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Physical Society, March 25.-Prof. S. P. Thompson, Vice- thermometer passing down the central tube has its bulb on the President, in the chair.-A note on the electromotive forces same level as the wire; and another thermometer, placed in the of gold and platinum cells was read by Prof. E. F. Herroun. water-bath at the same level, serves to check the uniformity of Modern text-books put gold before platinum in Volta's electro- temperature. In order that the width of the coil may not prepositive series, and thus one is led to expect a greater evolution vent convection currents in the bath, the screws which fix the of heat when gold combines with (say) chlorine, than when two brass plates together have large holes through them. Dr. platinum does so. This, however, is not the case, for Julius Fleming's suggestion of forming the upper ebonite insulator Thomsen gives for the heat of formation of platinic chloride a into an oil.cup has also been carried out. A new form of value considerably greater than that for auric chloride. Gold Wheatstone bridge was next shown, possessing all the advantshould therefore be electro-negative to platinum. The few ex- ages of the dial pattern combined with great facilities for cleanperimenters who have tested such cells, arrived at different con- ing. There are four resistances in each proportional arın, and clusions, hence the author took up the subject, and examined the adjustable arm has four sets of coils—units, tens, hundreds, experimentally the E.M.F.'s of zinc-platinum and zinc-gold and thousands-each set consisting of ten equal coils. The cells, the metals being immersed in solutions of their chlorides ends of each coil are connected to bra-s sockets, fixed, about an of equal molecular strength. Instead of platinic chloride a solu inch apart, on the ebonite top. Successive coils are put in tion of sodio-platinic chloride was employed. From Thomsen's circuit by placing a plug attached to a flexible cord in the rethermo-chemical data, the E.M.F. of such a zinc-platinum cell quired socket. Special contact-bars are provided, whereby two should be 1'548 volts, whilst experiment gave values between or more coils of any set of ten may be put in parallel are, 1'70 and 1.473, according to the previous history of the cell. so as to get accurate resistances of large carrying capacity The average E.M.F. was about 1'525. Allowing the cell to These bars are also useful for obtaining high ratios between two send a current reduced the E.M.F. considerably, but it partly resistances, a point of considerable importance in the testing of recovered on standing. Renewing the sodio-platinic chloride large resistances. Amongst the advantages claimed are: better reproduced the high initial E.M.F. of 17 volts. This high insulation, avoidance of surface leakage by providing ample value, and the uncertainty of the E.M.F. after sending a current, facilities for cleaning, small block error which is constant and the author believed due to dissolved oxygen. Zinc-gold cells, easily measured, and no loose plugs required. Each set of ten the metals being immersed in solutions of their chlorides, gave coils may be used as separate circuits. By means of two tra. more constant results, the maximum being 1.855, and the mini. velling terminals the box may also be used as a potentiometer mum 1.834 volts, whereas from thermo-chemical data the E.M.F. reading to i part in 10,000. A reflecting galvanometer with should be 2'044. On replacing a gold plate by a platinum one, several improvements was then exhibited and described. The the E.M.F. fell to 1782. Other experiments showed that gold coil is supported on an ebonite pillar fixed to a tripod, below is slightly electro-positive to platinum in water or dilute HCI, the centre of which controlling magnets on the Siemens but in aqua regia the positions are reversed. Prof. Ayrton said principle are pivoted. The pillar gives good insulation from the experimental E.M.F.'s were fairly close to the theoretical earth, and the adjustment of the control can be made without values, and thought the differences might arise from occlusion of setting the needle in vibration. The two halves of the coil are gases, which, although not taken into account in the thermo-wound according to Sir W. Thomson's law, and fixed in chemical experiments, might have considerable effect on the ebonite boxes turned to fit them. They are thus kept permanelectrical values. Platinum, especially, had remarkable oc- ently in shape. The ebonite boxes are interchangeable, so that cluding properties. Mr. Enright pointed out that, if any gases either high- or low-resistance coils can be used in the same were disengaged by the reactions in the cells, their thermal stand. The coils have separate terminals, and can therefore be values must be allowed for. The Chairman (Dr. Thompson) used in series or parallel or differentially. The mirror is placed believed that some discrepancy between the calculated and ob- | in a metal box below the coils. When intended for an astatic served values of the E.M.F.'s might be due to the calculations instrument, magnets are put behind the mirror, and the metal only being carried to the first degree of approximation. The box serves to damp the vibrations. For ballistic work the mirror complete expression contained, amongst others, a term depend- has no magnets on it, and the damping may be regulated by ing on the temperature coefficient of the cell. On the subject of sliding in or out a plug which carries the window of the mirror variation of the sign of E.M.F. with the strength of solutions, box. Mr. Swinburne inquired whether the plan of using two he said he had observed similar effects with cyanide solution. vertical magnets to form an astatic system had been tried, and Dr. Herroun, in reply, said care was taken to expel as with what result. He also asked if dial bridges made with much of the occluded gas as possible before using the switches instead of plugs would not be advantageous. Dr. plates, and no gases were formed in the reactions. To Sumpner said vertical needles had been used at the Central InstiDr. Thompson he pointed out that Clark's cell had an E.M.F. tution, and found satisfactory. Mr. A. P. Trotter wished to greater than that calculated from thermo-chemical data, hence know whether there was any very great advantage in designing the temperature coefficient ought to be positive, but, as a matter galvanometers with a minimum amount of wire. A galvanoof fact, it is negative. The discrepancy between the calculated meter was often required for many different purposes, and it did E.M.F. and the observed he believed due to inaccurate deter- not follow that one with a minimum amount of wire was the minations of the thermo-chemical constants of mercury salts. — best all-round instrument. Mr. C. W. S. Crawley made inA new instrument for showing the effects of persistence of quiries as to the magnitude of the block error in the form of vision was exhibited and described by Mr. E. Stuart Bruce. Wheatstone bridge shown, for he thought the flexible cords The instrument, which the author calls an “aërial graphoscope," would make it considerable. In reply to Mr. Swinburne, be consists of a narrow wooden lath mounted on a whirling machine, said he had found the variations in switch bridges greater than so as to be rotated rapidly in its own plane. The lath is tinted in plugs. Prof. S. P. Thompson thought it was not generally gray in the centre, and shades off to white at the ends. When known that the best shape of galvanometer coil depended on rotated rapidly, it presents the appearance of a nearly uniform whether the instrument was to be used as an ammeter or screen or disk, owing to persistence of impression. Ordinary voitmeter. The shape determined by Sir W. Thomson was lantern-slides were projected on this aerial screen with remark- a voltmeter coil ; that for an ammeter was much shorter able effect, for the pictures appeared suspended in mid-air. The axially. Mr. Paul, in reply, said he used one or other shape of author explained that the object of darkening the lath near the coil according to the use for which the galvanometer was middle was to give a more uniform illumination to the picture intended. The block error in the Wheatstone bridge was very or disk. On covering up the centre portion of the lath with small, and quite negligible for most purposes. When very great white paper, the middle of a picture projec'ed on it was much accuracy was required, the error, being constant, was easily more strongly illuminated than the ed es. Mr. Blakesley measured and allowed for. pointed out that the effect produced by darkening the centre of the lath might be attained by painting white sectors on a black Royal Microscopical Society, March 16.—Dr. R. Braith" lath.-A paper on

some electrical instruments was read by waite, President, in the chair. --Mr. G. C. Karop exhibited and Mr. R. W. Paul, and the apparatus exhibited. He first de described Messrs. Swift's new fine adjustment to the substage. scrihed a new form of standard ohm, the distinguishing feature Mr. Karop stated that in this substage one complete revolution of which is that the wire is wound in one flat spiral, and con- was equivalent to a vertical movement of the Tigth of an inch, tai er between two thin brass plates. The whole of the wire -Mr. E. M. Nelson gave a résumé of the contents of two is thus practically at the same level in the water-bath, and papers, the first of which was entitled “Virtual Images and therefore will be more likely to be at uniform temperature Initial Magnifying Power,' and the other "On Penetration in thruughout than coils having considerable vertical depth. A the Microscope.”—Dr. W. H. Dallinger said that an important

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ance.

communication had been received from Prof. Czapski, “On the series of specimens-including some remarkable varieties-of Calculable Limit of Microscopic Vision." Its purpose was to show Bombyx quercus and Odonestis potatoria. A long discussion why it was that great numerical aperture was of such high value ensued as to the probable causes of the variation exemplified, in the determination of minute structure, and to inquire whether in which Mr. Tuti, Mr. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., Mr. H. Goss, ---seeing that a numerical aperture of 1.60 was so utterly un- Mr. Jacoby, Mr. Salvin, F.R.S., Mr. Bethune-Baker, Dr. Sharp, available in the case of living objects, or of such as did not and Mr. Distant took part.-Mr. G. A. J. Rothney sent for exhiadmit of being put into media of sufficiently high refractive bition a number of specimens of Camponotus compressus, C. index—there was any method of making these high numerical micans, Ecophila smaragdina, Sima rufo-nigra, Solenopsis gemiapertures available for such objects? The author had inquired nata var. armata, and other species of Ants, from Calcutta. into the value of monochromatic light for such a purpose, and the He also communicated a short paper on the subject, entitled latter part of his paper was to show that by using the blue rays Notes on certain species of Calcutta Ants and their habits of such light with large apertures it was possible to increase the of life.” aperture so as to obtain the relatively great advantage which

PARIS. would result from a difference between 1'40 and 1'75. Mr. F. Crisp thought it should be pointed out that the broad fact dealt

Academy of Sciences, April 4.-M. d'Abbadie in the with in this paper was one which had long ago been explained. Boussinesq.-On certain systems of equations with

partial differ

chair. -Notice of the works of the late M. de Caligny, by M. J. Dr. Dallinger said he had himself worked it out some time entials, by M. Emile Picard. - Delivery from circular orifices, ago, obtaining as a result the difference between 1'40 and 1070 which came remarkably near to that mentioned in the paper.

and reappearance between their different superficial elements, Mr. Crisp said that the aperture table which was printed with

by M. J. Boussinesq.-On the native iron of Cañon Diablo,

Arizona, by M. Mallard. The author has examined some speci. every number of the Journal gave them the difference in resolving power between white light and monochromatic blue light doubtful. The iron contains only 3 per cent. of nickel, and when

mens of native iron found in Arizona, the origin of which is with objectives of various apertures.-Prof. F. Jeffrey Bell gave an outline of the contents of a paper by Mr. H. L. Brevoort,

polished shows cavities filled with a black substance supposed to entitled “Observations on the Brownian Movement,” and

be iron carbide. In this comparatively soft substance a diamond, pointed out that, whilst the general conclusion arrived at by the

0-5 mm. in diameter, was found by Prof. Koenig in 1890. The author was that light had some influence in the matter, he did

iron appears to be of meteoric origin, judging from its appear

Mr. Foote has pointed out that the existence of a singular not seem to have taken any precautions as to temperature, an

elevation, called Crater Mountain, near the place where large element which was usually considered to be an active agent in

fragments of the material were found, may have something to do this phenomenon. -A letter from the Hon. J. G. P. Vereker was

with their occurrence, but he has been unable to find any volcanic read, replying to some points raised during the recent discussion of his paper On the Resolution of Podura Scales."-Dr. A.

rocks in the neighbourhood. So the question of origin remains

sub judice, and a critical examination of the region will have to C. Mercer read a paper on photomicrography as illustrated by a collection of seventy-three lantern-slides. Among the slides lium, by M. Lecoq de Boisbaudran. The spectrum given when

be made before it can be settled.-On the spark spectra of galexhibited was a group which threw light on the vexed question sparks from a large induction coil play upon the surface of gallium of Podura scale structure. The author showed conclusively that

chloride consists of two characteristic violet lines, and a wide, the so-called featherlets on Podura scales are only inflations of

nebulous band in the green. If the same coil is used with a the membrane. A number of slides also proved the value of

condenser and metallic gallium, a much more complex spectrum the microscope as a means of detection in cases of forgery, or

is obtained, and one from which the band in the green (wavewhen alterations were alleged to have been made in promissory notes, the evidence afforded in one important case being very lengths 417.04 and 403-19) are bright under both conditions of

length 502'33) is absent. The two lines in the violet (waveclearly demonstrated. A further group of slides was devoted to the illustration of the apparatus used in photomicrography. sparking: Substituting a small coil for the large one, M. Lecoq

de Boisbaudran found that, besides the two violet lines, two The President, in proposing a vote of thanks to Dr. Mercer, said

others, at the approximate wave-lengths 641-24 and 639-23, he regarded the exhibition as the finest examples of what could

were seen when no condenser was employed. On introducing be done by means of photomicrography.

the condenser, the latter line suffers a considerable diminution Entomological Society, March 23. — Dr. D. Sharp, F.R.S., in intensity. Another line occurs at ^ 632 67, and a nebulous Vice-President, in the chair.—The Secretary read a letter from line about a 535'51. The wave-lengths and characters of all the City of London Entomological and Natural History Society the lines observed under the three conditions are stated in detail. on the subject of a proposed Catalogue of the Fauna of the --On a method for the determination of the mechanical eleLondon District.-Mr. G. C. Champion exhibited a number of ments of helical propellers, by M. S. Drzewiecki.--Observanew species of Longicornia from Mexico and Central America, tions of Swist's comet (a 1892), made at the Paris Observatory recently described by the late Mr. H. W. Bates, in his paper with the West Tower equatorial, by M. G. Bigourdan. Obserentitled " Additions to the Longicornia of Mexico and Central vations for position were made on March 29, 30, 31, and April America, with remarks on some previously recorded Species,” | 1, 2, 3, 4.-The two asteroids discovered respectively by Wolf read at the last meeting of the Society. --Mr. S. Stevens ex- on March 28, and Charlois on April 1, were observed hibited three very rare species of Noctue, viz. Noctua flam. for position by Malle. Klumpke, at the Paris Observamatra, Leucania vitellina, and Laphygma exigua, all taken by tory, on March 31 and April 1 and 2.–Observations of Mr. H. Rogers at Freshwater, Isle of Wight, in the autumn of Swift's comet (1892, March 6), made at Lyons Observatory, 1891.--Mr. F. C. Adams again exhibited the specimen of Tele- by M. G. Le Cadet. Position observations were made on phorus rusticus, in which the left mesothoracic leg consisted of March 31 and April 1.—On the indices of refraction of saline three distinct femora, tibiæ, and tarsi, originating from a single solutions, by M. Paul Bary.-New unipolar conductivity of coxa, which he had shown at the meeting on the 24th of Feb- gases, by M. Edouard Branly.-On the attraction between ruary last. The specimen was now reversed, to admit of the two disks separated by a dielectric, by M. Julien Lefèvre. The better examination of the structural peculiarities of the leg, author has measured the attraction between two electrified disks upon which Dr. Sharp, Mr. Champion, and Mr. Jacoby made separated by a dielectric not in intimate contact with them, and some remarks.-Mr. Osbert Salvin, F.R.S., exhibited a series finds it to be represented by the following formula :of mounted specimens of the clasping organs in the male of

F several species of Hesperida.-Dr. Sharp exhibited, for Mr.

F F. D. Godman, F.R.S., a collection of Orthoptera recently

té made in the Island of St. Vincent, West Indies, by Mr. H. H.

k Smith, the naturalist sent ito that island by Mr. Godman in where F' equals the attraction stress between the plates at the connection with the operations of the Committee appointed by distance et e' in air; F the attraction at the same distance the British Association and the Royal Society for the investi. when a lamina whose dielectric constant is k, thickness e, and gation of the Fauna and Flora of the Lesser Antilles. It was having parallel faces, is placed between the plates; é' therefore stated that the collection had recently been referred to, and represents the sum of the thickness of air between the lamina reported on by, Herr C. Brunner von Wattenwyl and Prof. and the electrified disks.—On the production, in the dry way, J. Redtenbacher. – Mr. J. W. Tutt exhibited and remarked on of some anhydrous crystallized sulphates, by M. P. Klobb. a series of various forms of Orrhodia vaccinii and 0. (spadicea) (See Notes.) — On a nitroketone derived from campholigula.-Mr. C. G. Barrett exhibited and made remarks on a sulphophenol, by M. P. Cazeneuve.--On the composition

are

of pinnaglobine, a new globulin, by M. A. B. Griffiths. – red rays from w.l. 57 u to w.l. 8 u. He found that the On the existence of parallel series in the biological cycle of curves for the index of resraction do not correspond with Pemphigiens, by M. Horva:h.—The history of the Garcinia of Langley's surmises. As far as w.l. 5'3 r the curves of the two the sub-group Rheediopsis, by M. J. Vesque. -Researches on the observers coincide, but the rectilinear course which the curve variations in the transpiration of Howers during their develop- assumes at w.l. 5'0 u is not persistent with light of greater ment, by M. G. Curtel.-01 some diseases of mushrooms, by wave-length ; it tends to rise slightly from the line of abscissä. M. Julien Costantin.-On the role, distribution, and direction Hence Langley's interpolations for very long waves of ocean currents in France during the Upper Cretaceous

inaccurate, period, by M. Munier-Chalmas.-The tubercular vaccination of

AMSTERDAM. the dog, by MM. J. Héricourt and Ch. Richet. The authors'

Royal Academy of Sciences, February 27.—Prof. van experiments indicate that, by the inoculation of tuberculosis

de Sande Bakbuyzen in the chair. - Dr. Moll communicated aviaire, dogs can be vaccinated against human tuberculosis.

some results he had obtained on the karyokinesis of Spirogyra. On a new pathogenic diplobacteria obtained from the blood and

By embedding the threads in collodion and paraffin, and cutting urine of influenza patients, by MM. Teissier, Roux, and Pittion.

them into series of sections with the microtome, he has observed - Measures of the variations in the lengths of the Dauphiny glaciers, by Prince Roland Bonaparte. Of the sixteen glaciers the formation of the chromatic segments; he has been able to

a special organization in nucleolus and karyoplasma, leading to whose movements were studied in 1890, six were found to be establish with certainty the existence of the phenomenon of advancing, eight retreating, and two stationary. In 1891 the heteropoly in Spirogyra ; and lastly, he has seen that Tangl's results obtained indicated that six glaciers were advancing, five retreating, and five stationary.

and Strasburger's Verbindungschlauch between the daughter

The amounts of movement measured are given in the paper.

nuclei appears at an earlier stage in the form of some vacuoles,

of which a single one finally prevails.—Mr. van der Waals BERLIN,

treated of the phenomenon of incomplete mixture of two liquids, Physiological Society, March 4.-Prof. Munk, President, in those cases in which the mixture is complete at a higher in the chair. - Prof. Zuntz spoke on Dr. Werigo's experiments temperature, and gave a formula founded on his “theory of a respecting the influence of oxygen on the elimination of carbon mixture of two substances,” by which the volumes of a given dioxide by the lungs. When an animal breathed pure oxygen weight of dissolved matter may be calculated in the same way into one lung and simultaneously pure hydrogen into the other,

as the volumes of liquid and vapour of a single substance. -Mr. Werigo found more carbon dioxide in the alveolar air of the van Bemmelen treated of the difference of colloid oxides and oxygen-lung than in that of the hydrogen-lung, and hence con crystalline hydrates, especially in reference to the oxide of iron. cluded that oxygen furthers the escape of this gas. Prof. Zuntz, He demonstrated that only Brunck and Graebe have observed however, pointed out that the diffusion of carbon dioxide from the crystalline hydrate of a definite composition. The substance the alveolar air into the contents of the cannulæ used for the prepared by Rousseau is not a crystalline hydrate, but ferrite of introduction of the gases must be greater on the side supplied potassium, transformed by the action of water into amorphous with hydrogen than on the other, and that hence less carbon hydratic oxide (of indefinite composition), and only pseudo-crysdioxide must naturally be found in the alveolar air of the former talline, as it has preserved externally the crystalline form of the than of the latter. The really important question whether the ferrite. -Mr. Franchimont showed a sample of ethylaldoxime absorption of oxygen leads to an increased elimination of carbon (acetaldoxime), a beautiful crystallized body, melting at 48° C. dioxide has therefore not yet been answered. Werigo's experi- The ethylaldoxime, discovered in 1882 by V. Meyer, was dements should be repeated, using oxygen and nitrogen.

scribed by him and by Petraezek as a fluid, boiling at 114-115 Meteorological Society, March 8.-Prof. Schwalbe, Presi

C. The crystallized ethylaldoxime has the same boiling-point, dent, in the chair.—Dr. Lachmann gave an account of a research

and may be a stereo-isomery. on the extremes of temperature in Europe. He first assured himself of the trustworthiness of the readings of his maximum

CONTENTS.

PAGE and minimum thermometers. He then determined for stations

A Remarkable Book on the Habits of Animals. By which afford prolonged series of data how many years must be Dr. Alfred R. Wallace

553 taken into account in order to arrive at a trustworthy mean, and

The Prevention of Influenza found that in the case, e g., of Brussels, ten years suffice for Our Book Shelf:the determination of its maximum temperature, whereas some

Ratzel : “Anthropogeographie"

557 forty years must be taken into account when determining its - Within an Hour of London Town: among Wild minimum temperature. After comparing the extremes of

Birds and their Haunts"

557 temperature with the periodic observations, he discussed the Letters to the Editor :maximal and minimal temperatures met with in Europe, and

Exchange of Professorial Duties.-Prof. E. Ray gave an account of their geographical distribution. When those

Lankester, F.R.S.; Prof. T. P. Anderson places with equal maxima are joined by lines, curves are obtained

Stuart

557 which on the whole resemble the July isothermals, and are the Magnetic Storms.-Dr. M. A. Veeder

557 same as the latter if 12° be added to them. The curves of

Pilchards. - J. T. Cunningham equal mean minimal temperatures correspond to the isothermals

Ornithology of the Sandwich Islands.-Albert F. for January after subtracting 10°-11°.---Dr. Knorre read a letter

Calvert containing an account of a thunderstorm on January 31, near First Visible Colour of incandescent Iron.-T. C. Jüterbock, accompanied by hail and light phenomena, which

Porter must undoubtedly be regarded as a case of St. Elmo's fire.-Prof. Self-Registering Weather-Cock. J. LawrenceSpörer exhibited photograpbs of the recent large sun-spot Hamilton group which he observed between February 9 and 16. and The Rolling of Ships

559 which were most probably connected with the magnetic storm

Travels among the Great Andes of the Equator, of the 13th and 14th of that month.

(Illustrated.) By Prof. T. G, Bonney, F.R.S. .. 561 Physical Society, March 11.-Prof. Kundt, President, in the Science at the Royal Military Academy

563 chair. - Dr. Stapff spoke on the increase in density of the The late Sir William Bowman. By Prof. J. Burdon interior of the earth, and deduced a mathematical formula for Sanderson, F.R.S.

564 its determination. - Dr. Arons described experiments on the Notes electrical polarization at the two sides of a metallic plate Our Astronomical Column:immersed in an electrolyte at right angles to the currrent. Observations of the Spectrum of Nova Auriga

569 A platinum plate o'i mm. thick gave not only an evolution of gas Denning's Comet (6 1892)

569 but an increase of resistance, results which were entirely absent Comet Swift, 1892

569 when a gold-beater's film was employed, as also with a film of Displacement of Radiant Points

570 silver. Pores in the metallic films were not the cause of the Two New Variables in Cepheus

570 absence of polarization, since it appeared even when a small hole On the Variation in Latitude

570 was bored in the above-mentioned platinum plate. When four The Institution of Naval Architects.

570 gold-beater's films were superposed, they led to a slight increase Fourth Annual Report of the Delegates of the of resistance and feeble polarization.-Dr. Rubens stated that Oxford University Museum .

572 he had extended his observations on the dispersion of the ultra- Societies and Academies . .

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THIS

THURSDAY, APRIL 21, 1892.

are made the subject of a thorough anatomical study which is the more valuable because the results at which

the authors have arrived are compared with those reached THE YAHGAN.

by previous investigators. There is also an elaborate Mission Scientifique de Cap Horn. Tome VII. “Anthro- chapter on morphological characters, setting forth various

pologie, Ethnographie.” Par P. Hyades et J. Deniker. classes of facts noted in the course of accurate observa(Paris : Gauthier-Villars et Fils, 1891.)

tion of the physical qualities of living persons. The 'HIS volume contains the record of an important part Yahgan are mesocephalic, the men having a tendency to

of the work done by a French scientific Expedition be dolichocephalic, the women to be brachycephalic. which spent a year at Tierra del Fuego. The Expedi- Most of the South American aborigines are decidedly tion was organized in June 1882 by a Commission brachycephalic ; but here and there tribes are found appointed by the Academy of Sciences; and in Nov- whose skulls resemble those of the Yahgan. This is ember 1883, after its return to France, it presented to the especially true of the Botocudos, who are also like the Academy its preliminary reports. Since the latter date, Yahgan in being rather below the average height of other its results have been embodied in a series of volumes, natives, and in the form of the face, the nose, and the prepared under the control of the Commission, and pub- mouth. Various ancient skulls which have been found at lished under the auspices of the Ministries of Marine and Lagoa Santa in Brazil, at Pontimelo in the Argentine Public Instruction. The first volume contains a history Republic, and elsewhere, have the same general strucof the voyage, by the late L. F. Martial, the Commander ture as those of the Botocudos and the Yahgan. The of the Romanche, in which the Expedition sailed. The authors therefore conclude that these and some other second volume, by L. Lephay, is devoted to meteorology ; tribes are more or less pure remnants of a race which at the third, by F. 0. Le Cannellier, to terrestrial magnetism ; one time occupied the greater part of South America, the fourth, by P. Hyades, to geology; the fifth, by Hariot, and were displaced by brachycephalic peoples, with Petit, Bescherelle, Massalongo, and Franchet, to botany. whoin the survivors to some extent mingled. Of these It was originally intended that zoology should also be brachycephalic peoples, the Patagonians alone are very dealt with in a single volume ; but the material obtained tall, the rest being of moderate height. All, however, by the Expedition was so rich and of so much scientific whether tall or short, are of a different physical type from importance that three volumes were found to be neces- the Yahgan.. sary. The present volume, nominally the seventh, is The Yahgan live chiefly on fish and mollusks. They really the ninth, and completes the series. Although Dr. also eat any kind of bird they can catch, and are fond of Deniker is associated with Dr. Hyades as one of the the flesh of the whale, the seal, and the otter. When authors of this work, he did not accompany the Expedi- pressed with hunger, they will eat the fox, but never dogs tion. He has rendered, however, important service in or rats, the latter being held in abhorrence. Fishing is the working-up of the anthropological and ethnographical left entirely to the women, while the men hunt. They have data brought back from Cape Horn.

splendid powers of digestion, and assimilate their food so The book is one in which serious students of anthropo- readily that they sometimes become fat in the course of a logy will find much to interest them. It offers a great single day. Their huts are made of branches or of the mass of original observations, made, as Dr. Hyades trunks of trees, the interstices being imperfectly filled up explains, without any preconceived idea ; and they are with moss or bark, with fragments of canoes or with not only arranged methodically, but set forth in a style of sealskin. These slight dwellings are put together in a admirable simplicity and clearness. The volume is also few hours, and as they admit the wind freely, the air in enriched with numerous plates, some of which are finely- them is generally fresh. In the centre is a fire, around executed heliogravures.

which the inmates sleep at night, and at other times, The Fuegians are divided into three groups--the Ona, when they have nothing else to do, sit talking and laughthe Alakalouf, and the Yahgan. The Ona inhabit the ing. The Yahgan lose early the attributes of youth, but great island of Tierra del Fuego from the southern coast often retain their vigour to a great age. They are very of the Strait of Magellan to near the northern shore of courageous, and enjoy games which test their physical Beagle Channel. They are probably a branch of the strength. Patagonians, and the Expedition had no opportunity of Among the women intimate friendships are not unseeing any of them. The islands and a part of the main common, but men generally form attachments to one land to the west of the Ona are inhabited by the Alakalouf, another only if they have been brought up together. to the south of whom are the Yahgan. These two peoples Children are tenderly cared for by their parents, who in speak different languages, but seem to have essentially return are treated by them with affection and deference. the same racial characteristics.

among the

Some men have two or more wives, but monogamy is the Yahgan that Dr. Hyades carried on his studies, and to rule. The girls do not choose their own husbands; they them the volume almost wholly relates.

must take those whom their parents provide for them. The Expedition brought back the body of a Yahgan Before marriage they are allowed great liberty, but when who died while the Romanche was at Orange Bay, and they become wives they have less freedom, the husbands who during his lifetime had been subjected to various being extremely jealous, and being supported by public careful measurements. They also brought the skeleton opinion in punishing severely any departure from conof a woman and the skeletons of five children ; three jugal duty. This account differs from that of some other skulls (two of men, one of a woman); two incomplete observers, but Dr. Hyades is confident that his statements skeletons, and various detached bones. These remains on the subject are strictly accurate. Both girls and mar

It was

ried women are remarkable for the modesty of their Part I. treats of the balance, the determination of phydemeanour, and expect to be treated respectfully. sical constants, the purification of substances, and pre

When the Yahgan approach a strange vessel in their liminary analytical processes generally. The more imcanoes, they might be taken for abject beggars; but on portant simple gravimetric estimations are grouped in shore visitors obtain a different impression. There the

Part II.; and are followed, in Part III., by descriptions of natives display perfect independence, and they readily the methods and the more common determinations comlake offence at anything which they interpret as a slight. prised under volumetric analysis. In Part IV. are classed They are far from having a community of goods, every

more complex exercises, involving both gravimetric and man claiming as his own that which he himself has found volumetric processes. Here are to be found analyses of or made ; but they are of a generous disposition, and ores, technical products, fuel, articles of food and drink, like to share their pleasures with others. That they have including complete analyses of milk, butter, sugar, and a sense of right and wrong Dr. Hyades does not doubt, partial analyses of wine, beer, and tea. The valuations but their moral distinctions are not always very sharply of tannins and soaps are next given, and the part condrawn. They are accomplished liars, and the only dis- cludes with a section on the typical methods of organic advantage of a lie seems to them to be that the truth is j analysis. Part V. is devoted to a description of the sometimes apt to be found out. A man convicted of theft, ordinary methods of technical gas analysis. however, will show that he is ashamed of his deed ; and

The above brief summary of contents will show that murder is punished with death. The Yahgan have often the aim of the volume is eminently practical ; and with been accused of cannibalism, but Dr. Hyades agrees with regard to the purely chemical sections little but praise Mr. Bridges, who knows them thoroughly, in regarding can be expressed, both at the general and detailed treatthis charge as utterly without foundation.

ment of the subject. All the more important estimations They can occupy themselves continuously for a con- have been included, and the practical points to be siderable time with any employment to which they are observed in accurate work are clearly stated. A accustomed, such as the making of a harpoon ; but it is noteworthy feature, and one especially helpful to the hard for them to devote attention to anything with which student, is the brief statement of the principle of each they are not familiar. When questioned on any subject, estimation, in a sentence or two, before the detailed they soon become confused, and give answers at random. process is described. The accounts of food and gas They do not divide time or count beyond three, and have analysis are both useful and interesting, and are seldom remarkably short memories. But they are good observers met with in manuals of this kind. of the signs of the weather, of plants, and of animals; and There can be no doubt but the book will be a servicethey have an extraordinary power of mimicking attitudes, able guide to the student, and aid to the teacher. gestures, and cries, although they have no such faculty of

One or two minor points, however, seem worthy of imitation as leads to the production of new instruments, criticism. It is stated in the preface that, in order to utensils, or other useful objects. They are wholly unable economize space,“ unnecessary theoretical matter” has to make anything, however simple, after a given model.

been omitted, and apparently this idea has been carried They often have dreams, but do not generally appear to

too far. For example, it is but just to tell the student attach to them any significance. They have neither why, in estimating sulphur as barium sulphate, nitric poetry, nor history, nor traditions ; and Dr. Hyades acid is first expelled. Knowledge of a similar kind, more asserts that the members of the Expedition never saw

especially in the physical portions of the book, is occaamong them the faintest trace of religious ideas or sen

sionally left out, and descriptions are thus rendered more timents. Those of them who are directly under the

or less empirical. influence of English missionaries have learned to live

If it is considered necessary to give methods for deterregular lives, but have lost many aptitudes possessed by mining specific gravities, boiling-points, &c., in a work the savage Yahgan; and they easily fall victims to

of this kind, the accounts should be modern, and the accuvarious forms of disease which have been imported racy aimed at should be comparable with that attained with civilization.

in the chemical sections. Absolute specific gravity-or The language of the Yahgan is dealt with in a long shortly, specific gravity-as used in the book, with no and most instructive chapter ; and interesting details are temperatures of comparison attached, is now generally given as to the occupations of the people, their domestic taken to be the weight of unit volume ; such a definition customs, and many other subjects. of the plates, to is not hinted at, and none of the methods given serve which we have already referred, we need only say that to obtain the absolute specific gravity. The timethey alone would have sufficed to make the work an

honoured but obsolete pyknometer, closed by a perinvaluable contribution to ethnographical and anthropo- forated stopper, still finds a place, and the original logical science.

Sprengel pyknometer is figured, although it might well be replaced by Perkin's more generally useful

modification. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS.

With regard to the estimations of boiling-point, it Quantitative Chemical Analysis. By Frank Clowes, should have been clearly stated that to take the baro

D.Sc. Lond., and J. Bernard Coleman. Pp. 309. metric pressure was a necessary part of any trustworthy (London : J. and A. Churchill, 1891.)

determination. In correcting for the exposed column of T 'HIS book embodies the material usually included in the thermometer, one of the more recent coefficients

a complete course of elementary instruction in might have been given in place of the oldest and least quantitative analysis. It is divided into five parts. satisfactory. What is supposed to be the mean tem

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