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With the exception of aluminium, most of the metals are hardly portion of the Indian Ocean adjacent to Cape Guardafui and Ras Kafún attacked by dry chlorine and bromine at the ordinary tempera

(Eyre and Spottiswoode). - Arithmetical Physics ; Part za, Magnetism and

Electricity ; 3rd edition : C. J. Woodward (Simpkin).- A Graduated Course ture. Aluminium, however, is acted on very energetically by of Natural Science, Part 2: B. Loewy (Macmillan).-Delagoa Bay, its liquid chlori ne and bromine, whilst magnesium particularly Natives and Natural History: R. Monteiro (Philip). --Observations made resists the action. The reactions are very slow when the dry

at the Hong Kong Observatory in the Year 1890: W. Doberck (Hong halogens are used. When water is present the action becomes

Kong).—Light, an Elementary Treatise : Sir H. 1. Wood (Whittaker). -A

First Book of Electricity and Magnetism: W. P. Maycock (Whittaker) more rapid, hydrogen being generally liberated owing to its The Alkali-Maker's Hand-book; and edition : G. Lunge and F. Hurter decomposition, but in some cases the water remains unaltered. (Whittaker). --The Practical 1 elephone Hand-bock: J. Poole (Whittaker) -Contribution to the chemico-physical study of the function

The Plant World: G. Massee (Whittaker). -T. Cooke and Sons' Catalogue of of the kidney, by M. C. Chabrié. –On the chronology of the

Astronomical and Scientific Instruments, 1891 (York). -A Text-book of

Physiology, Part 4, 5th edition, revised: Prof. M. Foster (Macmillan). eruptive rocks of Jersey, by M. A. de Lapparent. - New geo- Iconographia Floræ Japonicæ, vol. i. Part 1: Dr. R. Yatabe (Tokyo, logical observations of the Island of Sardinia, by M. Charles

Maruya).- Catalogue of the Michigan Mining School, Houghton, Michide Stefani. -New considerations on the Vertebrate sauna of

gan, 1890-91 (Houghton).- Manual for the Physiological Laboratory;, 5th

edition : Drs. Harris and Power (Baillière).- Die Entstehung der Landtiere, the Upper Miocene in the Isle of Samos, by M. Forsyth ein Biologischer Versuch : Dr. H. Simroth (Leipzig, Engelmann).—Revisio Major. — The gravels of Montfort, by M. Ed. Piette.

Generum Plantarum, Pars 1 : Dr. O. Kuntze (Dulau).

PAMPHLETS.-- Proposed Railway through Siberia : W. M. Cunningham BERLIN.

(London).-Molecular Morion in the Radiometer, in Crookes' Tubes and in

some other Phenomena : D. S. Troy (New York, Hodges).-Oysters and Physiological Society, October 16.-Prof. du Bois-Rey- Oyster-Fisheries of Queensland (Brisbane). mond, President, in the chair.—Dr. Lüderitz gave an account of

SERIALS.-Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, No. 188, vol. xlvii., an investigation of the changes of blood-pressure in the left

Part 4 (Longmans). - Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 17 Band, 4 Heft (Leipzig:

Engelmann). - Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, No. 128 ventricle and right carotid which result from gradual compres. (Churchill). - Bolerim da Commissão Geographia e Geologica do Estado de sion of the aorta. — The President exhibited three very successful S. Paulo, Nos. 4-7 (S. Paulo). – Miten des Vereins für Erdkunde zu Halle photographs of the posterior (retinal) surface of the eye.-Doctor

a/S (Halle a/S)-Geological Magazine, November (K. Paul). -Jahrbuch

der Meteorologischen Beobachtungen der Wetterwarte der Magdeburgischen Wertheim recorded the disappearance of the indirect image of Zeitung, Band ix. Jahrg. X., 1890 (Magdeburg).- Records of the Australian an illuminated disk when the object itself, as seen directly, is Museum, vol. i. No. 8 (Sydney). - Journal of the Chemicai Society, Novemsuddenly darkened. —Dr. Lilienfeld gave an account of a ber (Gurney and Jackson). ---Sitzungsbericht der k. Akademie der Wissen chemical examination of blood-platelets, which showed that they

schaften Math. Naturw. Classe, xcix. Band, Abthg. 1, Heft 4-10; Abthg.

2a, Heft 4-10; Abthg. 2b, Heft 4-10; Abthg. 3, Heft 4-10 (Wien). consist of a compound of albumin and nuclein, whose behaviour speaks against their being preformed structures. Physical Society, October 23.-Prof. du Bois-Reymond,

CONTENTS.

PAGE President, in the chair. - The Society resolved to present to Prof. von Helmholtz, on November 2, in celebration of his The Hygiene of Water-Supply. By Prof. Percy F. seventieth birthday, an address prepared by Prof. von Bezold.

Frankland, F.R.S.

2; -Messrs. Haensch described a modification which they had

Causation of Sleep made in a spectrophotometer.—Dr. Rubens gave an account of

Our Book Shelf: a new method of determining dispersion and refraction in the

Spencer : "Physiography-Elementary Stage” 27 ultra-violet rays, a metbod which, unlike that employed by Lupton : “Mayhew's Illustrated Horse Doctor.”_W. Langley, yields more accurate results by very simple means. F. G.

27 He has already made determinations with a series of glasses,

Boerlage : “Handleiding tot de kennis der Flora van with water and with carbon bisulpbide. The curve of dispersion

Nederlandsch Indië.”-W. B. H. he finds to be, on the whole, the same as that obtained by Step : “By Sea-shore, Wood, and Moorland"

28 Langley for rock-salt.-Prof. Preyer enunciated his hypothesis as

Letters to the Editor:to the genealogy of the chemical elements.

Note on the Chromosphere Spectrum.-Prof. C. A.

Young
AMSTERDAM.

Formation of a Temporary Cyst in the Fresh-water Royal Academy of Sciences, September 26.-Prof. van

Annelid Æolosoma. Frank E. Beddard

28

28 de Sande Bakhuysen in the chair.-Prof. Franchimont showed

Polytechnics and Recreation.-Miss Emma Cons a little bottle filled with a new chemical compound, obtained

“W = Mg."-Prof. Arthur G. Webster ; A. G. G. 29 and examined by Dr. C. A. Lobry de Bruyn. This hydroxyl

Alum Solution.-T. C. Porter

29 amine is a crystalline matter without colour and smell. It is

The Salt Lake of Aalia Paakai.-A. B. Lyons 29 prepared by the action of natrium-methylate on the methyl

Meretrix, Lamarck, versus Cytherea, Lamarck, 1806.alcoholic solution of the compound of hydroxylamine and HCI,

C. R. Osten Sacken

30 and by distillating and fractionating the result in vacuo. The

A Plague of Frogs. - Lieutenant B. A. Muirhead, specimen is pure to 99'6 per cent; it melts at 31°•5, and

R.N.

30 distillates under a pressure of 35 mm. between 630:5 and 65°:5.

Red Light after Sunset. —Dr. M. A. Veeder - Mr. Behrens spoke of the microscopic structure of hard steel.

Topical Selection and Mimicry.-David Syme ; Dr. If high microscopic powers are used, the network in hardened

Alfred R. Wallace . steel may be made visible on polished slices without etching or

Prof. Pictet's Laboratory at Berlin. By Prof. R. du annealing. The dark sinuous lines answering to the bright

Bois-Reymond

31 ones shown by Sorby and Wedding on etched slices, it is

Results of Experiments at Rothamsted on the Quesproved that hardened steel contains hard granules bound up in

tion of the Fixation of Free Nitrogen. By Ďr. J. a matrix of soft iron. Some varieties of grey iron from small

H. Gilbert, F.R.S. .

32 castings may be hardened like steel, most of the graphite dis

Fossil Birds in the British Museum. (Illustrated.) 33 appearing. After annealing the hardened metal at a red heat,

Iron Carbonyl from Water Gas. By A. E. Tutton

36 the slices were dotted with blackish dust, which formed circles Cape Guardafui and the Neighbouring Sea

36 round the globules of the crystallites and little heaps in the

Notes.

37 midst of them. It is to be presumed that graphite has re.

Our Astronomical Column:appeared in the course of the annealing. Full details will

Outburst of Dark Spo on Jupiter

41 speedily be given in the Recucil des travaux chimiques des

Wolf's Periodic Comet Pays-Bas.

The Total Lunar Eclipse of November 15

The Elements of the Minor Planets

Some Experiments made with the View of ascertain. BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED.

ing the Rate of Propagation of Induced Magnetism in Iron. By Fred. T. Trouton

42 Books.-Pflanzenleben, Zweiter Band : A. K. von Marilaun (Leipzig, Bibliographisches Institut). --British Fungi: G. Massee (L. Reeve). -Studies

Oysters at the Antipodes

43 in American History : M. S. Barnes and E. Barnes (Boston, Heath). -A TextThe Tibet Expedition

45 book of the Science of Brewing: E. R. Moritz and G. H. Morris (Spon).- University and Educational Intelligence

45 The Universal Atlas, Part 8 (Cassell).-Geological and Natural History Scientific Serials Survey of Canada, Annual Report, vol. iv., 1838-89 (Montreal, Foster,

45 Brown).-Daily Weather Charts to illustrate the Tracks of Two Cyclones in

Societies and Academies the Arabian Sea (Eyre and Spottiswoode).- Meteorological Charts of the

Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received

28

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This, like the three preceding Reports, is published lochs formerly produced an abundance of oysters, and

THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 19, 1891.

covers a multitude of subjects, but is on the whole a convenient title. Part III. is subdivided into four sec

tions. In the first (A.), after detailed tabulated results of SCOTCH FISHERIES.

the work done by means of the cruiser Garland, &c.,

there are one or two papers deserving of special mention. The Ninth Annual Report of the Fishery Board for

A paper by Dr. Fullarton,“ On the Suitability of ScotScotland: being for the Year 1890. (Edinburgh : tish Waters for Oyster Culture,” is an exhaustive account Printed for Her Majesty's Stationery Office by of an expedition made by him to a great number of lochs Neil and Co., 1891.)

on the west coast, and shows clearly that some of these 'HIS, in

, Salmon Fisheries; III. Scientific Investigations.

their spawning beds. A table of temperatures and densities The first part deals with such matters as the statistics is also given, which is valuable, but would certainly have relating to fish landed and cured, Crown brands, number been much more so if the temperature readings had been of boats and men fishing, an account of the services given in the common Fahrenheit instead of the Centirendered by the various vessels employed in marine grade scale. The next paper is by the Secretary for police and fishery superintendence; and generally, Scientific Investigations, Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, on reports on all business matters connected with this “The Capture and Destruction of Immature Sea Fish.” section of the Board's work. The Shetland herring The two most important parts of this paper deal with fishing seems to have been particularly successful, and the vitality of trawled fish, and the numbers of immature to have attracted the usual number of English and Irish fish taken by shrimpers. It is the first attempt ever boats, but the reports as to the number of Scotch boats made to collect accurate data as to the proportion of employed in this and long-line fishing tend to show that living and dead fish brought up in a trawl net worked there is a gradual decrease ; that the fishing does not upon a certain kind of bottom for a certain length of now seem to hold out such attractions to the rising time. The information regarding the number of imgeneration as it once did ; that probably over-competi- mature fish taken by shrimpers has been collected in the tion is telling upon this as well as other industries. Solway Firth and on the Lancashire coast. The results

The chief article in the second part is the annual cannot but be surprising to very many. Taking the report of Mr. Archibald Young, Inspector of Salmon Solway alone, Dr. Fulton's totals show that, in one year, Fisheries for Scotland. It contains an account of the a single boat captures over 110,000 immature plaice. It fishings in the various rivers and lochs, with answers to is gratifying to learn that in this district the fishermen queries from district boards and local fishing authorities. are, for once, provident, and return to the sea all these The question of the advisability of having a close-time little fishes, for the sum-total of all immature fish landed for trout is only casually mentioned ; and we cannot but in the year, comes to about 3,653,000. Dr. Fulton finds think that the Board would do well if, with all the facili- that, owing to the short time the shrimp trawl remains at ties at its command, it paid more careful attention to the bottom-a sandy bottom-none of the young fish die. such matters as the life-history and habits of the salmon. This contradicts a statement very generally made by Many points of great interest and usefulness have still to those who denounce the system of fishing with beam be settled : for instance, we see no attempt to distinguish trawl, and also is exactly the reverse of the finding of between the different“runs” of fish in the various rivers, MM. Giard and Roussin in their report on this subject their spawning periods, and subsequent movements. We to the French Minister of Marine-a report founded, are not told whether, in the case of the salmon hatcheries, however, not on experimental observation, as Dr. any attention has been paid to the spawning of spring Fulton does not fail to point out. These observations run fish-probably a point of great importance in early further seem to show that very young fish caught in rivers. Might the Board not collect and publish much a shrimp trawl are much more tenacious of life than valuable information as to the best means of keeping up older fish taken in a large net of similar construction, a steady supply of Salmonidæ, by looking at the question and under similar conditions. This point, we think, is a little more with the interest of the naturalist and of some importance, and has not been sufficiently taken sportsman? A great deal of information is yet required notice of. It bears on the question of size of mesh and as to late and early spawning, migratory movements of destruction of small fish taken. the young, rate of growth in the sea, food, &c. To carry The biological section opens with a long paper, “On out some of these inquiries might possibly require more the Food of Fishes," by W. Ramsay Smith, B.Sc., and, legal power than the Board possesses, but that the following this, another paper by Dr. Wemyss Fulton, on Fishery Board is in a more favourable position than “The Comparative Fecundity of Sea Fishes.” In this other fishery authorities will be generally admitted. paper the author first deals with the proportional weight These excellent reports as to the state of the salmon of the ova compared to the rest of the body. This naturally fishings should be used more as a means for improving leads him into the somewhat complicated subject of the that state than as the finished results of a year's proportion of eggs ripe at the spawning-time of certain inspection.

fishes which do not shed their spawn en masse. He finds The third or scientific section of the Report is a that in such cases it would often be an impossibility for volume of nearly 430 pages. The word scientific has, the body of the fish to contain all the eggs it naturally with the Fishery Board, a significance of its own: it produces in an enlarged and ripe condition. Taking

THE

the instance of a plaice, it is shown that, if all its ova

THE MAMMALS OF INDIA. were ripe at once, the mass of eggs would themselves weigh a pound and a half heavier than the body Catalogue of Mammalia in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. of the fish without the ovaries.

By W. L. Sclater, M.A., F.Z.S., Deputy SuperinFish with demersal ova are distinguished from fish

tendent of the Indian Museum. Part II. (Calcutta : with pelagic ova, and tables are constructed which show Printed by order of the Trustees of the Indian the ratio of the weight of the ova present at one time, to

Museum, 1891.) the weight of the rest of the fish taken at 1000. The 'HE Indian Museum at Calcutta is rich in Mammals. final results are given in the form of mean ratios. Dr. Not only are those of our Eastern possessions well Fulton then goes on to draw three conclusions from his illustrated, but it possesses also a good general series data. First, he says, it appears to explain the majority from other parts of the world. The collection has, moreof cases in which the females of a species are in excess over, the advantage of being well catalogued. In 1863, of the males." What precisely explains this we are quite the late very zealous and acute zoologist, Edward Blyth, at a loss to see, and we cannot imagine an explanation published a catalogue of the specimens contained in the which has not in it either a statement regarding the pre- Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. This Museum, ponderance of the female element in the early nuclear when transferred to the Government of India, formed the plasma of the eggs, or an account of a wholesale destruction nucleus of the present Indian Museum. The 1330 of males. The second point is the generally greater size of specimens mentioned in that catalogue have now inthe female, and the third,“ not merely the gradual growth creased to 4872, representing 590 species, of which 276 of ova to replace mature ova shed during a prolonged are found within our Indian Empire, and 314 are exotic. spawning period, but the more or less sudden increase of Of this greatly augmented collection Dr. John Anderson bulk, which occurs in the ovum shortly prior to its ex- commenced a catalogue, and the first part, containing the trusion.” The second point seems to us to be like the orders Primates, Prosimiæ, Chiroptera, and Insectivora, first in requiring a more complete explanation ; the third was published in 1881. In consequence of Dr. Anderto be the clearest point advanced. The remainder of the son's relinquishing his appointment as Superintendent of paper is taken up with detailed statements, treating the the Museum, the work has remained in abeyance for fish according to their classification.

some years ; but it has now been taken up and completed Among the papers following we have examples of Mr. by Mr. W. L. Sclater, the present Deputy Superintendent, Scott's conscientious systematic work in his second paper and eldest son of the distinguished Secretary of the Zooon “ The Invertebrate Fauna of the Inland Waters of logical Society of London. This volume contains the Scotland,” and “ Additions to the Fauna of the Firth of orders Rodentia, Ungulata, Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, Forth."

Carnivora, Cetacea, Sirenia, Marsupialia, and MonotreDr. Fullarton contributes a paper on “ The Develop-mata. ment of the Plaice --Preliminary Report." There are a The Mammals of our Indian Empire have attracted the number of excellent figures, but as there seems to be attention of many well-qualified zoologists. Hodgson, little that is new in the text, we do not give it further Blyth, Jerdon, Tickell, Horsfall, Elliot, Dobson, Andermention.

son, and others, have contributed much to elucidate their Prof. McIntosh adds to his already long list of observa- history, habits, and distribution. The work now being tions “On the Life-Histories and Development of the published under the auspices of the Indian Government Food and other Fishes.” Interesting forms, such as a by Mr. W. T. Blanford, the first part of which appeared in hybrid brill, lesser weaver, and sand-eel, are dealt with, 1888 (see NATURE, vol. xxxviii. p. 513), contains a valuas well as several unknown eggs and a curious unknown able summary of all that is known upon the subject post-larval form.

up to the present time. Mr. Sclater's work is of a less Prof. Prince, so often associated with Prof. McIntosh, ambitious kind, professing to be only a catalogue of follows with “Notes on the Development of the Angler the Mammalia contained in the Museum, not mentionFish (Lophius)."

ing any other species. Such catalogues are not only In his statement that "hitherto no British observer has invaluable for working purposes in the institution itself, secured the ova," he has overlooked the fact that, in some but they have also a more extended area of usefulprevious notes by one of the naturalists to the Fishery | ness, being often works of reference which no zoologist Board, the procuring of a mass of ova was recorded. investigating the group they treat of can dispense with. This, of course, in no way detracts from the interest of In the present case there will be found under the headProf. Prince's valuable paper.

ing of every species much information as to its literature, The biological section closes with a note on “A Case synonymy, and geographical distribution. As catalogues of Hermaphroditism in a Haddock,” by W. Ramsay naturally deal largely with names, the selection of those Smith. Both ovary and testis appeared perfectly normal, which accord best with a common-sense interpretation and were removed from a fish 18 inches long, and 3 pounds of the rules of zoological nomenclature is a matter of in weight.

primary importance, and in this respect Mr. Sclater The physical investigations of the Board are dealt with appears to have shown upon the whole great judgment, by Dr. Mill in Section C. ; and a review of the contem- having been careful to avoid unnecessary alterations in porary scientific fishery investigations, by Dr. Wemyss generally accepted names, either such as are caused by Fulton, forming a fourth section, brings the Report to a splitting genera, or by reviving obsolete, long-forgotten, or close.

never received specific appellations. Although no detailed specific descriptions are attempted, the work is problems of physiology with scarcely any practical knowrendered more useful than a mere list would be, by the ledge of chemical analytical methods. introduction of keys, by means of which all the Indian The second part treats of the chemical constituents of species can be discriminated. There are also some the organism, concluding with two chapters on fermentacritical remarks upon disputed questions of specific dis- tion and ptomaines, the chapters on the latter and on tinction, which the large series of specimens at the proteids being especially good, and presenting an excellent au'hor's disposal has enabled him to throw light upon, résumé of our present knowledge of these subjects. such as the identity of Ovis poli of the Pamir and the The next section is taken up with an account of the so-called Ovis karelini of the Thian Shan. Under the tissues and organs of the body. Here the author is heading Elephas indicus, we note that Mr. Sclater refers thoroughly at home, and can speak with the authority of to Schlegel's having pointed out in a well-known memoir inany years' practical work at the subject. It is rather (of which a translation appeared in the Natural History difficult, however, to see on what principle he includes Review, vol. ii., 1862) certain distinctions between the respiration in this part, especially as the subjects of true Indian elephant and that inhabiting the islands of , alimentation, excretion, and general metabolism have Ceylon and Sumatra (Elephas sumatranus, Schlegel), and each a part to themselves ; unless it be, that it is so he repeats the characters assigned to the two supposed intimately connected with the physiology of the blood, species or varieties. Although no fresh evidence is in this chapter a student might be led astray by seeing brought forward in favour of Schlegel's views, it is not the table of relations between the tension of the gases in likely that Mr. Sclater would, without good reasons, reject venous blood and of those in the alveolar air. The imDr. Falconer's elaborate refutation of them, published in portant thing to know is the tension of gases in arterial the succeeding volume of the same Review. Dr. Falconer blood ; and by giving those in venous blood in juxtawas such a great authority on elephants, and his argu- position to those in the alveolar air, the author glosses ments for the specific unity of the Asiatic forms have been over the difficulties presented by the question of gas so generally held to be sound, that Schlegel's two species interchange in the lungs. In this connection, too, he can only be rehabilitated by a careful comparison of a does not notice Bohr's important work on the subject considerable series of specimens undoubtedly natives of interchange of gases in the lungs), although he gives a both localities. Perhaps Mr. Sclater may have an oppor- full account of the Danish physiologist's researches on the tunity of doing this while in the East, and thus definitely combination of hæmoglobin with CO,. settle a question of considerable zoological interest.

In the latter part of the book no reference is made W. H. F. to Altmann's views on fat absorption, or to Ehrlich's sug

gestive work on the oxidative processes taking place in

living tissues. A TEXT-BOOK OF CHEMICAL PHYSIOLOGY But a few errors of omission are inevitable in a work AND PATHOLOGY.

of this size and scope, and Dr. Halliburton wins our A Text-book of Chemical Physiology and Pathology. By admiration for the completeness and correctness of his

W. D. Halliburton, M.D., B.Sc., M.R.C.P. (London: book, which everywhere shows signs of the care with Longmans, Green, and Co., 1891.)

which the proof-sheets have been revised and brought up N spite of the fact that several standard works on work render it invaluable in a physiological laboratory,

to date. The accounts of recent analytical methods and N

the subject of physiological chemistry exist, both in and it will be repeatedly referred to by students who desire German and English, the need has nevertheless been

more than a superficial knowledge of the subject. In universally felt of one that should at the same time Germany it has already found favour with physiologists, present a review of the present condition of the subject and is considered the best work on the subject. The from an impartial standpoint, and give some account of fact that it is being translated into German, under the the methods of research employed.

auspices of Prof. Kühne, is of itself sufficient recomHoppe Seyle's works have been of immense service, mendation for any work; and there is no doubt that in its but suffer from being onesided, and representing only new dress it will command as much success in Germany the views and methods of the Strassburg school. The

as it has already commanded in England. only work in English which promised to be universal in

E. H. STARLING. its scope--namely, that by Gamgee--is unfortunately still unfinished. Prof. Halliburton, who is justly celebrated for his

OUR BOOK SHELF. work in all departments of physiological chemistry, has Praktisches Taschenbuch der Photographie. By Dr. E. attempted to fill this gap in our literature, and with a

Vogel, Assistant in the Photochemical Laboratory of large measure of success.

the Technical High School of Berlin. (Berlin: Robert The first fifty pages of the book are taken up with an Oppenheim, 1891.) account of the apparatus and analytical methods chiefly This is a small volume, of some 200 pages, but it is employed in physiological chemical research. The only full of useful information for working photographers, fault we have to find with this part of the book is that there whether amateurs or professionals. Under nine secis not enough of it. In a book intended as a guide to those tions the author treats of all the subjects likely to be who would work pr.rctically at the subject one hundred required by the manipulator of the camera, from the

purchase of his apparatus onward through every detail and fifty pages might well be devoted to these subjects, essential for successful work. The value of the book is seeing that so many workers boldly attack the chemical greatly enhanced by numerous illustrations, which are

executed with that clearness and finish for which so many their large scale has enabled the names of all places of Continental scientific works are justly to be commended. any importance to be printed with perfect legibility. In To give an idea of its contents it will be sufficient to fact, all who require a good atlas, for reference or othermention the headings of the sections, viz. apparatus for wise, would do well to obtain this one.

G. the negative process, photographic objectives, instantaneous shutters, portable cameras, equipment of the La Transcaucasie et la Péninsule d'Apchéron. Calouste dark room, general remarks on exposure, negative S. Gulbenkian. (Paris: Hachette et Cie., 1891.) processes, positive processes, cyanotype and similar processes The work, as its title implies, is purely This is a very pleasant book of travels, well worthy of technical, and, as such, does not call for 'lengthened the attention of all who for any reason take interest in the notice in these columns, but for the particular object with tell us of, but he presents lucid and attractive descriptions

Caucasus. The author has no very stirring adventures to which it has been written it is admirably adapted, and should find many readers in this country. We have

of the towns and districts through which he passed, and nothing which can be compared with it for conciseness of the manners and customs of the inhabitants. Especially and completeness.

good are the chapters he has devoted to the petroleum

industry-chapters which have already appeared in the An Introduction to the Differential anil Integral Cal

Revue des Deux Mondes. He gives also a very interestculus. By T. Hugh Miller. (London: Percival and ing account of Oriental carpets, the manufacture of which Co., 1891.)

plays so great a part in the Caucasus. This small book contains a fair amount of the calculus How to Organize a Cruise on the Broads. By E. R. put together in a clear and readable form. It merely Suffling. (London: Jarrold and Sons, 1891.) touches the subject, but appears to contain enough to meet the wants of a South Kensington examinee. “It to provide a guide to the Broads. He intended the

In preparing this little book, the author did not attempt assumes a knowledge of elementary algebra and trigono- volume to serve merely as a supplement or appendix to metry as far as the properties of plane triangles.” The

the various guides already accessible. A cruise on the student is supposed to be unacquainted with analytical Broads is heartily enjoyed by everyone who tries it under geometry, but as he is credited with a knowledge of the tolerably favourable conditions, and certainly not least by exponential and binomial theorems, with indeterminate students of natural history. Anyone who may think of coefficients” and a few other matters, it will be seen making the experiment will find in Mr. Suffling's pages that elementary includes a fair grasp of the two subjects all the information that is really necessary for the formanamed. Six chapters are devoted to the elements, successive differentiation, the theorems of Leibnitz, Taylor, and interesting diary of what may be looked for at the

tion of suitable plans. In one chapter he presents a brief and Maclaurin, maxima and minima values of a function

Broads during the various months of the year. of one variable, and the evaluation of indeterminate expressions ; the remaining four chapters are devoted to elementary integration, formulæ of reduction, rational fractions, and a few applications of the integral calculus.

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. We presume that the miscellaneous examples are taken from South Kensington papers ; those in the text are old (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions exfriends which figure in Todhunter's works. In the text.

pressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake the following slips occur : p. 4, 1. 15, for f(x) read f'(x) ;

to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected

manuscripts intended for this or any other part of Nature, x6

rh p. 18 (6), read er* ; p. 37 (3), for

we get

No notice is taken of anonymous communications.]
; p. 40
720

5
(3), ? (a - b)2(a for the maximum ; p. 41, 1. 4 up, for 2a + 36,

A Difficulty in Weismannism. read za +26; p. 42 (1), read cos3 0 and 3 13d2/16; p. 62 (4), ? last connecting sign (read - ); p. 71 (4), for a read few words on this subject at an earlier date, but absence from

I had intended to accept Prof. Hartog's challenge, and say a 12; p. 80 (24), in first place read (1 + x2)? In the home and many engagements have intersered until now. answers, we differ from the author in (i), (20), (74), and

In some respects it would have been more convenient to defer (88). We prefer to work (84) from / (1+tadt, where + such be discussione wnitiel Weismann's last essay; Amphimixis," stands for tan x.

of his complete and detailed work, which is expected some time

next year. Prof. Weismann tells me that the points raised by Star Groups. By J. Ellard Gore. (London : Crosby Prof. Hartog are considered in this treatise, and, such being Lockwood and Son, 1891.)

the case, he is unwilling to tax his already over-strained eye

sight with any earlier reply. A KNOWLEDGE of the principal constellations visible in 'As the question has been raised, I will briefly speak of the our latitudes may be easily acquired from the thirty maps manner in which I have tried to see my way through such diffiand accompanying text contained in this work. All stars culties. I do not, however, wish to involve anyone else in the down to the sixth magnitude are shown, and brief de responsibility for the attempt, which is no doubt crude and scriptions given of the objects of interest in each constel- insufficiently thought out. lation. The maps are intended to be useful as an

Accepting Prof. Hartog's five theses as fair statements, I have introduction to larger atlases, and will doubtless serve

always proceeded to make his hypothesis B, and in this I

believe I am following Prof. Weismann. Hypothesis A bad this purpose well; but a beginner unacquainted with the

never occurred to me, and I agree with Prof. Hartog in conmotions of the heavenly bodies will hardly find in them what he requires.

sidering it as valueless But I believe a way through the difficulG.

ties raised against hypothesis B may be found in the assumption The Universal Atlas. (London : Cassell and Company,

of a relationship between the Ahnenplasmas in the germ

cell. Such a relationship is perhaps hinted at by Prof. Hartog 1891.)

in Thesis III., where he speaks of these units as lying "assoThis atlas is being issued in twenty-eight parts, including

ciated together," and in this respect the metaphor of two packs the index, eight of which have already appeared. It con

of cards in Thesis IV. is, I believe, inadequate. I have always

been accustomed to regard the relationship between the ancestral tains fifty-eight single page maps and thirty-two double

units, the “pattern ” or figure which they form, as an essential page, several illustrating physical geography. The maps part of the process. I have regarded the units as the necessary are well drawn and reproduced, and full of detail, whilst material, like the ments in a colour-box, while their arrange

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