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The dust observations promise to be of special value Prof. Judd, who has kindly sent me a copy, I extract the in the study of weather types. In some weather types, following :not only are the dust values very abnormal, but the daily Pantelleria, an island (13.5 by 8 kilometres), situated variation is in some instances quite abnormal also, indi between Sicily and Tunis, is entirely of volcanic origin. cating that the cloud or dust strata are differently situated The volcanic activity would at present appear to be a from what they are in average weather, and also that shade less marked than in the “ Phlegræan Fields," west their daily rise and fall occur at different times. In of Naples. March 1890, the dust values show this very well : below In Pantelleria we have exhalations of CO, ; hot springs are the three-hourly means for each of three different (of which those at the lake called “ Bagno del Acqua," periods :

among other things are, we are told, so rich in alkalies as First Period (12 days).

to lather, and be used for washing clothes !), and fumaHour

roles, some of which exhale steam harmless to vegetation, Number per

and with little if any specific effect on the rocks, while cubic centi

others give out sulphurous vapours at 88° C. or more, metre..

78
61 78 67 113

258

decomposing the rocks about them. Second Period (3 days).

There is but doubtful record of seismic disturbances in 2867 1785 917 4733 4253 4295 3417 2533 earthquakes occurred, with elevation of part of the north

the island prior to the summer of 1890. Then, however, Third Period (5 days).

coast, the cracking of cisterns, and an increase in the 65 25 37 19

28

93 76 number and activity of the fumaroles, so that vineyards During the third period of five days the weather was

formed in some of the old craters were damaged. After very remarkable. A large depression was slowly pro

more than a year's interval, earthquakes again commenced gressing eastwards to the north

of Scotland, and the October 14, 1891 (three days before the eruption). These winds on Ben Nevis were blowing almost straight out

were accompanied by drying up of certain springs, and from the centre, while the winds at sea-level were circu- apparently a further rise on the north coast, with surface lating in the normal direction. This is the usual type

cracks in that district. when low dust values are obtained ; but it is difficult to little town of Pantelleria itself (at the end of the island

As the shocks were most violent and vertical at the quite account for the daily variation in the dust values nearest the scene of eruption), they caused considerable being reversed, the higher values occurring at night, and the lower in the middle of the day. This and many other consternation; and if one went by the account of the points have not been studied yet.

overstrung inhabitants, who felt shocks not recognized Dr. Buchan, in his recently published work on “ Atmo- by the seismoscopes, one might exaggerate their violence. spheric Circulation,” hinges his explanations of various

On the other hand, the walls of the houses, which out

side the town have frequently no upper story, are, on the atmospheric phenomena on the effect of solar and nocturnal radiation on the dust in the atmosphere, and whole, substantially built, so that the insignificant damage accounts it one of the most important factors in the study i done is perhaps hardly a gauge. Part of the north coast of modern meteorology. The observations made at Ben (Fig. 1) appears to have been raised, in the two years, Nevis Observatory clearly show that for observing the number of dust particles in the air, with a view to the observations being applied to the study of atmospheric phenomena, a true peak is of all places the best, because

B we can study not only the horizontal distribution of dust as brought by the different winds, but also, to a certain extent, the vertical distribution by the ascending and descending motions of the air past the place of observation. ANGUS RANKIN.

B

e TRACING ABSTRACT OF MR. A. RICCO'S ACCOUNT OF

THE SUBMARINE ERUPTION NORTH-
WEST OF PANTELLERIA, OCTOBER 1891.1

KILOMETRES

AUGITE
OF
F what happens in submarine eruptions we naturally

ANDESITE
know little. The evidence of Graham's Island (1831)?
and the eruption off Pantelleria (1891), to the south of
Sicily, and of the damaged telegraph cables and various
surface phenomena 3 to the north, towards the Lipari Isles,
shows us that such eruptions are not rare in the Sicilian
district, and any records of these fleeting occurrences that
we can get, in the way of observation and specimens, may
well prove of increasing interest as others are obtained
to compare with them.
Mr. A. Ricco has recently published 1 a detailed and

Fig. 1.- Map of Pantelleria, showing the position, according to Ricco, of (a)

the submarine eruption of October 1891, and (6, ) of the raised coast. illustrated account of the facts he was able to gather, concerning last October's submarine eruption north-west of some 80 cm., the old sea-level being marked by a line of Pantelleria, either in person or from local and other ob- white incrustations; and we are told that, according to servers, he having reached the island during the latter a recent estimate, the tide in this part of the Mediterrapart of the eruption. From this, at the suggestion of nean has an amplitude of but some 8 cm. ; besides, there * Annali dell'Ufficio centrale Meteorologico e Geodinamico, ser. ii.,

was the evidence of inhabitants who had bathed, boated, Parte 3, vol. xi.

and fished along the coast. The submarine eruption 2 (a) Lyell's “Principles of Geology" and (), for Bibliography, (4 kilometres north-west of the island, Fig. 1) began on Johnston-Lavis's "South Italian Volcanoes," pp. 105-107

3 (a) “South Italian Volcanoes," pp. 64 and 65; and (0) Giov. Platania, Foerstner, " Nota preliminare sulla Geologia dell'Isola di Pantelleria" "I Fenomeni Sottomarini durante l'Eruzione di Vulcano (Eolie) nel 1888– 1889," Att. Rend. Acc. Sc. Let. Art. Acireale, n. ser., vol. i., 1889,

(with geological map), Boll. Com. Geol. d'Ital., 1881.

* Prof. G. Grablovita, "Le isorachie della marea nel Mediterraneo," pp. 16, tables 3.

Rendiconti della R. Accad. dei Lincei, 16 Agosto, 1891.

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No.
Sex.

How obtained,

28

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October 17, 1891, when the earthquakes abated, and water Europe, and an exorbitant price is naturally asked for it. returned to some of the wells. The appearance of the sea, In South Africa the Giraffe is practically extinct, being as viewed from the land, at first suggested the presence only still met with in a few isolated localities nearly a of some "great fish, and columns of “smoke" were seen. thousand miles from Cape Town. In East Africa there Those who visited the spot later (Fig. 2) found black are still Giraffes, and in places nearer the sea-board ; but

here, apparently, there are no means of catching them alive, as the natives do not understand how to do it. Here, however, it is that there appears to be most like lihood of obtaining a fresh supply. This will be an expensive business, but unless some steps are soon taken in the matter it seems that the younger generation of England will grow up without knowing what a living Giraffe is like. Their parents have been more fortunate. From the list given below, it will be seen that there have been 30 individuals of the Giraffe exhibited in the Zoological Society's Gardens since 1836, of which 17 have been born there, and 13 acquired by purchase. Of these 30, one was presented to the Royal Zoological Society of Ireland in 1844, five have been sold at prices varying from £450 to £150, and the remainder have died in the Gardens.

List of Giraffes that have lived in the Society's Gardens. IG. 2.- Part of a sketch of the submarine eruption near Pantelleria, October 1891. (Aster Ricco.)

How disposed of. scoriaceous bombs rising to the surface, along a line some 1 kilometre in length, extending north-east and I & Imported May 24, 1836. Died Oct, 15, 1852. south-west, which might well indicate a submarine fissure,

Do. do.

29, 1846. the activity being specially great at certain points. Some 38 Do. do.

» Jan. 14, 1849. of the bombs discharging steam ran hissing over the

Do. do.

Jan. 6, 1837 water with the recoil. Many were still very hot inside,

5 . Born in the Menagerie, June 19, June 28, 1839. fusing zinc (415° C.), and one was red-hot (in daylight),

1839. 6 8

Do. but below 800° C. . Some pieces were thrown 20 m. in

do. May 24, 1841. Presented to the Dublin the air, as I gather, not so much by their momentum on

Zoological Society, June

14, 1844. reaching the surface as by the explosions occurring there.

7 8 Do.

do. Feb. 25, 1844. Died Dec. 30, 1853. After the explosions the fragments sank, the material

86

Do. do. April 22, 1846. Jan. 22, 1867. having a sp. gr. of about 2'4. The highest temperature of

98 Do.

do. Feb. 12, 1849. Sold April 27, 1850. the water obtained was but 11° C. above that of the

10 | Imported June 29, 1849. Died Nov. 3, 1856. surrounding sea. Ricco now questions the trustworthiness I 9 Do.

do.

Sold Oct. 29, 1853. of the soundings made at the scene of eruption to a 12 : Born in the Menagerie, March March 29, 1853. depth of 350 m. without feeling bottom, and he was told

30, 1852. that fishermen had previously found but 160 m. of water

Do. do. April 25, 1853. Died May 21, 1872. there. Though some saw bubbles rise to the surface, the 14

Do. do. May 7, 1855. Nov. 6, 1866.

Do. gases usually emitted in the case of subaërial eruptions 15.

do. July 16, 1859. Dec, 2, 1859. 16

Do. do. were not detected in the sample of water collected, which

May 26, 1861. Sold May 1, 1863. Do. 17 8

do. Oct. 7, 1861. Riccò suggests may be due to their having been taken

Died Dec. 18, 1861.

18 8 Do. do. May 8, 1863 Nov. 18, 1863. into solution by the water lower down. However, there

19 8 Do. do. Sept. 24, 1863. April 21, 1864. was a smell“as of gunpowder" at the spot ; and the dark,

20 8
Do.

do. Mar. 31, 1865. April 3, 1865. basic, spongy matter of the bombs (previously described),

219 Do. do. April 20, 1865. Sold May 31, 1866. “the only solid material erupted,” gives out when heated

22 8 Do. do. Sept. 14, 1866. Died Nov. 6, 1866. a sulphurous odour, a fact of which Mr. F. Chapman had 23 8

Do. do.
Mar. 17, 1867.

June 20, 1881. previously informed me. The eruption terminated on 24 . Purchased July 23, 1867.

Sept. 12, 1869. October 25, and the erupted matter disappeared.

25 8
Do.
Jan. 5, 1871.

April 27, 1874. I should add, in conclusion, that I have ascertained 269

Do. Oct. II, 1871.

May 21, 1878. from Dr. Errera, who has charge of the seismological 27 :

Do.
July 25, 1874.

Jan. 8, 1879. 28

Do. apparatus on the island, that the telegrams published in

do.

July 9, 1886. Do. 298

do. an English daily paper, as to renewed eruptions in the

Nov. 24, 1891.

308 [Do. neighbourhood at a later date, were quite without founda

Jan. 27, 1879.

March 22, 1892.) tion.

G. W. BUTLER.
March 22.

NOTES.
GIRAFFES.

The ordinary general meeting of the Institution of Mechanical

Engineers will be held on Thursday evening, May 5, and Friday THE HE Zoological Society of London, as our readers evening, May 6, at 25 Great George Street, Westminster The

know, have lost their last remaining Giraffe, and, for the first time since 1836, no example of this, one of chair will be taken at half-past seven p.m. on each evening, by

The President the most wonderful of living Mammals, is to be seen in the President, Dr. William Anderson, F.R.S. the Regent's Park Gardens. Nor does it seem likely will deliver his inaugural address on Thursday evening, after that the loss can be easily restored. At the present time, which the following papers will be read and discussed, as far as owing to the Mahdists having closed the Soudan to trade, time permits :- Research Committee on Marine-Engine Trials : the Giraffe.market is very poorly supplied. Only one Report upon trial of the steamer Ville de Douvres, by Prof. specimen of this animal, we are toid, is for sale in Alexander L. W. Kennedy, F.R.S., Chairman (Thursday, and I NATURE, vol. xlv. p. 251.

discussion continued on Friday). On condensation in steam

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138

engine cylinders during admission, by Lieut. -Colonel Thomas name given to them by the natives of the Solomon Islands is quite English, of Jarrow (Friday). The anniversary dinner will take appropriate, as the resemblance is most striking. Mr. Comins place on Wednesday evening, May 4.

collected seeds of what appears to be a second species of the The Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon has elected Sir genus, and Kew previously possessed a seed and foliage of a Joseph Fayrer, F.R.S., as a foreign corresponding member in

third species, collected in the Fiji Islands in 1878 by Mr. Horne, the class of mathematical, physical, and natural sciences.

the Director of the Botanic Garden of Mauritius. There are DR. R. THORNE THORNE, F.R.S., as was expected, has

also seeds of one or two other species in the Museum, where

they have been for some years, but their origin is unknown. been appointed principal Medical Officer of the Local Govern

The Bulletin also calls attention to another very curious plant ment Board, in succession to Sir George Buchanan, F.R.S.

collected by Mr. Comins-Lasianthera paprana-in which the We regret to have to record the death of Miss Amelia B. originally three-celled ovary develops into a fruit with one fertile, Edwards. She died on Friday last at Weston-super-Mare. dry, woody cell, the two empty cells forming a fleshy body on Miss Edwards had done much both in England and in America

one side of it. to awaken public interest in the results of archäological research

It is expected that the Lorough Road Polytechnic Institute in Egypt. She also did excellent service by her work in

will be opened in October next. When the ceremony has taken connection with the organization and control of the Egypt place

, two of the three Polytechnics for South London, for which Exploration Fund.

Mr. Evan Spicer and his committee first appealed in 1888, will MR. J. CARRUTHERS, son of Mr. W. Carruthers, head of the be at work. The Goldsmiths' Company's Institute at New Cross, Botanical Department of the British Museum, has been ap- which by the munificence of that Company was opened in pointed Lecturer in Botany at the College of Agriculture, October last, has considerably over 4000 members on its books. Downton, for the coming summer. Mr. J. Carruthers has for The third Polytechnic, that at Battersea, is in a fair way towards some time been Demonstrator in Botany at the Royal Veterinary completion, and will, it is hoped, be opened in October 1893. College, London.

Prof. T. G. BONNEY, F.R.S., will on Tuesday next, April An International Economic Congress will be held at Antwerp 26, begin a course of two lectures at the Royal Institution, on in August next.

“ The Sculpturing of Britain : its later stages"; and on ThursMR. W. CLAYTON PICKERSGILL, H.B.M. Vice-Consul at day, April 28, Prof. Dewar, F.R.S., will begin a course of four Antananarivo, who has just returned to England on leave, has lectures on “ The Chemistry of Gases." The Friday evening brought with him a nearly perfect egg of the extinct gigantic meetings will be resumed on April 29, when Dr. Benjamin W. Bird of Madagascar, Æpyornis maximus. This was obtained,

Richardson will deliver a discourse on “ The Physiology of like all other previous specimens, from the southern coast of the

Dreams.” island, near Cape Ste. Marie. Mr. Sclater will exhibit the egg Mr. Alfred W. BENNETT will deliver a course of lectures at the next meeting of the Zoological Society, on May 3. on systematic botany at the Medical School, St. Thomas's

All collections of plants received at the Royal Gardens, Kew, Hospital, on Tuesday and Wednesday mornings at 10 a.m., are examined, and reports upon them are sent to the donors.

beginning Tuesday, May 3. When of sufficient magnitude and importance, they are made, as DR. Symes THOMPSON will deliver at Gresham College, on in the case of the late Colonel Grant's collections in Central

April 26, 27, 28, and 29, a course of lectures on “ The Eye in Africa, the subject of a detailed memoir. Anything of sufficient Health and Disease.” The lectures are to be illustrated by interest in smaller collections is illustrated with a plate in diagrams, and will begin each evening at six o'clock. “ Hooker's Icones Plantarum.” Novelties which are not important enough to justify a plate have hitherto been relegated to their York on Monday, two severe shocks of earthquake were felt at

ACCORDING to a Reuter's telegram, despatched from New proper places in the Herbarium, where they have awaited Portland, Oregon, at two o'clock on Sunday afternoon, and at description by some monographer. Collectors, however, are

various places in the vicinity. Numbers of buildings trembled, best encouraged when they see that the result of their labours

and so great was the alarm that people rushed panic-strikep into supplies some tangible addition to scientific knowledge ; so it

the streets. The vibrations were from west to east, lasting ten has been decided that all plants received at Kew of which the

seconds in each case. novelly can be ascertained with some certainty shall be described disturbances were confined to two sharp shocks within a brief

No damage was done, and as the seismic for the information of botanists, and distinguished by formal interval of each other, a feeling of confidence gradually returned. names. Successive decades of plant-descriptions are to be pub. lished in the Kew Bulletin. The first decade appears in the

SNOWSTORMS of exceptional severity have passed over the April number, and suffices to indicate that the series will country during the last week, and in many parts of the kingdom be one of great interest and value.

| the fall was heavier than at any time during the past winter. In

Scotland, and over the northern parts of England, snow had Besides the first of the “ Decades Kewenses,” the April been falling heavily on several days, and on Good Friday a number of the Kew Bulletin contains sections on Fiji ginger, shallow cyclonic storm area was approaching our south-west the agricultural resources of Zanzibar, and the botanical station,

coasts from off the Atlantic, which occasioned heavy snowSt. Vincent.

storms in the Channel Islands and south-west of England. The We learn from the R’ew Bulletin that among the botanical

central area of this disturbance passed up the English Channel treasures which have lately reached the Royal Gardens, is a

and over the north of France, accompanied by an unusually second small collection of dried plants, sent by the Rev. R. B.

heavy fall of snow over the south and south-east of England. Comins from the Solomon Islands. It includes several highly

The ground was covered in places to the depth of several interesting things. Specially interesting among these are

inches, and the storm caused considerable damage to the teleflowering specimens, though not perfect, of the tree that bears graph wires in the southern parts of the kingdom. The night the so-called turtle-seeds of the islanders. This tree belongs tɔ frosts were also very severe, the shade thermometer registering the Sapotacee, and will shortly be published as a new genus of

as low as 20° in places. that order by Mr. W. B. Hemsley. The seeds are one of the The Report of the Kew Committee of the Royal Society for most singular productions in the vegetable kingdom, and the sourteen months ending December 31 last gives an account of the observational and experimental work of the Observatory. times the wind has been observed in the direction indicated by The curves of the inagnetographs have shown a marked in the arrows. General Greely remarks that the diurnal variation of creased activity in terrestrial magnetic changes as compared the wind in the United States has not been investigated to any with the previous year, although no very large disturbances considerable extent, so that but little is known of its tendency bave been registered. The electrograph has been maintained except in a general way. It may be said, however, that in the in action during the greater portion of the year, but the instru-northern hemisphere there is a well-defined tendency to veer a ment has failed in sensibility, owing to the diminished potential little in the morning, and to back through the same circumference of the chloride of silver battery. The subject of the measure- in the afternoon. This inclination, however, is early subment of atmospherical electricity is consequently far froin ordinated to the influence of pressure changes and distribution, settlement. Sketches of sun-spots were made on 170 days, and cannot be detected except in settled weather. and the groups numbered after Schwabe's method. Two WRITING in the American journal Electricity, on electricity new forms of anemometer have been under trial : (1) the in the United States Navy, Mr. W. B. Lefroy Hamilton anemo-cinemograph of MM. Richard Frères, similar to that refers to the working of the search light. He says that in employed at the top of the Eiffel Tower—the vanes, by running the practical use of the search light, it has been found constantly against a train of clock-work, record directly on a that in order to afford sufficient time for a careful examisheet of paper the velocity of the wind at any moment ; (2) the nation of the water's surface, at points far removed from the Munro sight-indicating anemometer is a sensitive Robinson cup ship, the beam of light must be revolved very slowly, and in arrangement, which drives, by means of a small centrifugal consequence, during a great portion of the time any particular pump, a column of oil up a glass tube. The instrument, as section of water is lest in darkness. As it only takes five fitted at present, fails to work during frost, owing to congelation minutes for a torpedo boat to run a distance of two miles, it will of the oil employed. Great activity continues to be shown in be easily seen that in the interval between two successive illuthe verification department, over 20,500 instruments of all minations of the same spot, a torpedo might attack a warship kinds having been tested ; more than three-fourths of these and discharge her deadly weapon. To overcome this difficulty, were clinical thermometers. In the rating of watches, the it is proposed that the new American war-ships, beginning with highest position was altained by Messrs. Stauffer, Son, and Co., the New York, shall be fitted with a number of stationary search one of whose watches obtained a total of 916 marks out of a lights grouped together, each illuminating its own section, thus possible 100. Special circulars have been addressed to the keeping the ship surrounded by an unbroken circle of light. directors of steamship companies, calling attention to arrange- The leather industry is to have a separate building at the ments made for the rating of chronometers. A special camera,

Chicago Exhibition. Representatives of the industry have capable of working with lenses of 4 inches aperture and 30 accepted a site offered them, and will erect, at an expense of inches focal length, has been fitted up at the Observatory, for

100,000 dollars, a building, measuring 150 by 600 feet, in which the examination of photographic lenses. A photometer, on they will show an almost endless array of leather products, and Captain Abney's principle, 13 feet long, has also been fitted for

every process in their manufacture from the raw hide to the most use in the testing operations. The Committee have come to finished article. the conclusion that it would be of advantage to them to obtain

The latest annual report of the Hon. Edgar Dewdney, Superregistration under Section 23 of the Companies Act, 1867.

intendent of Indian Affairs in Canada, gives much interesting We have received from the Deutsche Seewarte, (1) the

information as to the aborigines of the Dominion. They are dis Deutsches meteorologisches Jahrbuch for 1890, containing ob

tributed thus :-Ontario, 17,915; Quebec, 13,361 ; Nova Scotia, servations taken three times daily at nine stations of the second

2076 ; New Brunswick, 1521 ; Prince Edward Island, 314 ; order, with monthly and yearly results, hourly observations and

Manitoba and North-West Territories, 25,195 ; Peace River means at. Hamburg and Wustrow, and extracts from the district, 2038 ; Athabasca district, 8000; Mackenzie River registers kept at the signal stations, on stormy days. The district, 7000 ; Eastern Rupert's Land, 4016; Canadian materials are similar to those published in former years, the Labrador, 1000 ; Arctic coast, 4000 ; British Columbia, 35,202 only change being in the reduction of the number of stations-total, 121,638. The number of children of school age is for which observations from self-registering instruments are

13,420, of whom 7574 are in attendance. Even in the Northgiven. (2) Ergebnisse der meteorologischen Beobachtungen for West

, where the conditions are harder than in British Columbia, the lustrum 1886-90, on the same plan as those previously pub- great progress has been made. The property owned by the lished for the years 1876-80 and 1881-85. These publications Manitoban and North-Western Indians includes 5599 houses and extend over fifteen years, and form a very valuable contribution

2018 barns ; 13,549 acres of land under cultivation, with 2115 to the climatology of Northern Germany, affording ample data

acres newly broken ; 1251 ploughs, 773 harrows, 899 waggons, for investigations referring to individual hours, or days, together 48 fanning mills

, and 5 threshing mills ; 2928 cows, 70 bulls, with an easy means of obtaining the combined results and the 2064 oxen, 4823 calves, 5879 horses, 428 sheep, and 215 pigs. extreme values for the whole period over which the observations

Last year the North-Western Indians reaped a harvest including extend.

67,726 bushels of wheat, 21,592 of oats, 19,761 of barley,

44, 284 of potatoes, 14,788 of turnips, 1340 of carrots, and 413 The Washington Weather Bureau has just issued an atlas of of rye. The farm instructors and their wives make a point of thirty-six charts, being one of a series of useful works partially teaching the Indians how to use their spare time. The men are prepared under the superintendence of General A. W. Greely, encouraged to make handles for axes and hay forks, besides Chief Signal Officer of the United States, prior to the transfer sleighs, ox collars, harness, brooms, &c. The women of the Meteorological Service. The charts show the average initiated in tanning and butter-making, and already make articles direction and hourly velocity of the wind at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. of clothing that would not disgrace a white woman, being par(Washington time), at sixty-five representative stations, with ticularly quick at knitting ; some of them, too, are expert in the the average maximum and minimum hourly velocity, and other manufacture of baskets, mats, and hats. The housing of the interesting details, from observations for a number of years. people also improves, the Bloods in particular now partitioning The prevailing wind direction, and the direction next in order their houses into rooms. The trust funds held for the Indians of frequency, are shown by arrows which fly' with the wind, by the Government now amount to £703,046, and £57,098 was while figures set against the arrows indicate the percentage of spent from this source last year, besides £186,442 voted by

are

Parliament. Of the Parliamentary grant no less than £164,437 deeply, but to stir it lower than the ordinary plough did, and, went to the North-West, including Manitoba and Keewatin ; by slightly opening the subsoil in this way, the roots were able while British Columbia took £17,010 of the remainder. to get down lower, and the crops, even in a season of drought,

flourished in a way they did not when the soil was cultivated in THERE seems to be no doubt that the aborigines of the

the ordinary manner. He was inclined to think that the Indian Andaman Islands are rapidly disappearing. According to the latest administrative report relating to the islands, all the people could not be studied very well by people in Europe, because our

plough was a thing which deserved a good deal of study; but it of Rutland Island and Port Campbell are dead, and few remain in the South Andamans. Mr. Portman thinks that the present spot, and efforts should be made to improve the agricultural

conditions were so different. The study should be made on the generation of this interesting race will be the last. Only a small number of children are born, and they do not survive rotation with leguminous crops. He was under the impression

methods there by the introduction, if possible, of some kind of infancy.

that, in a great deal of the cultivated land of India, there was In his Presidential address to the American National Geo something like a pan, formed at no great distance below the graphic Society, now printed in the Society's Magazine, Mr. surface, which made it extremely difficult for the roots to peneGardiner G. Hubbard presents an interesting sketch of the forces trate, and so they were unable to bear even a slight drought. which have been at work in the evolution of commerce. In the

The Great Bower Bird seems to give the people of Northern concluding passage he glances at what he supposes to be the Queensland very frequent occasion to think about him. Every future of commerce. America, the last of the continents to be kind of fruit suffers from his depredations; and, according to a inhabitated, now receives, he points out, the wealth of Asia on

letter from Mr. E. M. Cornwall, printed in the Victoria the one hand and manufactures and population from Europe on Naturalist, he has also a taste for new-laid eggs. Says Mr. the other. “Here the East and West

, different from each other Cornwall :-" This is not mere supposition, but hard fact, for in mental power and civilization, will meet, each alone incom. after noticing the disappearance of eggs in a most unaccountable plete, each essential to the fullest and most symmetrical develop- manner for some time, the gardener kept watch, and was rewarded ment of the other. Here will be the great banking and com; by seeing Mr. Bower Bird fly straight to a nest just vacated by a mercial houses of the world, the centre of business, wealth, and hen and deliberately pick the egg and polish off its contents.” population."

" In re the Great Bower Bird.—Since writing you last, I have In ancient times Greece possessed something like seven and had still further evidence to convict this rogue of what I charged a half millions of acres of dense forest, and she was com

him with. A bird was seen to fly right to a hen's nest in an paratively rich in timber until half a century ago. Many forests empty shed and immediately emerge with an egg in his long have now disappeared, and the result is seen both in the scarcity claws; but the egg proved an awkward burden, and he dropped of the water supply and in various injurious climatic effects. The it ere he had gone many yards." Austro-Hungarian Consul at Athens—while calling attention to COLONEL W. S. HORE gives in the journal of the Bombay these facts in a recent report, of which some account is given in the Natural History Society (vol. vi., No. 3) an interesting account of Board of Trade Journal for April—points out that even at the the taming of a heron. Writing from Deesa in September 1891, present day Greece possesses about two millions of acres of he says that during the then recent monsoon a young egret forest land. The quantities (in cubic metres) of timber and or heron with a greenish-brown neck and body, white-tipped forest produce obtained in 1890, compared with 1889, were : wings, and green legs, flew into the verandah of his house, building wood, 59,948 and 48,986 ; timber for shipbuilding, apparently in search of food. He caught it, and for about ten 2606 and 1640; for tools and machinery, 4146 and 2940; days kept it under a large basket, feeding it with raw meat. lignite, 509,895 metric centners, compared with 466,953 ; He then gave it its liberty, but it refused to leave. It grew very asbestos, 491,722 metric centners, compared with 490,179 ; and tame, and would feed out of Colonel Hore's hand. Occasionally tanners' tawing materials, 20,003 metric centners, compared it would indulge in a bath in one of the dog's tins, and afterwards with 30,089 in 1889. Notwithstanding this considerabie pro sit on a chair in the verandah. In the evening it flew away to duction, Greece will have to import large quantities of timber roost in one of the large neem trees in the compound. It in the near future, so as to meet the demand arising from the showed no fear of the dogs, and would give any of them who revival of the building trades now affecting both the rural and came too near a vigorous “ dig” with its long bill. It remained urban districts of the peninsula.

with Colonel Hore for about six weeks, when, as his regiment A Paper on the agricultural needs of India, by Dr. J. Augustus

was under orders to march, and he was asraid if left behind it would Voelcker, was read the other evening before the Society of Arts, meet with an untimely end, he carried it down to the river about and is printed in the current number of the Society's Journal. two miles off and left it there. It gave rise to an instructive discussion, in the course of which The new number of Petermann's Mitteilungen has a map of the Mr. Thiselton-Dyer-referring to the necessity of India producing Kalahari Desert, and the western part of British Bechuanaland, sufficient food for its growing population-said the real question with remarks by Edward Wilkinson. There are also articles on was how to get more nitrogen into the soil. That overshadowed the Pamir question (with map), by F. Immanuel, and contribueverything else. He agreed with Prof. Wallace, who had tions to our knowledge of the south-eastern part of Persia, by spoken before him, as to one way of supplying this want. A. J. Ceyp. After the studies made in Germany, France, and England, there The Rochester Academy of Science, U.S., has published could be no longer any doubt that the growing of leguminous two brochures of the first volume of its Proceedings. The crops did enrich the soil with nitrogen in a way which, as far as papers are attractively printed and well illustrated. Among the was at present known, without manure, could be done in no other contributions we may note “The Aurora,” “The Forces conway ; but in India the method of green soiling was not alto. cerned in the Development of Storms," and ; “ The Zodiacal gether unknown. If it were, the sooner some popular account Light,” by M. A. Veeder ; "Description of New Meteorites," of the method was distributed the better. An old pupil of his and “Notice of a New Meteorite from Louisa County, Va.," own, who had charge for a time of an experimental farm at by Edwin E. Howell; “Root Foods of the Seneca Indians," Bangalore, found that by making some slight addition to the by G. II. Harris ; " Descriptions of New Species of Muricidæ, Indian plough he was able to stir the soil-not to plough with remarks on the apices of certain forms," by Frank C.

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