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might easily develop their language in the vicinity of the Altai lieve the law did not hold for mixtures of substances differing Mountains and the Baikal,

in a finite degree from one another. Some time ago he experiAs to the Manchus, they have forgotten their early occupa: mented on a solution of sodium sulphate placed in a dialyzer tions since coming to China, and they attend now only to the kept at constant temperature. The more acid portion pas-ed duties of the public service or to military training. The through the membrane, and on mixing a rise of temperalanguage, like the Mongol, is rich with the spoils of antiquity. ture was observed ; the dialyzer thus acted like Maxwell's All the various forms of culture, whether belonging to demons, and the mixing increased the motivity of the system. Shamanism, Confucianism, or Buddhism, with which they have Prof. Rücker expressed his doubts as to whether the cycle become successively familiar, have contributed a share. To described in the paper was strictly analogous to that in Carnot's these must be added the vocabulary of the huntsman, the fisher problem. In the latter case the parts of the working substance man, and the shepherd, and all the terms necessary for the only differed infinitesimally from one another, whilst in the feudal relationship as well as those of the trades and occupations former the working body was a mixture of two solids and a gas. of the old civilization.

In order that the increased illuinination should not alter the temperature, heat must be carried away. According to the paper, the first part of the cycle must be both adiabatic and

isothermal. This seemed hardly possible. If the chlorine SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

alone be considered, it could not be true, and it could only hold LONDON.

if the chloride absorbed all the heat given out by the compres

sion of the chlorine. This seemed improbable, but, if true, it Physical Society, March 11.-Prof. A. W. Rücker, F.R.Ś., Vice-President, in the chair. --Mr. H. M. Elder read in the fact that at low temperatures silver chloride is not acted

would be very important. Captain Abney saw another difficulty a paper on a thermodynamical view of the action of light on

on even by violet light, whereas heating greatly increases the silver chloride. In the decomposition of silver chloride by light, action. In his opinion the conclusions arrived at required conchlorine is given off, and a coloured solid body of unknown firmation, but the paper would form a starting point for many composition (sometimes called "photochloride ") formed, the reaction being indicated by the formula nAgCl= Ag,,C1,-1+{Cl,.

new experiments. Mr. Elder, in reply to Prof. Fitzgerald, said If the experiment be carried out in a sealed vacuum, the chloride might be formulated thus : Energy cannot of itself pass from a

the axiom corresponding to the second law as stated by Clausius is darkened up to a certain point, but regains whiteness when lest in the dark. These facts have led the author to believe

less bright to a brighter body. In the paper he had assumed

that the energy given out during compression at the lower that the pressure of the liberated chlorine is a function of the

illumination was of the same quality as that absorbed at the illumination or intensity of light falling upon the chloride, in

higher. the same way as the pressure of a saturated vapour is a function tensities of illuminations of different wave-lengths. In the

The whole question depended on comparisons of inof the temperature. Since illumination is a quantity in many expression p « IPT, p. was probably a function of T, and able to apply thermodynamic arguments, and regard chlorine in Captain Abney's objection was not necessarily fatal. Speaking presence of silver chloride and photochloride”

as the working believed some sensitizing body was necessary, but judging from

of the presence of oxygen being essential to decomposition, he substance in a “light engine.” He therefore supposes a Carnot's cycle to be performed on the substances at constant

experiments he had seen, an infinitesimal quantity would probtemperature, the variables being pressure, volume, and illumina- ably be sufficient, for the action seemed to be of a catalytic tion. Since the cycle is strictly analogous to Carnot's, except

nature. He felt the weight of Prof. Rücker's objections, but that illumination is written for temperature, he infers that the thought they might possibly be met.-A paper on choking efficiency is a function of the two illuminations. It also follows

coils was read by Prof. Perry, F.R.S. Regarding a choking that just as Carnot's cycle is used to determine an absolute

coil as a transformer with one primary and many secondaries scale of temperature, so this cycle may be applied to determine represented by the conducting ma-ses, he pointed out that all an absolute scale of illumination. It only remains to determine

the secondaries might be replaced by a single coil of n turns, an empiric scale analogous to the air therinometer, and to com

and resistance r ohms, short-circuited on itself. Assuming no pare it with the photodynamic scale, provided a method of magnetic leakage, the equations for the two circuits at any inaking the comparison can be devised. Assuming the axioms

instant are V = RC + Nel, and ( = rc + n01, where N and applied to Carnot's cycle are true when illumination is written n are the turns, R and r the resistances, I the total induction (in for temperature, the author shows mathematically that pa lp/T, 10% C.G. S. lines), and C and c the primary and secondary curwhere `p is the pressure, I the illumination, 7 the absolute in choking coils, and its value depending on the law of mag

rents respectively. Since the exciting current, C, is all-important temperature, and p the beat of combination per gramme-molecule netization, the equations are treated in a different manner from of chlorine evolved. If P be the heat of formation of silver chloride, the fraction p/P may be considered as expressing the

that adopted in ordinary transformer calculations. Expressing fraction of the total chlorine that can be removed by the action

the magnetic law as a Fourier series, I = I A0, sin ix, the of light up

value of A (viz. NC + nc) is deduced, and when V or I is it, supposing the gas removed so as io keep ihe

given as a periodic function of the time, C may be calculated. pressure below that corresponding to the illumination. The

Assuming V Vo sin kt, the author finds chemical equation might then be writtenP/pAgCl = Agp/ CIP/p-1 + $Cl, ;



tanf + thus the formula for "photochloride " would be ASP/C!p/p-1. Prof. Rücker read a letter from the President (Prof. Fitz

- 6 cos 3k! – m cos 5£t] gerald) on the subject of the paper. He inquired what axiom corresponding with the second law of thermodynamics was where e = rook/r, f is the hysteresis term, and b and mn conemployed. He was not sure that the engine was perfectly rever. stants depending on the law of magnetization. For ordinary sible, ard selt doubt on the subject of phosphorescence mentioned transformer inagnetizations, b 0'2, and m = 0'05. From the in the last operation of the cycle. Nevertheless, the paper was a above expression it will be seen that if there is no hysteresis most interesting one, and very suggestive. Prof. Herschel (i.e. f = 0), the effect of the eddy currents, e, is to increase the pointed out that Becquerel's phosphoroscope showed that all amplitude of the important term, and to produce a lead of kinds of light produced phosphorescence, and thought that, in 90° - cot-le, whereas the effect of hysteresis without eddy considering the subject, the non-thermal character of photo- currents is to leave the amplitude unaltered, and produce a genic light should be kept in view. Mr. 'Baker said lead f. Putting f = o gives results in accordance with experihe had been worhing on silver chloride for several years, mental observation, hence the author is inclined to believe that and found that no darkening whatever took place if kept there is no hysteresis in transformers. He also points out that dry and in vacuv. lle considered oxygen necessary to the the higher harmonics must exist, and thinks it probably that a action. Dr. C. V. Burton, reserring to the mo'ivity of the choking coil with finely divided iron may prove a method of system, said that only a small fraction of the energy of the increasing frequency by mere magnetic means. Taking the illumination was actually made use of. Ile also thought it case of a 1500-watt iransformer (2000 volls) unloaded, in which necessary to consider how far the second law of thermodynamics the loss in eddies was 40 watts, it is shown that a secondary of could be treated as an axiom. He himself had been led to be 1 2 turns, and resistance 19 ohms, would replace the eddy

No [ v1 + 2e sinj+e". sin #1 – 90 + tan

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current circuits. Assuming constant permeability and no eddy closely resembles napelline. Aconitine is by far the most toxic currents, the value of C comes out 0'07398 sin (kt - 90°), whilst of the alkaloids contained in Aconitum napellus.-Contributions with eddy currents and sone saturation

to our knowledge of the aconite alkaloids ; Part III. The for. C=0·07911 sin (kt – 69°:2) – Oʻ014796 cos 3 kl - 0.003695 cos 5kt. line, by w. R. Dunstan and F. W. Passmore. When pure

mation and properties of aconine and its conversion into aconi. Dr. Fleming said he was working on the subject of choking coils, aconitine is hydrolyzed by heating it with water in closed tubes and had found that, in closed-circuit transformers unloaded, the at 150°, aconine and benzoic acid are obtained in accordance real watts were about 0'7 times the apparent watts. This, on with the following equationthe assumption of sine functions, would indicate a lag of about 45°. A similar rule for open circuit transformers was much

C33H 45N0,2 + 1,0 = C28H, NOW + C,H,O,; needed. It was important to know what size of core and coil no picraconitine or methyl alcohol is obtained at any stage. was required to choke down to a given current. Dr. Sumpner Anhydro-aconitine is formed by the interaction of aconine and thought it better to treat the subject graphically rather than by ethyl benzoate at 130°, leaving no doubt that aconitine is analysis, and described a construction whereby the fundamental benzoyl-aconine. Aconine yields a crystalline hydrochloride, equations could be readily integrated. Prof. Perry said he had C2H4NOHC1,2H,O, whose specific rotatory power reason to think that ordinary hysteresis curves were not applic. [a]o = - 90:71. Pure aconine is a hygroscopic, briítle gum, able to transformers. By analysis of the experimental E.M.F. having the composition C26H4NOW, and the rotatory power and current curves, one could work backwards and find the true [a]o = + 23°. Its solution reduces Fehling's solution and gold hysteresis curves.

and silver salts. Its aqueous solution is slightly bitter, and Chemical Society, March 3.—Prof. A. Crum Brown, gives rise to a burning sensation in the mouth. "A crystalline F.R.S., in the chair. -An address was read, which it is proposed aconitine methiodide, C33145NO,,,CHI, and an amorphous to present to Prof. Bunsen, who has now been for fifty years a

methydroxide, C33H45NO12,CH,. ÖH, have been prepared. A foreign member of the Society:--The following papers were

simple laboratory shaking appliance, devised by Prof. Dunstan then read :-A rule for determining whether a given benzene

and Mr. Dymond, was exhibited at the conclusion of this mono-derivative shall give a meta-di-derivative or a mixture of paper. - Note on the carbon deposited from coal-gas flames, by ortho- and para-di-derivatives, by Prof. A. Crum Brown and

W. Foster. The author quotes analyses of cokes obtained by Dr. Gibson. If a benzene mono-derivative be converted into a

carbonizing sugar and starch. From the similarity in composi. di-derivative by replacement of a second atom of hydrogen in

tion of these cokes to that of the soot obtainable from coal-gas the nucleus by a radicle of the same kind as the one already flames, he is of opinion that these substances are all formed by present, the product may consist either of the meta-di-derivative somewhat similar chemical processes. The volumetric estima. or a mixture of ortho- and para-di-derivatives. The authors

tion of mercury, by Chapman Jones. The author has devised a suggest a rule for determining which of these two cases will

modification of the cyanide method of estimating mercury. result in any instance. If the hydride of the radicle employed Chromic acid, by Eleanor Field. Results are quoted showing is directly convertible into the corresponding hydroxide, the

that the crystals obtained on cooling with ice a solution of meta-di-derivative will be obtained on further substitution by

chromium trioxide saturated at 90° consist merely of the trioxide, the same radicle. If the hydride of the substituting radicle is CrO3, and not of chromic acid, H,Cros, as stated by Moissan. not directly oxidizable to the hydroxy.compound a mixture of author has sought to determine whether acetylene is the product

- The origin of acetylene in flames, by V. B. Lewes. The ortho- and para-di-derivatives will result. For example, when the substituting radicle is chlorine, as in the case of mono

of high temperature change or of oxidation. The experiments chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride not being directly

oxidizable of such gases with others through a heated platinum tube. The

described consisted in passing hydrocarbon gases and mixtures to hypochlorous acid, the rule indicates that a mixture of orthoand para-di derivatives will be obtained on further chlorination.

results obtained appear to point to acetylene being formed by Nitrous acid is readily converted by direct oxidation into nitric the action of heat alone. acid, so that on nitration of nitrobenzene, meta-dinitrobenzene Geological Society, March 9.-W. H. Hudleston, F.R.S., alone should be produced if the rule be a correct one. In these, President, in the chair.—The following communications were as in the other cases cited by the authors, the rule is found to read :—The new railway from Grays Thurrock to Romsord : hold good. - The relative orienting effect of chlorine and sections between Upminster and Romford, by T. V. Holmes. bromine ; (1) The constitution of parabrom. and parachlor. In the Hornchurch cutting of the new railway, boulder clay, of anilinesulphonic acids, by H. E. Armstrong and J. F. Briggs. which about 15 feet is seen, rests upon the London Clay Parachlorobromobenzene on sulphonation yields one sulphonic near the 100-feet contour-line, and is overlain by 10 to 12 acid, C.Hg. Br. Cl. SO,H, possessing the constitution CI:SO,H: feet of sand and gravel. The author gives reasons for inferring Br =1:2:4. The authors were unable to obtain two sulphonic that this sand and gravel belongs to the oldest terrace of the acids on sulphonating parachloraniline ; only one was produced, Thames Valley gravel occurring in this district, and states that which separates from its aqueous solution in three distinct forms. it demonstrates the truth of Mr. Whitaker's conclusion that the This also holds true for ihe sulphonation of parabromaniline, Thames Valley deposits are (locally) post-Glacial, or newer than the sulphonic acids having the constitution Clor Br: S03H :NH, the local boulder clay. After the reading of this paper the =1:2: 4. —Note on anhydrides of sulphonic acids, by H. E. President said that geologists were much indebted to Mr. Armstrong. When para-dichloro-, chlorobromo-, and dibromo- Holmes for drawing attention to this interesting section before benzene are treated with sulphuric acid containing about 20 per it was too late. Amongst the many points arising from the cent. of sulphuric anhydride, sulphonic anhydrides are obtained. : discovery of boulder clay at less than 100 feet above Ordnance These compounds probably owe their formation to the dehydra- datum was one as to the probability of the pre-Glacial age of the tion of the corresponding sulphonic acids first formed. - Contribu-Thames Valley system. 'Mr. H. B. Woodward, Mr. H. W. tions to the knowledge of the aconite alkaloids ; Part II. | Monckton, Mr. C. Reid, Dr. Hicks, Mr. Lewis Abbott, and The alkaloids of true Aconitum napellus, by W. R. Dunstan and Mr. Whitaker also spoke. —The drift beds of the North Wales J. C. Umney. The roots of true Aconitum napellus were and Mid-Wales coast, by T. Mellard Reade. This paper is a extracted with cold fusel oil. The solution so obtained was, continuation of papers by the author on the drist beds of the after some preliminary treatment, extracted with ether. Two north-west of England and North Wales. The author first treats alkaloids were thus extracted, and were separated by means of the Moel Tryfaen and other Caernarvonshire drifts; he of their hydrobromides into a crystalline and a gummy alkaloid. describes the drifts of the coast and coastal plain, connecting The former of these was found to be aconitine, whilst the non- his observations with those of the Moel Tryfaen drifts. An crystallizable compound is a new alkaloid which the authors important feature of the investigation is the numerous mechanical term napelline. This alkaloid is soluble in e her and alcohol, analyses of the various clays, sands, and gravels. In all the and has a very bitter taste, but does not give rise to the tingling samples but one, a large proportion of extremely rounded and sensation so characteristic of aconitine. Its salts could not be polished quarız-grains have been found, which the author crystallized. By further extraction of the fusel oil with chloro- maintains to be true erratics, and a certain sign of marine form, aconine was obtained. The roots of true Aconitum action. He shows that the Moel Tryfaen marine sands are in napellus, therefore, must be held to contain three alkaloids, one part overlain by typical till, composed almost wholly of local of which, viz. aconitine, is crystalline, whilst two are amorphous, rocks with a small percentage of clay, whereas the sands and viz. napelline and aconine. Indications have been obtained of gravels are full of erratics, including rocks from Scotland and the presence of a fourth alkaloid, which is amorphous and The Lake District, numerous flints, Carboniferous Limestone, and



crystalline schists. Throughout the drifts of the coastal plain confined to Ireland-from Pembrokesbire, and that its capture he has found a greater or less proportion of granite erratics, as had also since been recorded from Cornwall.-Mr. Tutt exhiwell as, in many cases, minute rolled-shels fragments. He- bited specimens of Polia xanthomista from Mr. Gregson's maintains that these drists are the result of two opposing forces, collection, which had recently been sent to him by Mr. Sydney one radiating from Snowdonia, and the other acting from the Webb.-Mr. G. A. James Rothney exhibited and read notes sea to the southwards, and their characteristics change as the on a large collection of Indian ants which he had made in one or the other force preponderated. The other divisions of Bengal between 1872 and 1886, comprising some ninety species. the paper are taken up with a description of the Merionethshire He stated that eighteen of these species had been described by drift and that of Mid-Wales, numerous sections being given. Dr. Mayr in his paper entitled “ Ameisen Fauna Asiens," Attention is called to a remarkable glaciation of the rocks at 1878: he also said that Dr. Forel had recently identified several Barmouth. In a concluding part, giving inferences and sugges- other new species in the collection, and that there were about tions, the author discusses the land-ice and submergence ten species and one new genus which Dr. Forel had not yet hypotheses, and concludes that his observations distinctly determined. -Mr. H. Goss exhibited, for Mr. T. D. A. Cockstrengthen the grounds for believing in a submergence of the erell, of Kingston, Jamaica, several specimens of palm leaves, land to an extent of not less than 1400 feet. An appendix from the garden of the Museum in Kingston, covered with contains details of nineteen mechanical analyses of tills, sands, Aspidiotus articulatus, Morgan. The leaves appeared to have and gravels, and a bibliography of papers, observations, and been severely attacked, the scales entirely covering the upper theories of the high-level drifts of Moel Tryfaen. The reading surface in places.- Mr. F. D. Godman contributed a paper by of this paper was followed by a discussion, in which Mr. Lamp- the late Mr. Henry Walter Bates, with an introduction by himlugh, Mr. J. W. Gregory, Mr. H. W. Burrows, the President, self, entitled Additions to the Longicornia of Mexico and and others took part.

Central America, with remarks on some previously-recorded Zoological Society, March 15.-Prof. W. H. Flower,

Species.”—The Rev. A. E. Eaton communicated a paper

entitled “On new Species of Ephemeridze from the Tenasserim F.R.S., President, in the chair. -Mr. Sclater exhibited and made remarks on the skin of a Wild Ass obtained by Mr. J. D. Inverarity in Somali-land.-A report was read, drawn up by Linnean Society, March 17.-Prof. Stewart, President, in Mr. A. Thomson, the Society's 'Head Keeper, on the insects the chair. -Mr. E. M. Holmes exhibited specimens of Phacelobred in the Insect-house during the past season.—Mr. Seebohm carpus disciger, a new species of seaweed from Cape Colony, exhibited and made remarks on two pairs of Picus richardsi collected by Dr. Becker near the mouth of the Kowie River. from the island of Tsusima in the Japanese Sea.—Mr. Oldfield One of the specimens exhibited bore antheridia which have not Thomas exhibited and described a head (placed at his disposal previously been described in this genus. The species differs by Messrs. Rowland Ward and Co.) of the East African Oryx.

from those already known in bearing the organs of reproduction This Antelope, commonly supposed to be 0. beisa, was shown on the surface of the frond instead of on the margin.-Mr. to differ from that species in possessing long black tufts on the

Buxton Shillitoe exhibited and made some remarks upon the tips of its ears. It was proposed to be called 0. callotis.-Dr. flowers of Leucojum vernum and Helleborus viridis.-On behalf H. Gadow read a paper on the classification of Birds, in which of Mr. Allan Swan, the Secretary read a paper on the vitality the results arrived at, after a long study of the structure of Birds of the spores of Bacillus megatherium, upon which criticism was for the purpose of completing the part “Aves” of Bronn's offered by Mr. G. Murray.--Mr. S. B. Carlill submitted a “Thierreich," were set forth.--A communication was read from paper entitled “Notes on Zebras,” in which he discussed the Mr. C. Brunner v. Wattenwyl and Prof. J. Redtenbacher, position assigned to the zebra in the genus Equus; the use and containing a report on the Orthoptera of the island of St. nature of striped coats; the contention that the sallenders on Vincent, West Indies, collected by Mr. H. H. Smith, the the legs of the Equide represent the hoof of the first digit of naturalist sent to that island by Mr. Godman, in connection their polydactyl ancestors; and the evidence bearing upon Prof. with the operations of the Committee appointed by the British Owen's view that the cave horse was in some respects zebrine. Association and Royal Society for the investigation of the fauna He concluded by advocating a systematic attempt to domesticate and flora of the Lesser Antilles.-Mr. Oldfield Thomas read a one or more species of zebra for transport work. Domesticapaper on a collection of Mammals from Mount Dulit, in North | tion, he considered, would not only render these animals Borneo, obtained by Mr. Charles Hose. Fourteen species were eminently useful, but would be the only means of preserving represented in the collection, of which four were stated to be new them from extinction. to science. Amongst these was a new Carnivore of the genus

Hemigale, proposed to be called Hemigale hosei.-Dr. R.
Bowdler Sharpe gave the description of some new species of

Philosophical Society, March 7.-Prof. G. H. Darwin, PreTimeliine Birds from West Africa.

sident, in the chair.— The following communications were made:

Some experiments on electric discharge, by Prof. Thomson. A Entomological Society, March 9.-Mr. Frederick Du- series of experiments were shown in which the electric discharge Cane Godman, F.R.S., President, in the chair.- Prof. C. took place in bulbs without electrodes. It was shown that the Stewart exhibited and made remarks on specimens of Cystocalia colour of the discharge through the same gas varied very greatly immaculata, an Orthopterous insect from Namaqualand, in with the density of the gas and the intensity of the discharge. which the female is far more conspicuously coloured than the This was illustrated by two bulbs, each containing air ; the male, and the stridulating apparatus of the male differs in certain discharge through one was a bright blue, and through the other important details from that of other species. A long discus- an apple-green. Another experiment showed the gas at a very sion ensued, in which Dr. Sharp, F.R.S., Mr. Poulton, F.R.S. low pressure could not act as an electro-magnetic screen, though Mr. Distant, Mr. H. J. Elwes, Colonel Swinhoe, and Mr. it did so at a higher pressure. The laws governing the absorpHampson took part.- Mr. Elwes exhibited specimens of Ribes rion of energy by conductors placed near very rapidly alteraureum which were covered with galls, as to the nature of which nating currents were illustrated by experiments which showed the Scientific Committee of the Horticultural Society desired to that there was much greater absorption of energy by small have the opinion of the Entomological Society. Mr. Fenn, pieces of tin.foil than large masses of brass or copper. - The Mr. Tutt, and Mr. Barrett made some remarks on these galls. -- capture of Lexell's comet by Jupiter, by the President (Prof. Mr. Elwes also exhibited a large number of vecies of Hetero- Darwin). The paper contains a more exact estimation of the cera recently collected by Mr. Doherty in South-East Borneo radius of the sphere of Jupiter's influence than that given by and Sambawa. Colonel Swinhoe, Mr. Hampson, and Mr. Laplace. If a comet come within this sphere, its orbit will be Distant took part in the discussion which ensued. - Mr. Barrett seriously transformed by the planet. The radius is estimated exhibited a series of specimens of Noctua festiva, bred by Mr. by the principle that at its boundary the effect of the perturbing G. B. Hart, of Dublin, which represented most of the known force of Jupiter on an orbit round the sun is the same as the forms of the species, including the Shetland type and the form effect of the perturbing force of the sun on an orbit round Jupiter. formerly described as a distinct species under the name of Noctua The radius comes out to be '058 times the distance of Jupiter conflua. Mr. Fenn and Mr. Tutt made some remarks on the from the sun, Laplace's approximation being '054 times the specimens.--Mr. W. C. Boyd exhibited a specimen of Dian- same distance.—The change of zero of thermometers, by Mr. thecia Barrettii, taken at Ilfracombe last summer. It was re- C. T. Heycock. The author described the result of experimarked that Mr. W. F. II. Blandford had recorded the capture ments he had made in conjunction with Mr. Neville to overcome of D. Barrettii-which had until recently been supposed to be the change in zero which thermometers undergo when heated


for a long time. The method consisted in boiling the thermo- tions were possible. Between the 8th and the 18th no observameters for eighteen days in baths of either mercury or sulphur ; tions were obtained, and the star had meanwhile fallen from the al the end of this time the zeros were found to be practically sixth to the ninth magnitude. In the beginning of March it fixed unless they were exposed to higher temperatures than was fully 130 times as bright as it is at present. The spectrum those of the substance in which they were boiled. The paper is now nearly continuous throughout with traces of bright lines. was illustrated by a curve showing that the change in zero was Thus Nova Auriga presents closer analogies to Nova Corona very rapid for the first few hours, amounting in a special case to than to Nova Cygni, in which an originally continuous spectrum 1° C. Tor twenty hours' heating, but that afterwards the change with bright lines changed to a discontinuous spectrum presenting became almost nilas the heating was continued.- The elasticity of only one bright line close to one of the great nebular lines. One cubic crystals, by Mr. A. E. H. Love.—Changes in the dimensions of ihe lines in Nova Auriga is very close to this nebular line, of elastic solids due to given systems of forces, by M. C. Chree. but there is reason to believe that it is due to a substance other Expressions are found for the mean values of the strains and than that which gives the nebular line. - Dr. R. H. Traquair stresses in any homogeneous elastic solid, whether æolotropic or read a paper on the fossil Selachii of Fife and the Lothians. isotropic, under the influence of any given system of bodily and Five new species are included. surface forces. The expressions for the mean values of the strains, more especially of the dilatation, are employed in deter.

GLASGOW. mining the changes in the dimensions of elastić solids in a Geological Society, March 10.—Mr. Dugald Bell read a variety of special cases. The effects of gravitational and centri. paper on the alleged submergence in Scotland during the fugal forces are more particularly considered.-On the law of Glacial epoch, with special reference to the so-called "highdistribution of velocities in a system of moving molecules, by level shell-bed" at Chapelhall, near Airdrie, 512 feet above the Mr. A. H. Leahy. A short proof is given of the Maxwell law This "bed" had first been brought into notice by Mr. of distribution based upon the principle that a system of mole- Smith, of Jordanhill, in a paper to the Geological Society in cules, whose velocities are instantaneously reversed, will return 1850, and had since been generally accepted as proving a subto its former configuration. The limit which must be put to mergence of the land to at least that extent. Its existence, the least number of molecules in a gas if the ordinary assump- however, rested on very imperfect evidence. It was said to tions of the kinetic theory of gases may be relied upon is also have been found in digging a well near the summit of one of the examined, and a note made on the evidence that a system of high ridges of boulder-clay in the district ; and was described molecules will ultimately attain to a steady state of distribution. as a bed of fine reddish clay, about 2 feet thick, and thinning

away rapidly on all sides, lying in a hollow of the boulder-clay, EDINBURGH.

which was 14 feet or more in thickness both above and Royal Society, March 7.-Prof. Sir W. Turner, Vice- below it. The well seems to have been built up before Mr. President, in the chair.—Prof. Cossar Ewart read a paper on Smith had an opportunity of examining the section, though he the cranial nerves of man and Selachians. He compared the got some shells said to have been found in the clay, and which cranial nerves of the skate and shark genus with those of man, were all of one species, Tellina calcarea. From that day to and discussed their probable identity. The facial nerve of the this no geologist had seen the clay, though it had been sought fish is much more developed than that of any other vertebrate, for all around, and though another well had been sunk within a but is entirely sensory, while in man it is a motor nerve. In few yards of the old one, in the hope of finding it. At the very some mammals, though not in man, there are vestiges of the utmost, it seems to have been a limited strip or patch of shelly lateral sense-organs. These organs occur in the tadpole, but clay, intercalated in the boulder-ciay, such as had been found in are practically absent in the fully-developed frog. It would many other localities, and could not fairly be taken as a seem, therefore, that the mammals originally possessed rudi- sufficient proof of submergence. The more they were conments of these organs, but that these rudiments disappeared as sidered the greater seemed the improbabilities which the theory development proceeded.

of a submergence and re-emergence of the country to this March 14. — The Rev. Prof. Flint, Vice-President, in the extent, and at that time, involved. There was not a particle of chair.—Mr. Robert Irvine read a communication, by Dr. John corroborative evidence. No shells had been found at a similar Murray and himself, on the changes in the chemical composi- level in other parts of the midland valley, nor in the numerous tion of sea-water associated with marine blue muds. The obser- side-valleys, where they would be more likely to be preserved vations recorded were made on mud dredged from Granton than on this exposed knoll in the centre. None had been Harbour and from the old quarry near Granton.—Dr. John found in the upper boulder-clay, which, if all this valley had Murray read a paper, by Mr. Irvine and himself, on marganese been a sea-bottom before the “second glaciation," should connodules in the marine deposits of the Clyde sea-area. Man- tain abundance of at least shelly fragments. Further, a “mild ganese occurs in great quantities in that area, and this forms a interglacial period” would probably accompany such a substriking exception to the usual distribution of manganese as mergence, and this shelly clay was supposed to have been laid regards depth of water. Dr. Murray, therefore, in a previous down during such a period; but the only species of shells found paper on this subject, suggested that the large occurrence of in it indicated, not mild, but extremely cold conditions. In manganese in the Clyde area had its origin in the waste pro- face of all these difficulties, it was suggested that the layer ducts discharged into the river from the manufactories at Glas- containing these shells may have been transported (probably in gow. During the past year a great many dredgings have been a frozen condition) by the ice-sheet, as in many other instances taken on the west coast of Scotland and in basins to the north of that were well known. This seemed to be by far the more the Mall of Cantyre, with the result that very little manganese probable account of it

, and got rid of the complications conwas found, while, as before, large quantities were obtained in nected with a first glaciation, a deep submergence, a rethe Clyde sea-area-so much so that it would almost pay to emergence, and a second glaciation closely resembling the first. dredge it on the Skelmorlie Bank. Dr. Murray's explanation The position of this patch of shelly clay, admittedly, in the is therefore strongly confirmed. —Dr. Murray exhibited a speci- track of the old ice-sheet, and in front of an obstruction premen of extremely pure chalk from Christmas Island (about two sented by the highest rising ground in the district ; the highly hundred miles from the coast of Java).-Dr. Noel Paton read a Arctic character of the organisms; the very colour of the clay (as paper on a case of the occurrence of crystalline globulin in reported) being different from the clays of the immediate urine. - Prof. Tait read an additional note on the isothermals of neighbourhood, -all favoured this conclusion. This Chapelhall carbonic acid at volumes less than the critical volume.

clay, therefore, he submitted, ought no longer to be cited as a March 21.—The Hon. Lord M'Laren in the chair.—The proof of submergence. An animated discussion followed. Keith Prize for the period 1889-91 was presented to Mr. R. T. Omond, Superintendent of the Ben Nevis Observatory, for his

PARIS. contributions to meteorological science ; and the Makdougall- Academy of Sciences, March 21.-M. d'Abbadie in the Brisbane Prize for 1888-90 was presented to Dr. Ludwig Becker chair. -A study of the properties of amorphous boron, by M. for his paper on the solar spectrum at medium and low altitudes. H. Moissan. A full account is given of the physical and

– The Astronomer-Royal for Scotland made a further com- chemical properties of pure amorphous boron. The following munication on Nova Auriga. The atmospheric conditions conclusions are arrived at by the author :- Boron combines were remarkably favourable for observation until the 11th day more readily with the metalloids than with the metals ; it has a of February, when the star was of the fifth magnitude, but since great affinity for fluorine, chlorine, oxygen, and sulphur. At a that time, until the 18th of this month, only occasional observa- red heat it displaces silicon and carbon from their oxides. It


thousands uf




combines with nitrogen directly only at a very high temperature ; pounds have been obtained: Cu,l2. 2NII,1.8(NH),S,O, ; it readily reacts with a large number of salts. Its action on 4Cu,l,. Cu,S,O3.7(NH.),S2O3. 4H,O;and Cul.. (NH4)2S2O3. metallic oxides, easily reduced by carbon, is very violent. (See H,0. The author proposes to study similar compounds yielded p. 522.)-On the preparation of boron iodide, by. M. H. by sodium and potassium thiosulphates, and also compounds Moissan.-On the origin of colouring matters in the vine ; the given by other iodides, such as those of silver and lead. -Study ampelochroic acids and the autumnal coloration of vegetation, of the velocity of decomposition of diazo compounds, by M.M. by M. Arm. Gautier.-Experiments on vascular reflex action, J. Hausser and P. Th. Muller.—Some bases homologous with by M. L. Ranvier.-Contribu'ion to the history of morbid quinine, by MM. E. Grimaux and A. Arnaud. — The essence associations : coexistence of stercorary retention with general of Licari kanali, hy M. Ph. Barbier. - Combinations of the fatiy diseases and injuries of the great visceræ, the kidneys in par. acids with the ethylene series of hydrocarbons, by MM. Behal licular, by M. Verneuil.–Surface and population : European and Desgrez.-On the natural synthesis of the vegetable hydroStates, by M. Émile Levasseur. The following values have been carbons, by M. Maquenne.-On the presence, in straw, of taken from the tables given :

an aërobic serment reducing nitrates, by M. E. Bréal. -On The Surface, in

Population. Density, or hereditary transmission of acquired characters by Bacillus

in millions of nuinber of anthracis under the influence of a dysgenesic temperature, hy States.

inhabitants inhabitants
at the end of

M. C. Phisalix.-On the nitrogen in the blood, by MM. F.
per square

kilometre. Jolyet and C. Sigalas.-Anatomy of the hypogastric nervous West Europe 916'32 87:11

95'0 system of mammals, by M. Lannegrace.-On the Pliocene bird Central 1207:56 93-609

770 fauna Roussillon, by M. Ch. Depéret. –The sickle at the South


50'0 end of the Stone Age, by M. Emile Cartailhac. - On the régime East


180 of artesian wells in the El Golea region, by M. Georges Rolland. North


9'0 -On a particula: cause of contamination of water having its

source in limestones, by M. E. A. Martel. Total

10,034 445 359645 The methods of arriving at these numbers and other insor. BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS Received. mation relating to them are fully explained. -Report on

Books.- Travels amongst the Great Andes of the Equator, and Supple. memoir, presented by M. Blondlot, on the propagation of

mentary Appendix to ditto: E. Whymper (Murray).-Diagram Illustrating Hertz vibrations.- Observations of comet a 1892 (Swift), made the Leblanc Soda Process, and Key to ditto: J. J. Miller (J. Heywood).at the Paris Observatory with the West Tower equatorial, by M.

Dictionary of Political Economy: Edited by R. H. I. Palgrave, Part 2 G. Bigourdan.- Observations of comet c 1892, made at the Paris

(Macmillan). — Bibliothek des Professors der Zoologie und Vergl. Anatomie,

1891: Dr. L. von Graff (Leipzig, Engelmann).- The Universal Atlas, Part Observatory with the same instrument, by the same author.- 13 (Cassell). - Le Climat de Rio de Janeiro: L. Cruls (Rio de Janeiro). Observations of Swist's comet (1892 March 6), made with the

The World and the Flood : A. J. Stuart (Shanklin). great equatorial of Bordeaux Observatory, by M. G. Rayet.

PAMPHLET.-The French Peasantry since the Revolution of 1789: L.

Nottelle (Simpkin). On the common periodicity of sun-spots and auroræ, by M. Serials.--Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, No. 131 (Churchill). Terby. (For the last four communications see Our Astronomical - Bulletin de la Société Astronomique de France, cinq. année, 1891 (Paris). Column.)-On the tensions of saturated 'vapours of different liquids at the same pressure, by M. Edmond Colot. The experiments made by the author bear out the law that between the


PAGE temperatures t and 8 of the saturated vapours of any two liquids | A Zoologist on Disease. By Prof. E. Ray Lanwhich correspond to the same pressure, there exists the linear kester, F.R.S.

505 relation ( = A + B, where A and B are two constants, the

Two Books of African Travei

507 values of which depend on the nature of the liquids under con- Professor Tyndall's Latest Book. By J. D. E.

508 sideration.--On a standard condenser, by M. H. Abraham.

Our Book Shelf:With a view of making a new determination of v, M. Abraham Roscoe and Schorlemmer: “A Treatise on Chemistry," has constructed an air condenser having a capacity of about 500

Vol. III. Part VI.

509 in electro-static C.G.S. units. The arrangement is described,

Ward : "The Oak: a Popular Introduction to Foresi and estimations are given of the probable accuracy which Botany."-J. G. B..

50g can be attained. The ratio of the electro-static to the Levett and Davison : "The Elements of Plane Trigono. electro magnetic unit (v) has not yet been found. -On

509 electro-capillary phenomena, by M. Gouy.-On the mani

De Vilmorin : "Les Fleurs à Paris : Culture et Com festation of negative electricity during fine weather, by M. Ch.

510 André During fine weather a negative electrification of the Buckland : "Ilealth Springs of Germany and Austria" 510 air is extremely rare. Several theories have been put forward

Letters to the Editor :to account for this, but an examination of some of the records Heat-Engines and Saline Solutions.

Lord Rayof atmospheric electricity, made at the Lyons Observatory, leads leigh, Sec. R.S. .

510 M. André lo conclude i hat the appearance of negative electri

On Earth Vibrations. - Dr. Emil Oddone

:510 fication during fine weather is an exaggeration of a diurnal Striated Sursace under the Cromer Drift.-William variation of which it is a particular case.-Crystalline absorp.


511 tion and the choice between the different theories of light, by

Pilchards. -Matthias Dunn

511 M. E. Carvallo. If a ray of monochromatic light traverse a

On the Boltzmann-Maxwell Law of Partition of Kinetic double-resracting crystal, the absorption only depends on the Energy.-Rev. H. W. Watson, F.R.S. .

512 position of the Fresnel vibration. The intensity of the energent

The Functions of Universities.-Prof. Geo. Fras. ray is given by M. Becquerel's formula

FitzGerald, F.R.S.


A New Comet.-W. F. Denning di = Vicenx cosa + e-nx cos® B + e*p* cosy),


On Insect Colours. I. By F. H. Perry Coste 513 where in is the intensity of the incident ray ; i, the intensity of Notes

517 the emergent ray; a, b, y, angles between Fresnel's vibration Our Astronomical Column: and the axes of optical elasticity; x, the thickness of the

The Planet Jupiter

521 crystal traversed by the ray; and e, the base of Naperian The Objective Prism logarithms. The author finds that this law is verified in the im- Variation of Latitude

521 portant case where only one of the three components exists It The Discovery of Neptune

522 also applies to heat rays. Finally, when an extraordinary ray Astronomy at the Paris Academy, March 21

522 traverses tourmaline in a direction oblique to the axis, its Var.a ility of Nebulæ

522 state of polarization varies progressively until the thickness Solar Prominence Photography

522 traversed is that which would destroy the ordinary ray. The Aurora Spectrum

522 This state then remains invariable up to emergence, when The Properties of Amorphous Boron. By A. E. the ray sharply regains the state of original polarization.- Tutton

522 On the determination of chemical equilibrium in solution systems, The Manchu Race

523 by M. Georges Charpy.-Combinations of cuprous iodide with Societies and Academies

524 ammonium thiosulphate, by M. E. Brun. The following com- Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received


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