Imágenes de páginas

cells become absorbed. In C. glauca and Rumphiana tracheides during the next five years) that the offer be accepted, and that are formed, analogous to the elaters of the Hepaticæ ; their func- the thanks of the University should be conveyed to the Counci tion is uncertain. The megaspores, or embryo-sacs, of which of the Royal Geographical Society for their liberal offer. there are usually from sixteen to twenty, lengthen in the direction The programme of the fifth summer meeting of University of the chalaza, some of them sometimes penetrating and forming Extension and other students, to be held in Oxford in July and "tails" between the elements of the fibrovascular bundle of the August 1892, has been issued, and in its general character funicle. The sister-cells of the embryo-sacs, instead of being resembles that of last year. The inaugural lecture will be deabsorbed at an early period, as in other Angiosperms, disappear livered by Mr. John Addington Symonds (if his health permits) only much later. The megaspores which develop fully divide at on Friday, July 29, at 8.30 p.m. The meeting will, as in the end into two or three cells, which are in most cases naked, former years, be divided into two parts, viz. from July 29 to and result from the division of a single cell. In the great August 9, and from August 10 to August 26. in Natural majority of cases only a single megaspore in each nucellus has Science the following arrangements have been made :these terminal or sexual cells furnished with cell-walls; this is In Chemistry : a course of eighteen days' practical instruction the future embryo-sac. The oosphere is always formed from in the University laboratory, limited to roo students, conducted the sexual cell which has the thickest wall. No antipodals are by Messrs. J. E. Marsh and A. D. Hall of Balliol College. formed.

In Geology: a special course of fourteen days' practical inOnly a single ovule is ever fertilized, and the pollen-grain struction, with field work provided, if at least 40 students offer which fecundates it advances towards the embryo-sac in a way themselves. entirely different from anything that occurs in other Phanero- In Botany : in addition to lectures on primroses and their gams. The pollen-tube does not enter the ovarian cavity ; it relations, it is proposed to arrange, for a class of not less than descends the stylary cylinder, crosses the bridge and the tissue 40 students, a three weeks' course of practical instruction. which unites thé ovule with the wall of the ovary, and arrives at In Biology : to the same minimum number of students is the fibrovascular bundle which leads to the chalaza, where it offered a special course of lectures and demonstrations in the produces two short branches, then traverses the chalaza, and physiological laboratory, to form an introduction to the study enters the ovule by means of the "tail ” of a sterile megaspore, of life, and especially of nervous organisms. and continues its course towards the embryo-sac. Towards the Courses of lectures and instruction on Astronomy, Mechanics, middle of the nucellus it contracts, tapers off, and ruptures, the Sound, Light and Heat, Electricity, Physiography, and Hygiene terminal fecundating portion becoming separated from the rest can be arranged. of the pollen-tube. This portion, which has a thickened wall, It is also announced that there will be no summer meeting and contains distinct protoplasm, never enters the micropyle or in 1893, as during August in that year the Examination Schools the embryo-sac, but becomes firmly attached to the wall of the will be in the hands of workpeople. latter, at a spot variable in position, but always at some distance

ST. ANDREWS.-Summer Session. -A course of lectures in from the sexual apparatus. Dr. Treub has not, at present, been

zoology and botany, qualifying for graduation, will commence able to detect in this portion a definite nucleus, or to follow the

on May 2, the former by Prof. Prince, the latter by Mr. Robertactual process of fecundation. During the development of the

son, the University Lecturer on Botany. These are open to embryo-sac, numerous endosperm-nuclei are formed, and subse

students of either sex. quently the embryo makes its appearance. The mode of development of the embryo does not differ from that which occurs in other Dicotyledons.

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. The peculiar processes which accompany the act of fecundation, and the presence of a large number of megaspores, each

LONDON. containing a sexual apparatus, induce Dr. Treub to regard the

Royal Society, March 31.—" Aberration Problems : Casuarinaceæ as a distinct group of Angiosperms, of equal rank

Discussion concerning the Connection between Ether and with the Monocotyledones and Dicotyledones together, and he

Matter, and the Motion of the Ether near the Earth.” By proposes the following primary classification of Phanerogams :

Oliver Lodge, F.R.S., Professor of Physics, University College, I. GYMNOSPERMS.


The paper begins by recognizing the distinction between ether A. CHALAZOGAMS (Casuarinaceae).

in free space and ether as modified by transparent matter, and B. PORUGAMS.

points out that the modified ether, or at least the modification, 1. Monocoly.'edones.

necessarily travels with the matter. The well-known hypothesis

of Fresnel is discussed and re-stated in modern form. 2. Dicotyledones.

Of its two parts, one has been verified by the experiment of The Chalazogams are not intermediate between Gymno- Fizeau, the other has not yet been verified. Its two parts are, sperms and Angiosperms, but occupy an isolated and inferior (1) that inside transparent matter the velocity of light is affected position among the latter, somewhat analogous to that of by the motion of that matter, and (2) that immediately outside Lycopodium among Vascular Cryptogams. The paper is illus- moving matter there is no such effect. The author proceeds to trated by 21 fine plates.

A. W. B.

examine into the truth of this second part, (1) by discussing what
is already known, (2) by fresh experiment.

The phenomena resulting from motion are four, viz. :-

(1) Changes in direction, observed by telescope and called

aberration. INTELLIGENCE.

(2) Change in frequency, observed by spectroscope and OXFORD.-Endowment of Original Research. The following called Doppler effect. notice has been received by the Vice-Chancellor :- A gentle- (3) Change in time of journey, observed by lag of phase or man has established a Scholarship of £100, tenable for one shift of interference bands. year, for the encouragement of original research. The Scholar (4) Change in intensity, observed by energy received by will be selected by a Committee composed of Dr. George Thin, | thermopile. Surgeon-General Cornish, and Prof. A. Winter. Blyth. The After a discussion of the effects of motion in general, which conditions of the Scholarship are, that the research be on a differ according as projectiles or waves are contemplated, the subject requiring for its elucidation both chemical and bacterio. case of a fixed source in a moving medium is considered ; then of logical methods, and the subject will be selected by the Com- a moving source in a fixed medium ; then the case of medium mittee of Selection. With the concurrence of the Scholar, the alone moving past source and receiver ; and, finally, of the work is to be done in the laboratories of the College of State receiver only moving. Medicine, 101 Great Russell Street, W.C., and the Scholar will It is found that the medium alone moving causes no change have to devote his whole time to the work. Application to be in direction, no change in frequency, no detectable lag of made to Surgeon-General Cornish, on or before April 18, 1892. phase, and probably no change of intensity; and hence arises

In a Convocation held on April 5, it was decreed (the the difficulty of ascertaining whether the general body of the Council of the Royal Geographical Society having offered a ether is moving relatively to the earth or not. further sum of £150 a year, to be met by an equal sum from A clear distinction has to be drawn, however, between the the University, for the payment of a Reader in Geography effect of general motion of the medium as a whole, and motion

а same.

of parts of the medium, as when dense matter is artificially The aberrational effect of slabs of moving transparent matter moved. The latter kind of motion may produce many effects is considered, also the effect of a differently refractive medium. which the former cannot.

Motion of medium, though incompetent to produce any aberA summary of this part of the discussion is as follows :- rational or Doppler effect, is shown to be able to slightly modify

Source alone moving produces a real and apparent change of them if otherwise produced. colour ; a real but apparent error in direction ; no lag of The Doppler effect is then entered into. "he question is dis. phase, except that appropriate to altered wave-length; a change cussed as to what the deviation produced by a prism or a grating of intensity corresponding to different wave-lengths.

really depends on: whether on frequency or wave-length. It is Medium alone moving, or source and receiver moving to- shown that whereas the effect of a grating must be independent gether, gives no change of colour; no change of direction ; a of its motion and depend on wave-length alone, yet that the real lag of phase, but undetectable without control over the effect observed with a moving grating by a moving observer medium; a change of intensity corresponding to different depends on frequency, because the motion of the observer superdistances but compensated by change of radiating power. poses an aberrational effect on the true effect of the grating.

Receiver alone moving gives an apparent change of colour ; This suggests a means of discriminating motion of source from an apparent change of direction; no change of phase, except motion of observer; in other words, of detecting absolute that appropriate to extra virtual speed of light; change of motion through ether; but the smallness of the difference is not intensity corresponding to different virtual velocity of light. hopeful.

The probable absence of a first order effect of any kind, due Michelson's experiment is then discussed in detail, as a case to ethereal drift or relative motion between earth and ether, of normal reflection from a moving mirror or from a mirror in a makes it necessary to attend to second order effects.

drifting medium. No error in its theory is discovered. The principle of least time is applied, after the manner of The subjects of change of phase, of energy, of reflection in Lorentz, to define a ray rigorously, and to display the effect of a moving medium, work done on a moving mirror, and the existence or non-existence of a velocity potential. Fresnel's laws of reflection and refraction as modified by motion, are law is seen to be equivalent to extending the velocity potential considered. throughout all transparent matter.

It is found that the law of reflection is not really obeyed in a It is shown that a ray traversing space or transparent sub- relatively moving medium, though to an observer stationary stances will retain its shape, whatever the motion of the medium, with respect to the mirror it appears to be obeyed, so far as the so long as that motion is irrotational, and that in that case the first order of aberration magnitude is concerned ; but that there apparent direction of objects depends simply on motion of ob is a residual discrepancy involving even powers of aberration server ; but, on the other hand, that if the earth drags with it magnitude, of an amount possibly capable of being detected by some of the ether in its neighbourhood, stellar rays will be very delicate observation. curved, and astronomical aberration will be a function of latitude The following statements are made and justified :and time of day.

(1) The planes of incidence and reflection are always the The experiment of Boscovich, Airy, and Hoek, as to the effect of filling a telescope-tube with water, does not discriminate. (2) The angles of incidence and reflection, measured between between these theories. For if the ether is entirely non-viscous ray and normal to surface, usually differ. and has a velocity potential, stellar rays continue straight, in (3) If the mirror is stationary and medium moving, they spite of change of medium (or at oblique incidence are refracted differ by a quantity depending on the square of aberration magin the simple manner), and there will be no fresh effect due to nitude, i.e. by I part in 100,000,000; and a stationary telechange of medium ; while, if, on the contrary, the ether is all scope, if delicate enough, might show the effect. carried along near the earth, then it is stationary in a telescope (4) If the medium is moving and mirror stationary, the tube, whether that be filled with water or air, and likewise no angles differ by a quantity depending on the first power of effect is to be expected. In the case of a viscous ether, all the aberration magnitude (1 part in 10,000), but a telescope moving difficulty of aberration must be attacked in the upper layers with the mirror will not be able to observe it ; for the commonabove the earth ; all the bending is over by the time the surface place aberration caused by motion of receiver will obliterate is reached. It is difficult to see how an ethereal drift will not the odd powers and leave only the even ones ; the same as in tend to cause an aberration in the wrong direction.

case (3). Of the experiments hitherto made by Arago, Babinet, Max- (5) As regards the angles which the incident and reflected well, Mascart, Hoek, and perhaps others, though all necessary waves make with the surface, they differ in case (3) by a first to be tried, not one really discriminates between the rival hypo- order magnitude, in case (4) by a second order magnitude. theses. All are consistent either with absolute quiescence of (6) At grazing incidence the ordinary laws are accurately ether near moving bodies, or with relative quiescence near the obeyed. At normal incidence the error is a maximum. earth's surface. They may be said, perhaps, to be inconsistent (7) The ordinary laws are obeyed when the direction of drift with any intermediate position.

is either tangential or normal to the mirror, and is disobeyed Two others, however, do appear to discriminate, viz. an old most when the drist is at 45°. and difficult polarization experiment of Fizeau (Ann. de Chim. (8) In general, the shape of the incident wave is not precisely et de Phys., 1859), which has not been repeated since, and the preserved after reflection in a moving medium. To a parallel recent famous experiment of Michelson (Phil. Mag., 1887) with beam the mirror acts as if slightly tilted ; to a conical beam as rays made to interfere after traversing and retraversing paths at if slightly curved. But either effect, as observable in the result, right angles.

is almost hopelessly small. The conclusions deducible from these two experiments are (9) Similar statements are true for refraction, assuming antagonistic. Fizeau's appears to uphold absolute rest of ether; Fresnel's law. Michelson's upholds relative rest, i.e. drag by the earth.

The possibility of obtaining first order effects from general The author now attempts a direct experiment as to the effect ethereal motion by means of electrical observations is considered. of moving matter on the velocity of light in its neighbourhood; assuming that a positive or negative result with regard to the Chemical Society, March 17.-Dr. W. J. Russell, F.R.S. effect of motion on the velocity of light will be accepted as Vice-President, in the chair. — The following papers were equivalent to a positive or negative result with respect to the read :-A study of the conditions which determine combination motion of the ether.

between the cyanides of zinc and mercury, and of the composiHe gives a detailed account of the experiment, the result of tion and properties of the resulting double salt, by W. R. which is to show that such a mass as a pair of circular saws Dunstan. When a solution of zinc sulphate is added to one of clamped together does not whirl the ether between the plates to mercuric potassium cyanide, HgK (CN),, or when mercuric any appreciable amount, not so much, for instance, as a 1/500th chloride is added to a solution of zinc potassium cyanide, part of their speed. He concludes, therefore, that the ether is ZnK,(CN), a white precipitate is formed, which has been stated, not appreciably viscous. But, nevertheless, it may perhaps be on the authority of Gmelin, to consist of a double cyanide of zinc argued that enormous masses may act upon it gravitationally, and mercury of the formula ZnHg(CN). This, however, is not straining it so as perhaps to produce the same sort of effect as if the case. The maximum amount of mercuric cyanide that can they dragged it with them. He proposes to try the effect of a be retained by the precipitate is only 38.5 per cent., and is larger mass. Also to see if, when subject to a strong magnetic dependent on the amount of water present during precipitation field, ether can be dragged by matter.

as well as on the proportions in which the salts interact. When

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washed with cold water the precipitate loses a large proportion, Royal Meteorological Society, March 16.-Dr. C. Theothough not all, of the mercuric cyanide contained in it. "Boiling dore Williams, the President, delivered an address on the value water and cold potassium iodide solution extract the mercuric of meteorological instruments in the selection of health resorts. cyanide more readily. Experiments have been made in which He drew attention to thermometers, maximum and minimum, the relative masses of the interacting substances were varied, as the foundation-stone on which medical climatology rests, and these experiments prove that a true compound of the two instanced effects of extreme cold or of heat on the human orcyanides is formed, and suffers decomposition to a greater or less ganism. The direct rays of the sun are of the greatest importextent, depending on the amount of water present. An examina- ance, and in health resorts should be utilized to the full-in fact, tion of the curves plotted from these results leads to the inference only climates where during the winter months even a delicate that the double salt is a tetrazincic monomercuridecacyanide, person can lie or sit for several hours a day basking in the sunZn, Hg(CN)10. -A lecture experiment to illustrate the phenomena shine are to be recommended for most complaints, and the of coal-dust explosions, by T. E. Thorpe. The author describes various forms of sunshine-recorders are used to aid the medical an apparatus by means of which the phenomena of a coal-dust adviser in the choice of such health stations. After referring explosion, resulting either from a local explosion of fire-damp or to the value of rain gauges, hygrometers, and barometers, Dr. by the direct action of a blown-out shot, may be illustrated. The Williams stated that many health resorts owe their reputation apparatus consists of a long narrow wooden box having an almost solely to their shelter from cold winds; for instance, the explosion chamber at one end ; a thin layer of fine coal-dust or advantage in climate which Hyères and Mentone enjoy over lycopodium powder is spread along the bottom of the box. On Marseilles is chiefly due to their being more sheltered from the firing a mixture of coal.gas and air in the explosion chamber, Mistral, or north-west wind,'the scourge of the lower valley of the the explosive wave sweeps along the box with increasing strength Rhone from Valence to Avignon. He went on to describe the until it shoots out at the open end of the apparatus. By observa- climate of the Riviera, illustrating it by lantern slides from recent tions made with this apparatus the author finds that there is no photographs, including views of Hyères, Costabelle, Cannes, evidence of a diminution of pressure along the sides of the space Nice, Mentone, San Remo, &c., and he showed the three printhrough which the flame rushes, and he is of opinion that there cipal causes of the warm winter of this region to be (1) the is no experimental proof of the validity of the " suction theory, southern latitude, (2) the protection from cold winds by moun. which assumes that in consequence of this alleged diminution of tain ranges, and (3) the equalizing and warming influence of the pressure, occluded fire-damp is drawn out from the coal, and Mediterranean Sea, which, being practically tideless, is always contributes to the violence of the explosion. — The production of equally potent, not varying with hour and season. Dr. Williams the ketone, 1:2: 4 acetylorthoxylene from camphor by the mentioned the weak points of the south of France climate, with action of sulphuric acid and zinc chloride, by H. E. Armstrong its blustering Mistral, its occasional cold Bise, its moist Scirocco and F. S. Kipping. The authors have previously stated that wind ; but summed up the Riviera winter climate as being, as a they have separated a ketone of the composition C,H,O from the whole, clear, bright, and dry, with fog and mist practically uncrude product of the action of sulphuric acid on camphor. On known, with a winter temperature from 8° to 10° higher than treatment with bromine the ketone yields a compound which | England though subject to considerable nocturnal radiation, readily decomposes, giving a monobromo-derivative, C,H, Bro, with about half the number of rainy days, and four or five times melting at 63-64°. When oxidized with dilule nitric acid, the the number of bright ones, which we can boast of, with cold ketone yields two acids, separable by means of chloroform. winds and cold weather, without which it would lose its healthOne of these proves to be paraxylic acid, viz. 1:2:4 dimethyl. giving effect.—After the delivery of this address the meeting ber.zoic acid, whilst the other is xylidinic or 1:2:4 methyliso. was adjourned in order to allow the Fellows and their friends an phthalic acid. The ketone is therefore I : 2:4 acetylorthoxylene, opportunity to inspect the Exhibition of Instruments relating to a compound which Claus has synthesized from acetic chloride climatology, which had been arranged in the rooms of the Inand orthoxylene in presence of aluminium chloride.- Platinum stitution of Civil Engineers, 25 Great George Street. The tetrachloride, by W. Pullinger. The author has obtained Meteorological Office showed a set of instruments necessary for platinum tetrachloride by heating hydrated hydrogen platinic, the equipment of a climatological station, viz. Stevenson therchloride in a current of dry hydrogen chloride at 163 for fifteen mometer screen, fitted with dry bulb, wet hulb, maximum and hours. When thus prepared, it is a very soluble, but not deli. minimum thermometers, and also a rain gauge. Thermometers quescent, substance. --Note on a new acid from camphoric acid, were also shown for ascertaining the temperature on the ground, by W. H. Perkin, Jun. When warmed with sulphuric acid, under the ground, and at a distance, as well as for recording camphoric acid is converted into sulphocamphoric acid, with loss tempera:ure continuously. Various forms of sunshine-recorders of water and carbon monoxide, C1H60, + H,SO. = C,H16 were exbibited, as well as a number of actinometers and solar SO + CO + H,0. Kachler found that, when fused with radiation instruments for ascertaining the heating effect of the potash, sulphocamphoric acid yields a crystalline substance, solar rays. The Exhibition included a large and interesting colC,H,20,, melting at 148°, which is apparently not an acid. I lection of hygrometers, also several rain-gauges and other The author in repeating Kachler's experiments, but sulphonat: , instruments. Among the curiosities was a piece of plate glass, ing at 100° instead of at 65°, obtained a well-characterized which was "starred” during a thunderstorm on August 21, monobasic acid, C,H,O,, isomeric with this substance and melt- 1879; this was not broken, but it has a number of wavy hair-like ing at 108'. It would appear from these results that the acid lines. The Exhibition contained a large number of beautiful obtained by sulphonating camphoric acid at 100° is isomeric with photographs of clouds, lightning, and snow scenes, as well as of ordinary sulphocamphoric acid. --The specific rotatory and cupric the damage done by the destructive tornado at Lawrence, reducing power of invert sugar and of dextrose obtained from Mass., U.S.A. The Exhibition remained open until Tuesday, cane sugar by means of invertase, by J. O'Sullivan. The author the 22nd ult. describes experiments in which the hydrolysis of cane sugar was effected by means of invertase instead of by means of acid. The Anthropological Institute, March 22.–Francis Galton, specific rotatory power of invert sugar obtained by means of F.R.S., Vice-President, in the chair. --Mr. Theodore Bent read invertase, which has no action on lævulose, is [a];= 24° 5, a paper on the finds at the Great Zimbabwe ruins. The outer and that of the dextrose prepared from such invert sugar

is wall of the semicircular temple on the hill is decorated by a [a]; = 57°. The apparent specific rotatory power of lævulose number of birds perched on long soapstone pedestals, all of calculated from these numbers is [a]; = 106", or [a]!= -93° -8, which appear to be intended to represent the same bird, proba value agreeing with that generally accepted. - Ethyldimethyl- ably a vulture. Two of the birds, similar in character and amidobenzene, by W. R. Hodgkinson and L. Limpach. This slightly varying from the others, are represented as perched on amine is prepared by heating paraxylidine hydrochloride with zones or cesti, and there seems to be a similar class of symbolism ethyl alcohol at 250°-300°. It is purified from diethyldimethyl-connecting them all. Mr. Bent is of opinion that these birds amídobenzene by crystallization of the sulphates. The sulphate represent the Assyrian Astarte or Venus—the female element in of the latter substance is the more soluble. The formyl and creation. In the centre of the temple stood an altar, into the acetyl derivatives of the amine are described. - Action of nitric stones of which were inserted a large number of soapstone acid on oxanilide and its analogues, by A. G. Perkin. The objects, which afforded ample evidence of the existence of author finds that oxanilide and its analogues are readily con- phallic worship in this place. Within the sacred inclosure are verted by nitration into the higher nitro-derivatives, thus iwo solid round towers, the largest of which is 34 feet in height differing from acetanilide and similar compounds, which yield and has a girth of 53 feet. Before them is a raised platform, dinitro-derivatives only with great difficulty.

presumably for sacrifice, and the wall behind them is decorated


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18:3} 424

with large standing monoliths. Some of the fragments of Ad. Carnot.-On the aldehydes and acetone bromides which pottery found are very good, and give evidence of a highly result from the action of bromine on alcohols of the fatty developed artistic skill. Close underneath the temple stood a group, by M. A. Étard.—On propylamines and some of gold-smelting furnace, made of very hard cement of powdered their derivatives, by M. F. Chancel.-On some reactions granite, with a chimney of the same material, and the quantity of isomeric amido - benzoic acids, by M. Oechsner de of rejected quartz found hard by proved that these ruins had Coninck.--Study of the velocity of decomposition of diazoformed the fortress for the protection of a gold-producing compounds, by MM. J. Hausser and P. Th. Muller.-On two people. The ruins and the things in them are not in any way fluorhydrines of glycerine, by M. Maurice Meslans. (See Notes.) connected with any known African race ; the objects of art and - On the mode of union of rings of the abdomen (zigzag articula. of special cult are foreign altogether to the country, and neither tion) of Hymenoptera, by M. G. Carlet.-On the embryonic the date of construction nor the race of the builders can now be development of the Galatheida of the genus Diptychus, by M. determined with accuracy ; but the evidence in favour of this E. L. Bouvier.-On the histology of the pituitary gland, by race being one of the many tribes of Arabia is very strong, and M. G. Saint-Remy.-On the blue colouring matter in the blood all the facts point to a remote antiquity.

of Crustacea, by M. F. Heim.-On a new marine Rhizopod

(Pontomyxa flava, g. et sp. n.), by M. E. Topsent. -The PARIS.

streptonary nervous system of Heteropods, by M. Paul Pelseneer. Academy of Sciences, March 28.-M. d'Abbadie in the -Observations on l'anthracnose maculée, by M. Louis Mangin. chair;--Note on a theorem on the calculation of probabilities, –On the artificial culture of Diatomaceæ, by M. P. M. J. Bertrand.-On the periodic variations of latitude, ac- On the crystalline rocks of Chablais, by M. Michel-Lévy. – The cording to a letter from M. Helmert to the members of the Per- Saint-Béat marble, its age and stratigraphical relations, by M. manent Commission of the International Geodetic Association, Caralp.-On some minimum perceptible quantities of certain by M. Faye. (See Our Astronomical Column.)–On the odours, by M. Jacques Passy.-Difference in the functions approximate theoretical calculation of the delivery from an exercised on the bladder by the afferent nerves of the hypoorifice in a thin wall, by M. J. Boussinesq.,-On the population gastric plexus, by M. Lannegrace.-On the Martinique cyclone of the five continents of the earth, by M.'Émile Levasseur. A of August 18, 1891, by M. G. Landes. - Magnetic disturbances comparison of M. Levasseur's estimations with those given by and seismic phenomena, by M. Émile Rivière. others shows that the differences are greater for Africa, Asia, Oceania, and America, than for Europe. This is what would be expected. M. Levasseur's numbers are as follows:


Books.-Index of Meteorological Observations in the United States Area,

Population, (Washington). -Essex Institute Historical Collections, vol. xxvii. (Salem, in millions of


A New Course of Experimental Chemistry: J. Castell-Evans square kilometres.

millions. (Murby).-Souvenir of Shakespeare's King Henry the Eighth (Black and Europe


White). --Deutsches Meteorologisches Jahrbuch für 1890 (Hamburg).Africa 30-5


Island Life, and edition : A R. Wallace (Macmillan).- A Naturalist in the Asia

Transvaal : W. L. Distant (Porter).—The Clyde Sea Area: Dr. H. R. 42'2 Oceania

Mill(Williams and Norgate). -Live Stock : Prof. J. Wrightson (Cassell). 38

The Great Earthquake in Japan, 1891: J. Milne and W. K. Burton (Stan. North America

ford). South America

PAMPHLETS.-Azimut Assoluto del Segnale Trigonometrico di Monte 34

Vesco sull'orizzonte di Torino: F. Porro (Torino).-Ergebnisse der Meteoro

logischen Beobachtungen im Systeme der Deutsche Seewarte für das Lustrum Total 136'2


1886–90 (Hamburg). -Note on a theory on the production of various vegetable galls, by M. A. Laboulbene.-Mechanical laws of atmospheric circula


PAGE tion ; surfaces of equal density ; squalls ; secondary and general circulations, by M. Le Goarant' de Tromelin.-Observations Mendeléeff's Principles of Chemistry. By T. E. T. 529 of Swift's comet (Rochester, March 6, 1892) and of the minor The Ligation of the Great Arteries.

By Dr, M. planet discovered by Wolf on March 18, made with the East Armand Ruffer ..

530 Tower equatorial of Paris Observatory, by Malle. D. Klumpke. Our Book Shelf:Observations for position were made on March 17, 21, 23, and Streeter : “Precious Stones and Gems : their History, 24.-Observations of Swift's comet made at Toulouse Ob

Sources, and Characteristics

531 servatory, by M. B. Baillaud. Observations for position were Lewes : “Air and Water".

531 made on March 16, 18, 19, 21, and 25.-Observations of Wolfs Letters to the Editor:periodic comet made with the great telescope of Toulouse Ob- Ornithology of the Sandwich Isles. —Prof. Alfred servatory, by MM. E. Cosserat and F. Rossard. Dates of Newton, F.R.S. ; J. E. Harting

532 observations for position : November 28, December 1, 4, 21, Poincaré's Thermodynamics.-P. G. T.

532 22, 26, and 31.-On plane réseaux having equal invariants, by M. Poincaré and Maxwell.-Prof. Geo. Fras. FitzM. G. Koenigs.-On congruences of which the mean surface is Gerald, F.R.S.

532 a plane, by M. C. Guichard.-On the existence of integrals in Prof. Burnside's Paper on the Partition of Energy, differential systems, by M. Riquier.-An electro-ballistic chrono- R.S.E., July 1887.-Prof. W. Burnside ; S. H. graph, by M. W. Schmidt.-On the radiations of incandescent Burbury, F.R.S.

533 hodies and the optical measure of high temperatures, by M. J. Double Orange.-Gerald B. Francis

534 Violle. By estimating the intensities of the lines at C and D in Metals at High Temperatures. (Iliustrated.) By Prof. the radiations of a piece of platinum, the author has deter. W. C. Roberts-Austen, C.B., F.R.S.

534 mined the temperature of the metal. His results agree very On Insect Colours. II. By F. H. Perry Coste 541 well with those obtained by M. Le Chatelier up to 1500°.-On Examination of the Standards of Measure and the temperature of the sun, by M. H. Le Chatelier. (See Our Weight immured in the Houses of Parliament 543 Astronomical Column.) — Application of the theory of lines of Notes

543 force to the demonstration of an electrostratic theorem, by M.

Our Astronomical Column:L. de la Rive.-On electro-capillary phenomena, by M. A.

The Relative Motion of 61 Cygni

547 Berget.-On a safety-lamp for use with coal gas, by M. F. The Temperature of the Sun

547 Parmentier. The author records some experiments on the Comet Swift, March 6

538 action of platinum wires and crucibles in cooling flames below Wolf's Comet, 1891 II.

531 the temperature necessary for the combustion of the gases.

Periodic Perturbations of the Four Inner Planets

548 Action of potassium fluoride on anhydrous chlorides; prepara. N.P.D.'s observed with Greenwich and Wasbington tion of anhydrous fuorides of nickel and potassium, and of Transit Circles. cobalt and potassium, by M, C. Poulenc. The compounds Washington Observations, 1887 . prepared have the composition NiKF, and CoKF3. Full de- Fertilization of the Casuarinaceæ. By A. W. B. scriptions are given of the mode of preparation and the proper- University and Educational Intelligence

549 ties of the new substances. - On the fixation of iodine by starch, Societies and Academies

549 by M. G. Rouvier.-On the estimation of Auorine, by M. Books and Pamphlets Received


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548 548 548

Equally extraordinary are the still lower opossums, one THURSDAY, APRIL 14, 1892.

of which is semi-aquatic and apparently adapted to its surroundings, while the other species (Didelphys azara)

is in every way adapted to an arboreal life, yet it is everyA REMARKABLE BOOK ON THE HABITS where found in this level treeless district, which leads to OF ANIMALS.

one of our author's suggestive remarks :The Naturalist in La Plata. By W. H. Hudson, “For how many thousands of years has this marsupia

C.Z.M.S. With Illustrations. (London : Chapman been a dweller on the plain, all its best faculties unexerand Hall, Ltd., 1892.)

cised, its beautiful grasping hands pressed to the ground,

and its prehensile tail dragged like an idle rope behind THIS HIS volume deserved a more distinctive title, since it! Yet, if one is brought to a tree, it will take to it as

it differs widely from the several works of other readily as a duck to water, or an armadillo to earth, naturalists with which it may be classed judging from climbing up the trunk and about the branches with a

How reluctant Nature seems in the title-page alone. It is, in fact, so far as the present monkey-lıke agility., writer knows, altogether unique among books on natural

some cases to undo her own work! How long she will

allow a specialized organ, with the correlated instinct, to history. It is to be hoped that its success will be propor- rest without use, yet ready to flash forth on the instant, tional to its merits, and that it will form the first of a bright and keen-edged, as in the ancient days of strife, series of volumes, by means of which residents in the ages past, before peace came to dwell on earth !” various extra-European countries will make known to us But we must pass on from this mere preliminary chapter to the habits of the animals which surround them. What more solid matter, only noting that we bave a vivid sketch renders this work of such extreme value and interest is, of the great rhea or American ostrich, of the flamingo, that it is not written by a traveller or a mere temporary the swans, and the noble crested screamer, all of which resident, but by one born in the country, to whom its are being exterminated by increasing population and imvarious tribes of beasts, birds, and insects have been proved weapons ; and this leads to a noble protest against familiar from childhood ; who is imbued with love and this extermination, of which we can only quote the conadmiration for every form of life ; and who for twenty cluding words :years has observed carefully and recorded accurately

“Only when this sporting rage has spent itself, when everything of interest in the life-histories of the various there are no longer any animals of the larger kinds respecies with which he has become acquainted. When maining, the loss we are now inflicting on this our heritage, we add to this the fact that the writer of this volume is in which we have a life-interest only, will be rightly apwell acquainted with the literature, both old and new, preciated. It is hardly to be supposed or hoped that bearing upon his subject ; that he groups his facts and posterity will feel satisfied with our monographs of extinct

species, and the few crumbling bones and faded feathers observations so as to throw light on obscure problems, which may possibly survive half-a-dozen centuries in some and often adduces evidence calculated to decide them ; , happily-placed Museum. On the contrary, such dreary and, in addition to all this, that the book is written in an mementoes will only serve to remind them of their loss ; earnest spirit and in a clear and delightful style, it be- and if they remember us at all, it will only be to hate comes evident that not all who attempt to follow in his our memory, and our age-this enlightened, scientific,

humanitarian age, which should have for its motto, Let steps can hope to equal their forerunner.

us slay all noble and beautiful things, for to-morrow we As every chapter of the book contains new and in die."" teresting matter, it is difficult to convey an adequate idea of it by partial extracts or by an enumeration of its chief teresting matter. This animal ranges from British

A chapter devoted to the puma is full of new and intopics; but the attempt must be made. The first chapter Columbia to the Straits of Magellan, but throughout this gives us a general sketch of the “ Desert Pampas” and its forms of animal life. The viscacha, the coypu, and the vast region there seems to be no authentic record of its tucu-tucu-three strange rodents--are brought vividly

ever attacking men except in self-defence. This has led before us by a description of some of their more prominent the bravest of the feline race, since it constantly attacks

to its being thought to be cowardly, whereas it is one of habits ; the edentate armadilloes appear in a new light, and conquers the jaguar whenever the two inhabit the since one of them, the hairy armadillo, is shown to be a dominant species holding its own against enemies of same district, while in North California it is the enemy higher type, so omnivorous that it can live on almost of the grizzly bear, and is again always the victor. In everything from grass to flesh, the latter either found attacks man, in however helpless a position he may be, is

the Pampas, where it is common, the fact that it never dead and in all stages of decay or captured by means of its own strategy. It is so agile that it catches mice, so so well known, that the Gaucho confidently sleeps on the strong and well armed that it kills poisonous snakes, and while it is said that a child may sleep on the plain un

ground, although he knows that pumas are close by; having killed them cuts them in pieces and swallows as protected in equal security. Many curious anecdotes much as it needs. Mr. Hudson adds :-

are given in illustration of this remarkable trait of so "It is much hunted for its flesh, dogs being trained for powerful and, as regards all other large Mammalia, bloodthe purpose ; yet it actually becomes more abundant as thirsty a creature. And the curious thing is that it seems population increases in any district ; and, if versatility in to be no dread or dislike of man that leads to the pecuhabits or adaptiveness can be taken as a measure of intelligence, this poor armadillo, a survival of the past

, 50 liarity, but rather some strange feeling of affection, or old on the earth as to have existed contemporaneously sense of pleasure in man's vicinity, shown in many curious with the giant glyptodon, is the superior of the large- ways, which has led the Pampas-dwelling Gauchos to cal! brained cats and canines."

it "the friend of man."

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