himself. (a) First colour visible, grey white, second colour white with a These cases were in the custody of the Linnean Society of little mauve, third pale rose, fourth orange.
The above was the London until 1863, when they formed part of their Natural first experiment (polished metal). The other experiments showed History sale. same colour, but no mauve seen. In the last experiment (a These cases have been carefully preserved, and are now in very low heat) the colour never passed beyond a pale yellow. the museum of my ancestor, Mr. John Calvert, together with
(B) For all experiments, first grey white, second yellow, third a number of cases of birds which formed part of Sir Ashton orange. Last experiment, no orange.
Lever's collection, amongst which are a few from the Pacific (7) For all experiments except last, first white, second yellow, Islands. These last cases were purchased from the executors of
the late Mr. M. Armfield, of Catherine Street, Macclesfield,
about twenty-five years ago, being a very fine collection of many shown that the vapours must be identical from either beginning ; thousand ornithological specimens, with a quantity of interest- and unless each carried a certificate of birth, I do not now see ing correspondence with Mr. J. Thompson, of Knowsley how it would be possible to tell one from the other. Aviary, Mr. Reid, of Doncaster, R. Dunn, of Hull, and London, March 12.
J. MACFARLANE GRAY. many other naturalists of that period; these explain upon what terms he obtained the egg and a very fine specimen of the Great Auk. ALBERT F. CALVERT.
Phoronomy. 63, Patshull Road, Kentish Town, March 19.
I THINK it will be admitted by all, that precision of
language is of great importance in scientific terminology; and Superheated Steam.
the letter of Dr. Besant, which appeared in your issue of last
week (p: 462), certainly suggests strong reasons for employing LORD RAYLEIGH (p. 438) rebuts my objection to the state- the word phironomy in the place of kinematics. ment regarding the efficiency of a vapour-engine in which pure The word may at first sight appear strange to the present water is replaced by a saline solution, pointing out " that generation of mathematicians; but if it becomes acclimatized, Maxwell's exposition of Carnot's engine applies without the its employment will appear as natural as the phrases kinetic and change of a single word, whether the substance in the cylinder potential energy, in the place of such meaningless phrases as be water, mercury, or an aqueous solution of chloride of calcium." vis-viva and force-function. The latter italics are mine. In the statement objected to by me When the medical profession require a new word, they almost the aqueous solution of chloride of calcium was in the boiler, always have recourse to the Greek language ; and mathematicians and what was in the cylinder was superheated steam, which is and physicists would do well to follow their example, and in not included in the above list, so that the application of Max
cases of doubt or difficulty to consult some eminent classical well's exposition is somewhat difficult. The greater part of the scholar. I must confess, that I have no sympathy with the fresh water supplied to passengers in steamships is now produced attempts, which have occasionally been made, to introduce short by condensing the superheated vapour of a saline solution, and
words of Teutonic origin into scientific nomenclature, as such the culinary experience is that the substance which was in solu- words have always appeared to me to be singularly deficient in tion has alí been left in the boiler. My contention, therefore, point. A good example of this is furnished by the word spin, still stands—the saline mixture is not the working substance, which Clifford attempted to introduce in the place of the phrase and Carnot's law refers to the working substance only, and not molecular rotation. The latter phrase, although a little long, to anything left in the boiler.
exactly expresses the idea which it is intended to convey, viz. "In each case there is a definite relation between pressure that the molecules of the fluid possess a motion of rotation as and temperature." This is evidently merely a slip of the pen, well as a motion of translation. The word spin, on the other the writer having for the moment forgotten that he was dealing hand, does not express any such idea, but is strongly suggestive with superheated steam, for which there is not a definite relation of the juvenile, though not altogether unscientific, pastime of between pressure and temperature. The cordition of super spinning peg-tops.
A. B. BASSET. heated steam is completely defined when both pressure and 322 Oxford Street, W., March 18. temperature are given ; but pressure is here a function of temperature-and-something else, and temperature is here function of pressure and something-else. That something else may be volume or it may be energy, or, preferably, it
I HAVE before me the second edition of F. Redtenbacher's may be entropy, but it must be something which cannot be Principien der Mechanik und des Maschinenbaues ” (Mannpredicated from pressure alone or from temperature alone. heim, 1859), of which the first section is entitled “Die Bewe. (So far as the substance is concerned), all that is necessary
gung als Erscheinung (Phoronomie).” Whether the term occurs for the reversible operation of the engine is that the various already in the first edition (1852), I cannot affirm, but I rememparts of the working substance should be in equilibrium with ber very well that Redtenbacher, in his lectures in Carlsruhe, one another throughout.” No; for, in addition, it is necessary in 1858, insisted upon that term being distinct from “Dynamik that the working substance should have only one pressure con.
and "Kinematik." I conclude, therefore, that the majority of sistent with any given temperature. For this reason, super
the 786 students of that year-among them many foreignersheated steam, however it may have been produced, can never
as also those of other years, were conversant with the term. be the working substance in a Carnot's engine. In the reversed
M. AM ENDE. cycle, when the steam is raised from a saline solution, from the
Westminster Chambers, 5 Victoria Street, beginning of the higher isothermal, the pressure would go on in
London, S.W., March 19. creasing until it became that due to saturated steam at the temperature of the superheat. This might be double the maximum pressure in the original cycle.
SOME other correspondent is pretty sure to be mentioning that "The various parts of the working substance should be in
Mr. W. H. Besant will find in Kant's Metaph. Anfangsgründe equilibrium with one another throughout." The writer seems
der Naturwissenschaft all the authority he could desire for his to say that the steam of a saline solution is a stable saturated
proposed use of the word “phoronomy.” Kant regularly uses vapour. It is H,O at a given pressure and temperature, and
the word in the sense of the later “kinematic" ; and he was the condition of the substance is by this definition completely
man of science enough to justisy anyone in following his lead. determined, and there is no alternative; but it is not stable.
G. C. R. Say that the steam-space of the boiler is increased by adding a vertical cylinder alongside the boiler, open to it. On the bottom of that vessel the steam might condense---pure water
The Tudor Specimen of Eozoon. and the temperature of the steam immediately over this water would be that of saturated vapour at the same temperature,
In reference to the remarks made by Sir J. W. Dawson and from there all through the steam-space to the surface of the (NATURE, March 17, p. 461) on my paper on the Tudor saline solution in the boiler the temperature would increase, and specimen of Eozoon (Quart. Fourn. Geol. Soc., vol. xlvii. pp. all would have the same pressure. There would be mechanical 348-55), I should like to say that the whole point of that paper equilibrium, but not thermal equilibrium.
was that it was based on Sir J. W. Dawson's original type. ""At the upper limit, all the heat is received at the highest
The figure of this specimen has been repeatedly republished by point of temperature," —but just as it would be if the evaporation Sir J; W. Dawson, and, in the absence of illustrations or details were from a film of water upon a nearly bare combustion of other specimens from Tudor, upon its evidence alone rests chamber crown. The plate is left in the boiler, and so is the
the asserted occurrence of Eozoon in the Tudor limestone, and salt, and in neither case would the steam exhibit a “state of the great claims based thereupon. The value of other specithings strongly contrasted with that which obtains when vapour mens from this locality was noi rated very highly by Sir J. W. rising from pure water is afterwards superheated.” I have
Dawson so recently as September 1888, when he remarked, stated in my previous letter that the heat of evaporation is all
" Without additional specimens,' and in the case of creatures so received at identically the same temperatures as when it is raised
variable as the Foraminifera, it would be rash to decide whether from pure water at the same pressure, and the contrast is only
1 And he previously refers only to“ the specimen," " this very interesting as strong as that between occult and obvious, I have now specimen," "the fine specimen from Tudor," &c.
the differences above noted 1 are of specific value.” ? I may add Fasting feas on an average pull 1493 times their own dead That I have recently seen the specimens of Tudor limestone ex- weight. bibited in the Peter Redpath Museum, and my estimale of their Other experimenters give the pulling power of the shellvalue coincides exactly with that of Sir J. W. Dawson in 1888. deprived Venus verrucosa of the Mediterranean, a cockle-like As Sir J. W. Dawson most kindly promises his assistance to creature, at 2071 times the weight of its own body. other workers, perhaps he would submit to some of them any The force required to open an oyster appears to be 1319-5 specimens from Tudor which he regards as more conclusive than times the weight of the shell-less oyster. his original type.
J. LAWRENCE-HAMILTON, M.R.C.S. It would seem rather unnecessary for anyone to trouble to 30 Sussex Square, Brighton, March 19. infer from my paper that Sir J. W. 'Dawson has "regarded the Madoc and Tudor specimens as 'Lower Laurentian,'” when that is so directly stated by Sir J. W. Dawson in his description
Technical Education for Novelists. of his figure ; viz. "Specimen of Łozoon canadense embedded in AMIDST the many schemes for technical education, could you a dark-coloured homogeneous limestone occurring in the Lower not put in a plea for the "author of the popular novel”? I aurentian series at Tudor, Canada West” (Quart. Journ. Geol. Perhaps the need will best appear from these illustrations taken Soc., vol. xxiii. p. 265).
J. W. GREGORY. from the first 100 pages of a recenily published and loudly British Museum (Natural History), S.W.
(1) Scene-Kinder Scout, Derbyshire. Date-“after the
snows and rains of early April,” 1864. Time-after 8 p.m. “It The Theory of Solutions.
was a clear, frosty night, promising a full moon.
(2) Same place, Easter Eve, 1864. "The wooded sides of In his last letter (NATURE, March 3, p. 415) Prof. Ostwald the great moor were fading into dimness, and to the east a repeats his opinion that a theory is a complex of laws, grouped young moon was rising.”
W. around and derived from a main law," and infers from my letter March 12. that what I term a theory he would term an hypothesis.
If this were the whole point at issue, I could meet it in no better way perhaps than by referring Prof. Ostwald to his own
THE ORIGIN OF THE YEAR. works. For example, in his “ Outlines of General Chemistry,” are to be found not only numerous instances of the use of the
I. word theory in its ordinary and accepted sense (e.g., p. 58) Twould seem that in the dawn of civilization it was but also cases in which it is employed as synonymous with hypothesis (2.3., p. 187).
not at all a matter of course that the sun should be With regard to the definition of solutions as mixtures, Prof.
taken as the measurer of time, as it is now with us; and in Ostwald maintains that even if hydrates are formed in a solution,
this connection it is worth while to note how very various the solution is finally a mixture of the hydrates and the remain
the treatment of this subject was among the early peoples. ing solvent. The real question involved is unaffected by this Thus, for instance, it was different in Egypt from what it explanation. There is no doubt whatever that to the majority was in Chaldæa and Babylonia, and later among the Jews. of readers the definition, without any qualifying clause, that in the Egyptian inscriptions we find references to the solutions are mixtures leads to une conclusion and no other, moon, but they prove that she occupied quite a subordinnamely, that between solvent and dissolved substance there is no ate position to the sun ; while in Chaldæa it would seem interaction of a chemical nature. Prof. Ostwald has in his that the moon was the chief thing worshipped, and it letters stated that in some cases he considers such interactions
was thus raturally the chief means used for measuring occur ; he has also stated that between chemical and physical time, and, so far as months were concerned, this, of course, processes he knows of no distinction. The definition is at variance with both these views, and it seems but fair to conclude
was quite right. In Chaldæa, too, where much desert that sucb discordant statements tend in no way to obviate that
travel had to be undertaken at night, the movement of misconception which Prof. Ostwald so often deplores.
the moon would be naturally watched with great care. In defence of the application of van der Waals's equation to
An interesting point connected with this is that, solutions, a process questioned by me in my letter, Prof. / among these ancient peoples, the celestial bodies which Ostwald states that van der Waals himself has taken up this gave them the unit period of time by which they reckoned very question. The method by which van der Waals approaches were practically looked upon in the same category. the subject, curiously enough, furnished the main grounds for my Thus, for instance, in Egypt the sun being used, the objections. The most superficial comparison of the complex unit of time was a year; but in Chaldæa the unit of formula u hich van der Waals deduces for a mixture of two sub. time was a month, for the reason that the standard of stances, with such an application of his simple gas equation to a
time was the moon. Hence, when periods of time were in solution as that given in Prof. Ostwald's book, is ample justifica question it was quite easy for one nation to conceive that the inadequacy of the application, the form which it is finally the period of time used in another was a year when made to assume is in itself a proof of its incompleteness. By really it was a month, and vice versa. It has been sugjudicious simplification the application is made to iake the shape gested that the years of Methuselah and other persons of a linear equation in which “pressure forces due to the inter
who are stated to have lived a considerable number of actions of molecules are absent." That is to say, the cohesion years were not solar years but lunar years—that is, proof solvent and dissolved substance, and the mutual reactions of perly, lunar months. This is reasonable, since if we both, are alike ignored. Further comment on such a method of divide the numbers by 12 we find that they come out accounting for the phenomena of solutions appears to me to be very much the same length as lives are in the present day. superfluous.
J. W. RODGER. There seems little doubt that the country in which the London, March 7.
sun was first definitely accepted as the most accurate
measurer of time was Egypt. The Limpet's Strength.
“The Egyptians," says Ranke in the first chapter of
his “ Universal History," which is devoted to Egypt, The limpet experiments of your esteemed correspondent, Mr.
' have determined the motion of the sun as seen on earth, Percy Aubin, as reported in NATURE of March 17 (p. 464) would have been still more interesting and instructive had he
and according to this the year was divided, in comparison weighed the animals deprived of their shells.
with Babylon in a scientific and practically useful way, so On April 10, 1890, I published my experiments showing that that Julius Cæsar adopted the calendar from the Egypthe shell-less limpet pulls 1984 times in the air its own weight,
tians and introduced it into the Roman Empire ; the and about double when immersed in water.
other nations followed suit, and since then it has been in
general use for seventeen centuries. The calendar may ii.e. between the specimen from Tudor and those from other localities. Specimens of Eozoon canadense," Mem. Peter Redpath Mus., 1888,
be considered the noblest relic of the most ancient times
which has influenced the world."
A study of the Egyptian monuments has shown most Beginning with the inundation (summer solstice) we conclusively that towards the end of the ancient empire have the Egyptians possessed a year as accurate for calendar
(1) The season or tetraemne of the inundation, purposes as our own, and that they had been led up to
sowing, the knowledge of its true length by successive steps.
harvest. As we shall show further on, this earliest of all years
From the earliest times the year was divided into that we know of in history began at the summer solstice.
twelve months, as follows: Since one of the oldest temples at Thebes is oriented to sunset at the summer solstice, we should be not at all
Thoth End of June (Gregorian). surprised if investigation shows that when that temple
Inundation ... was built, more than 3000 years B.C., the Egyptian year
August. really began in what we should call our summer. We
September have ample evidence of this. And I think there is little
November. doubt also that when Stonehenge was built it certainly Seed time
December. was built by people who began their year with the summer
January solstice, which is the time of the year in which in many
February countries it is the habit still to light fires upon hills and
April. lived, say, during the 1000 years preceding the birth of
May. Christ, we find that the different races began their year at different times, and even that the same race at different Now whether the Egyptians brought their year with times began their year differently ; the choice lay among them or invented it in the Nile valley, there is a belief the equinoxes and the solstices.
that it at first consisted of 360 days only, that is 51 days Wherever the ancient Egyptians came from, whether too little. It is more likely that they brought the lunar
from a region where the moon was the time-measurer of month with them, taking it roughly as 30 days (30 X 12 = not, so soon as they settled in the valley where the Nile 360), than that they began with such an erroneous notion then as now like a pendulum slowly beat the years by its of the true length of the solar year, seeing that in Egypt, annual overflows at the summer solstice, the solar basis
above all countries in the world, owing to the regularity of of their calendar was settled.
the inundation, the true length could have been so easily We can well understand, therefore, since the whole life of determined, so soon as that regularity was recognized. the country depends upon the river, and all the energies We must not in these questions forget to put ourselves in of the inhabitants are connected with the work to be the place of these pioneers of astronomy and civilization : done during its rise and fall, that the moment of the com- if we do this, we shall soon see how many difficulties mencement of the inundation, about the time of the were involved in determining the true length of such a summer solstice, should be chosen as the beginning of cycle as a year, when not only modern appliances, but all the year. Hence the perpetual reference to Solstice and just ideas too, were of necessity lacking. Nile flood in the Egyptian annals.
Still it is right that I should state that all authorities It might be imagined at first sight that, as the year was
are not agreed as to the use of this year of 360 days. thus determined, so to speak, by natural local causes, the Ideler1 considers it very doubtful. Krall, however, urges divisions or seasons would be the same as those which that a certain inscription (the trilingual inscription of Nature has given us. This is not so. Egypt is too near Tanis) expressly refers to it. the tropics, and the local conditions are too different from He adds to this some evidence, which he considers our own, to permit of the application of our seasonal confirmatory, from religious usages. Thus at Philoe, in divisions of the year,
the temple of Osiris, there were 360 bowls for sacrifice, As Egypt, in the description quoted by Krall, “first which were filled daily with milk by a specifie rotation appears like a dusty plain, then as a fresh-water sea, and of priests. At Acanthus there was a perforated cask finally as a bed of flowers," so the year is divided into
1 "Chronologie," i. p. 70. three seasons instead of four.
2 “Studien zur Geschichte des alten Aegypten," i. p. 16