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He believes the result of this experiment may be extended Academy of Sciences, April 11.-M. d'Abbadie in the to the case of man.—Dr. Schweizer had investigated ihe behaviour chair.-On a new determination of the latitude of Paris Obser- of spermatozoa towards electric currents. Only in a few cases vatory, by M. l'Amiral Mouchez. (See Our Astronomical was he able to observe that some of the more active ones swam Column).-Note by M. l'Amiral Mouchez, accompanying a

against the current. He found that the position they assumed star photograph obtained by Dr. Gill, Director of the Cape , in parallel rows with their heads turned towards the kathode Observatory. (See Our Astronomical Column.)-On the flow was not in any way a result of their vitality. from rectangular orifices, without lateral contraction : theoretical Physical Society, March 25.-Prof. Kundt, President, in calculation of the delivery and of its distribution, by M. J. the chair. ---Dr. Mewes spoke on emission and absorption.- Dr. Boussinesq:-On the absorption of light by tourmaline, by Gross, in his experiments, extending over many years, on the M. A. Potier. ---Researches on persulphuric acid and its salts, decomposition of sulphur has recently tested it' electrolyticalty. by M. Berthelot.-On the stability of the sand dunes of the Bay Barium and strontium sulphate were fused in a silver crucible, of Biscay, by M. Chambrelent. A long account is given of the which formed one electrode, and a powerful electric current sent inethods that have been adopted to prevent the encroachment of through the mass by means of a second electrode of platinum sand along the coast of the Bay of Biscay.-Note by M. Dehérain, wire. Analyses of the products resulting from the electrolysis accompanying the presentation of his “ Traité de Chimie Agri- yielded a new compound of platinum and barium ; at the same cole.”—On a new genus of Cretaceous Echinoids, Dipneustes time 50 per cent. of the sulphur, originally present as sulphates, aturicus, Arnaud, by M. G. Cotteau.-Experimental study of was found to have disappeared, and its place to have been taken the decimal equation in observations of the sun and planets, by 40 per cent of a new substance, which the speaker had also made at Lyons Observatory, by MM. André and Gonnessiat. - obtained during the electrolysis of sulphur. According to his On the latitude obtained by means of the great meridian circle views, sulphur is to be regarded as a compound of this new of Paris Observatory, by M. Périgaud. -On a series of determi- substance with hydrogen. - Dr. Budde described new experinations of latitude made with the great meridian circle of Paris ments on the inert layer in emulsions of chloroform and soda, Observatory, by M. F. Boquet.- Observations of Swist's comet which confirmed him in his view that the layer is due to the (1892 March 6) and Denning's comet (1892 March 18) made with rapid evaporation of chloroform from the upper surface of the the great equatorial of Bordeaux Observatory, by MM. G. Rayet mixture. A mixture of chloroform and water is even more suitable and L. Picart.- On the theory of Jupiter's satellites, by M. J. J. for the experiments, and, since chloroform is more soluble in cold Landerer. (For the five preceding communications see Our than in warm water, he takes a solution of chloroform saturated Astronomical Column.)-On transformations in mechanics, by in water at oo, and then warms it to 20°; at the latter temM. P. Painlevé.-On the evaluation of the numbers of permu- perature the chloroform separates out in minute drops, yielding tations and complete circular arrangements, by M. E. Jablonski. a perfectly opaque emulsion, while the upper layer remains clear, -On the specific heats of metals, by M. Le Verrier. The owing to the evaporation of the chloroform. When this upper author has measured the specific heats of lead, zinc, aluininium, layer is removed by a pipette it remains clear, and must theresilver, and copper, at various temperatures between oo and fore contain less chloroform than the lower saturated portions.

C.-On the polarization of diffused light by disturbed 'The regular configuration of the inert layer in vessels of varying media, by M. A. Hurion. On the decomposition of silver shape had been at one time regarded by Dr. Budde, in agreepermanganate and on a particular association of oxygen with ment with Liebreich, as due to capillary action. His more silver oxide, by M. Alex. Gorgeu.-On some new salts of iron, recent researches have, on the other hand, shown that it is due by MM. Lachaud and C. Lepierre. -Action of sulphuric acid to currents in the fluid resulting from differences of temperature, on some cyclic hydrocarbides, by M. Maquenne. -Researches and may therefore be altered at will. When the external temon some sugar principles, by M. J. Fogh.-On the formation of perature is lower than that of the Auid, downward currents are oxyhemoglobin by means os hæmatine and albuminoid matter, established along the walls of the vessel, upward currents in the by MM. H. Bertin-Sans and J. Moitessier.-Law regarding the centre of the fluid, and the meniscus is convex: when the exappearance of the first epiphysiary point of long bones, by ternal temperature is higher, the reverse effect is produced, and M. Alexis Julien.-On an apparatus which enables Paul Bert's the meniscus is concave. experiments on air and compressed oxygen to be easily repeated, April 8.-Prof. du Bois Reymond, President, in the by M. G. Philippon.- Distinguishing characters of ovine and

chair. - Dr. Lammer gave an account of alterations made caprine species : applications to the study of Chabins and

by him, in conjunction with Dr. Brod han, on a spectroMouflons, by MM. Cornevin and Lesbre. —Halo seen at Parc

photometer, with a view to improving the photometric part de Baleine (Allier) on Apr: 6, by M. de Montessus de Ballore. of the instrument by the introduction of his glass-cube. In -Research on the geographical and geological conditions which connection with the above, Dr. Lammer went very fully into characterize earthquake regions, by M. de Moniessus de Ballore. Prof. Abbe's theoretical researches on the delineation of nonBERLIN.

luminous objects, which had been made during the latter's

studies on the mode of action of microscopes, and transferred Physiological Society, March 18.-Prof du Bois Rey

the results arrived at by Abbe to the conditions existing in a mond, President, in the chair. ---Dr. Gumlich described experi.

spectrophotometer. idents made on himself on the urinary excretion of nitrogen. Ile had determined separately total nitrogen, nitrogen of urea,

Meteorological Society, April 5.-Prof. Schwalbe, Preof ammonia, and of the extractives during periods with a mixed sident, in the chair.—Dr. Sprung spoke on atmospheric rings, diet, a pure flesh diet, and a vegetable diet. During the second

and explained the formation of solar and lunar rings as the the nitrogen excreted as urea increased until it amounted to

result of refraction of parallel solar rays in ice-prisms. The 85-6 per cent of the total nitrogen, and that excreted as ex

prism.s must be three-sided, and the maximal intensity of light tractives and ammonia was also greater than during a mixed

is obtained when the angle of entry and exit from the prism is

22', in which case the deviation is minimal. Solar and lunar diet. During a vegetarian diet the urea nitrogen markedly dimin. ished ; that of the extractives and ammonia was also absolutely

halos are the result of the bending which light undergoes at the less than with a meat diet, although it had increased relatively edges of minute ice-particles. The phenomenon can be obto the re-t-Dr von Noorden communicated, in connection

served by strewing lycopodium powder on a sheet of glass, and with the above, an extended series of determinations of urinary looking at a flame through this film. The speaker further nitrogen made on patients suffering from different diseases;

exhibited some photographs of rings and halos, explained the among these two case; of phosphorus poisoning were of special

conditions which are necessary for their successful production, interest.

and gave the formulæ involved in the calculation of the phe

nomena.-Dr. Schumbert made a communication in connection April 1.-Prof. du Bois Reymond, President, in the with Dr. Lachmann's (see report of previous meeting), and gave chair.-Dr. Lilienfeld had found that the influence of

a synopsis of temperature maxima and minima observed at leucocytes on the clotting of blood is due entirely to their

woodland stations, both in the woods and just outside them. nuclei, the stroma being quite inert. He isolated the che- Some interesting differences were observed, depending upon mically active substance from the leucocytes of the thymus the kind of trees and the position of the thermometer. After gland, and calls it leuconuclein.-Dr. Rosenberg had investigated some remarks by Dr. Lachmann on a paper by von Bebber in on a dog working in a tread-mill the assimilation of a diet con- Himmel und Erde on the same subject, Dr. Hormann in congisting of definite portions of lean meat, fat, and rice during clusion exhibited an apparatus for registering the observation of periods of work and repose, and found it to be the same in both



INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.-Electric-Light Measuring In

struments: James Swinburne. Royal Academy of Sciences, April 2.-Prof. van de PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, at 8. Sande Bakhuyzen in the chair.- Mr. Kapteyn communicated ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-The Sculpturing of Britain—its Later Siages: the result of a discussion of a great part of the photographs

Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S. taken at the Cape Observatory under the direction of Her

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 27. Majesty's Astronomer, D. Gill. The diameters of the stars on

GEOLOGICAL IETY, at 8.-Notes on the Geology of the Northern 370 of these photographs, covering an area of nearly 9000

Etbai or Eastern Desert of Egypt : with an Account of the Emerald

Mines : Ernest A. Floyer.-The Rise and Fall of Lake Tanganyika : square degrees of the sky, have been compared to the visual Alex, Carson. (Communicated by R. Kidston.) magnitudes of these stars according to the estimations of Messrs. ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 7. Gould and Schönfeld. It is shown that for stars of equal visual

British ASTRONOMICAL ASSOCIATION, at 5. brightness the actinic effect on the plates has been considerably

THURSDAY, APRIL 28. greater for the stars situated in or near the Milky Way, than for ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30. stars situated in considerable galactic latitudes. The different

INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Notes on the Light of the

Electric Arc : A. P. Trotter. causes that may have co-operated to produce this phenomenon ROVAL INSTITUTION, at 3. —The Chemistry of Gases: Prof. Dewar, have been carefally considered, and the conclusion is arrived at, F.R.S. that neither influences of meteorological causes, nor causes of

FRIDAY, APRIL 29. systematically different sensitivity of ihe plates, are sufficient to INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 7.30.- The Steam-Hammer and its account for it ; and that the systematic errors in the estimations of Relation to the Hydraulic Forging-Press : H. H. Vaughan.

W. the visual magnitudes are, in all probability, of secondary import

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-The Physiology of Dreams: Dr. B.

Richardson, F.R.S. ance. It seems very probable, therefore, that the principal cause must be sought in peculiarities of the light of the stars themselves.

SATURDAY, APRIL 30. The fact discovered by Mr. Pickering, that the Milky Way

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-J. S. Bach's Chamber Music (with many

Musical Illustrations): E. Dannreuther. must be considered as an aggregation of stars of the first type explains only a small fraction (not o'i mag.) of the differences found. Mr. Kapteyn therefore thinks that we are driven to BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. the conclusion that the light of the stars of the first type in the BOOKS.-Blowpine Analysis, 2nd edition : J. Landauer; translated by Milky Way is considerably richer in violet rays than the light of

J. Taylor (Macmillan). --Air Comprimé ou Raréfié: A. Gouilly (Paris,

Gauthier-Villars).-La Distribution de l'Electricité, Installations Isolces : stars of the same type in great galactic latitudes. From this would

R. V. Picou (Paris, Gauthier. Villars). -Résistance des Matériaux : M. follow, according to the researches of Mr. Pickering. that the same Duquesney (Paris, Gauthier-Villars).—Machine à Vapeur: V. Dwelschaumust hold for stars of the other spectral types. In the mean. vers-Dery (Paris, Gauthier-Villars).- Elements of Materia Medica and while direct photometric and photographic experiments seem

Therapeutics: C. E. A. Semple (Longmans). - Fruit Culture: J. Cheal

(Bell). - My Water-cure : S. Kneipp (Grevel). -Color-vision: E. Hunt very desirable, in order to prove the reality of the phenomenon (Simpkin). by more direct evidence than is contained in the plates of the PAMPHLET.-On the Physics of Media: J. J. Waterston (Kegan Paul). Photographic Survey. Such experiments have been already

SEKIALS. –The Asclepiad, No. 33, vol. ix. (Longmans).-Geological

Magazine, April (K. Paul). Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society, undertaken by the Cape Observatory.-Mr. Hubrecht gave an

3rd series. vol. iii. Part 1 (Murray). -Himmel und Erde, April (Berlin, account of the placentation of certain Lemurs and Insectivora, Paete!). - The Annals of Scottish Natural History, N) 2 (Edinburgh, as a result of his recent excursion in the Indian Archipelago. Douglas). - Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, No. 96. The placenta of Tarsius spectrum is a discoid one, and differs from

vol. xxi. (Spon) - The Eagle, March (Cambridge, Johnson). – Journal of that of other Lemuroids hitherto known, in which a diffused dis

Anatomy and Physiology, vol. xxvi. Part 3 (Williams and Norgate). --Mind,

April (Williams and Norgate). - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, tribution of villi over the whole surface of the chorion has been Boston, Annual Catalogue, 1891-92 (Boston). - Journal of the Royal observed. In Nycticebus this coating loses its villous character

Statistical Society, March (Stanford). - Journal of the Chemical Society, at one pole of the egg in the latest stages of pregnancy. Certain

April (Gurney and Jackson). – Bulletin de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences

de St. Petersbourg, nouvelle série, ii., xxxiv., feuilles 34-41.- The Engineerstages of the discoid placenta of Galeopithecus were further ing Magazine, April (New York). described, as was also the double placenta of Tupaja javanica, each placenta having a reniform shape, these being situated right and left of the embryo, which has its ventral surface turned


PAGE towards the mesometrium.-Mr. Pekelharing reported on his The Yahgan

577 further investigations about the coagulation of the blood. He Quantitative Analysis. By J. W. R.

578 states that the A. fibrinogen of Wooldridge is the same substance Astronomy

· 579 which can be precipitated from the diluted plasma by acetic

Our Book Shelf:acid, viz, a nucleo-albumin, the zymogen that, by combination Cheal : “Practical Fruit Culture"

579 with lime, forms fibrin ferment. Wooldridge's tissue-fibrinogen is Landauer : “Blowpipe Analysis” also a nucleo-albumin from which can be obtained, by treating it Letters to the Editor :with lime-salts, fibrin ferment. In accordance with Dr. Wright, Prehistory of Egypt.-W. M. Flinders Petrie Mr. Pekelharing has found that, in the dog and in the rabbit, an Aphanapteryx in the New Zealand Region.-Prof. albumose can be split off from the nucleo-albumin, and in this Henry O. Forbes manner the formation of the fibrin ferment can be prevented, or Pigments of Lepidoptera.-F. Gowland Hopkins the action of the serment already formed can be paralyzed.

C.G.S. System of Units.--O. H. Tittmann; Prof.

J. D. Everett, F.R.S.

Influenza in America.-Prof. Edward S. Holden

Dust Counting on Ben Nevis. By Angus Rankin . 582

Abstract of Mr. A. Ricco's Account of the Sub-

marine Eruption North-west of Pantelleria, LINNEAN Society, at 8.-On some New Plants from China : W. B. Otober 1891. (Illustrated.) By G. W. Butler 584 Hemsley, F.R.S.-On the Relation of the Acaridæ to the Arachnida : H. Giraffes.

585 M. Bernard.



Our Astronomical Column:-
INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 7.30.—The Speed and Power of

Astronomy at the Paris Academy, April 11
Locomotives: Edmund L. Hill.

Solar Heat

Periodic Variations in Latitude .

Recent Advances in Physical Chemistry. By Prof.

W. Ostwald
ARISTOTELIAN Society, at 8.-Prof. Wm. James's Treatment of Self: G.

The General Circulation of the Atmosphere. By Dawes Hicks.

Dr. J. M, Pernter .


Relation of V. Itaic Electromotive Force to MoleANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, at 8.30. – The Social and Religious Ideas

of the Chinese, as illustrated in the Ideographic Characters of the cular Velocity. By Dr. G. Gore, F.R.S. Language : Prof. R. K. Douglas. - The Mythology and Psychology of Scientific Serials.

596 the Ancient Egyptians : Joseph Offord, Jun.

Societies and Academies

597 ROYAL STATISTICAL Society, at 7.45. -- An Inquiry into the Statistics of the Production and Consumption of Milk and Milk Products in Great

Diary of Societies

600 Britain: R. Henry Rew. | Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received




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Gomakes one look for good wine a The translation of perfectly ineligible the process whereby atomic weights

when changes of composition accompany changes of THURSDAY, APRIL 28, 1892.

properties in definite kinds of matter. If this were done we should not be deluged with those catalogues of the

properties of innumerable disconnected substances which THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY.

are frequently sold under the misleading name of textOutlines of Theoretical Chemistry. By Lothar Meyer,

books of chemistry. Professor of Chemistry in the University of Tübingen.

The paragraphs on the determination of atomic weights Translated by P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc., and W.

from stoïchiometric values (pp. 11-13) seem to me exCarleton Williams, B.Sc. Pp. 220. (London : Long- tremely lucid and apposite, provided the reader will give mans, Green, and Co., 1892.)

his close attention to them. I do not think the subject of

chemical equivalents is treated sufficiently fully to make wine needs ,well

it (pp. 13-16 Prof. Lothar Meyer's “Die Modernen Theorien der

are determined from the crystallographic relations of Chemie," made by Messrs. Bedson and Williams, is so

compounds. I am much taken by the order in which well known and so appreciated by all English-speaking the author arranges his treatment of combining weights, chemists, that everyone welcomes a new book by the equivalents, thermic equivalents, crystallographic equivaauthor of “Modern Theories," and expects the book to

lents, &c., culminating in Avogadro's law. The deterbe a good one. The “Outlines of Theoretical Chemistry mination of atomic weights by the application of the law is a translation, by the translators of the “Modern of Avogadro is made very clear in a couple of paragraphs Theories," of a book published in German in the course (pp. 39-42); and the author is especially to be congratuof last year. The translation is exceedingly well done ; lated, in my opinion, on paragraph 26, wherein he most the English runs smoothly and lucidly; the book reads skilfully and gracefully avoids the popular error of making as if it were composed in English, rather than as a trans

a stumbling-block of so-called “abnormal vapour-densilation from another tongue.

ties." The subject matter of this book is very similar to that

Paragraph 28, which deals in about thirty lines with of “ Modern Theories"; details are avoided wherever the

“nascent state," would much better have been onnitted ; author thought this could be done with advantage, and

the treatment is neither interesting nor accurate. It the treatment is made as general as possible. In his

seems to me that paragraphs 34-40, which are supposed preface to the English translation the author says :

to give a clear general conception of the periodic law, “ The general-I may say the philosophical --review quite fail to enable the student to grasp this all-important of the subject has been my chief aim, to which the details generalization. I think that much too little space is should be subordinated.”

given to the periodic law, which comprises in itself all The book is not divided into chapters, but runs

other schemes of chemical classification ; and that too on from paragraph to paragraph. Beginning with a much space is devoted to valency, which, at the best, is statement of the province of chemistry, the author a conception that is of very limited application. Anyone passes in review the stoïchiometric laws, sketches the who turns from the study of Mendeleeff's great work on atomic hypothesis, considers the various aspects of

“The Principles of Chemistry” to the paragraph on chemical equivalents, states and applies the law of p. 76 will be greatly astonished; the paragraph reads Avogadro, refers to Prout's notions about the relations thus :between the values of atomic weights, and states and

“Formerly it was more or less explicitly assumed that briefly illustrates the periodic law; he then considers in a chemical compound was held together by the total several paragraphs the constitution of compounds in the attractive force of the affinities of all the atoms contained light of the molecular and atomic theory, and, through a in it; but, as our knowledge increased, it was gradually short discussion of physical isomerism, he passes to the

recognized that the connexion is between atom and consideration of such physical properties of bodies as

atom, and that the atoms are attached to each other like

the links in a chain, the continuity ceasing if even a melting and boiling point, capillarity, solubility, evapora- single link of the chain is removed.” tion, &c., and the connexions between these and the molecular weights and constitutions of bodies. Finally

This sentence seems to imply that no one now looks the author devotes some fifty or sixty paragraphs to the

on a molecule as held together by the interactions between treatment of the thermal and electrical aspects of chemical all the atoms; but if one says this view is held by none, one changes, and the subject of chemical affinity.

must make a few exceptions, such as Mendeleeff and the At the outset the essential character of chemical chemists of his school. The treatment of atomic linkage phenomena is emphasized :

on pp. 80-83 seems to me to be very one-sided and un

satisfactory. We are told (p. 81) that such a formula as “Chemistry deals with the changes which affect the

H.,O. SO, is inadmissible because it represents the commaterial nature of the substance. Chemistry, then, is the science which treats of matter and its changes” (p. 2).

pound as made up of atomic groups which are already

saturated, and “therefore have no free affinities for It is to be wished that all writers of books, whether mutual combination”; but on p. 107 we are informed elementary or advanced books, on chemistry, and all who that, in substances which crystallize with water, “every endeavour to help others to learn this science, would keep molecule is united with a definite number of molecules of steadily before them the characteristic feature of all water.” But how can water molecules unite with, say, chemical events, viz. that they are those which occur dehydrated alum, if the group H,O is saturated and “has





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therefore no free affinities”? This example shows that

THE TRAVELS OF A PAINTER OF FLOWERS. the paragraph quoted above from p. 76 is much too dogmatic.

Recollections of a Happy Life, being the Autobiography I do most strongly object to such a statement as that

of Marianne North. Edited by her sister, Mrs. John on p. 69, where, speaking of carbon monoxide, it is

Addington Symonds. In Two Volumes. (London: said:

Macmillan and Co., 1892.) The molecule of this compound is represented by the MOST of the readers of Nature will know without formula

telling that Marianne North was a world-wide Co.

traveller, that she travelled in pursuit of nature, that she

was an accomplished and faithful painter of plant and Here the asterisks are intended to show that two affini- animal life, and that the results of a life's labour were ties are unsaturated ; this is proved by the fact that the presented by her to the nation, and now cover the walls compound unites with two atoms of chlorine, forming of a building in Kew Gardens, erected at her expense phosgene gas,

Most persons, too, who knew; her personally—and her C=0.”

acquaintances and friends are as numerous as her travels

were wide-will be glad to know something more of her What is proved by the fact of combination with history, and especially something more of her travels, of

is proved chlorine ? No one can attach any

clear meaning to the her impressions of peoples, of places, and, above all, her

impressions of the plant and animal life of the many two affinities are unsaturated." The only countries she visited and to which she gave her life. All statement practical meaning these words have is, “ The molecule CO can unite with two other atoms of certain kinds”; remember her stately presence, her kind face, her charm

who had the pleasure of knowing her personally will that is to say, the sentence quoted, when put into the speech of the plain man, asserts that the fact that CO

ing manner, and her entertaining conversational powers does unite with 2Cl proves that CO can unite with 2Cl.

-now relating the difficulties and delights of her expeThe later paragraphs, treating of the physical properties comforts and genial society. She wrote as she talked,

riences in foreign lands, now her appreciation of home of bodies and the connexions between these and the constitutions of the same bodies, seem to me to be both very her book in the same style.

and she was a fertile letter-writer; and she has written well done and very disappointing. They are well done because an earnest attempt is made to put the matter

In early life Miss North made various journeys in clearly, but they are disappointing because it is quite im- painted many flowers ; but with the exception of the Sici

Europe, and also went up the Nile and visited Syria, and possible to grapple with these very difficult matters in the lian Papyrus, and perhaps two or three other little pieces, space which is given to them in this book. I do not think

none of this early work is in the gallery at Kew. Only 38 that anyone will succeed in getting a grasp of Raoult's law from the pages which are grouped around paragraph 133. tically begins with her more distant travels; the first long

pages of her book are devoted to her early life, and it pracThe application of Raoult’s law to determine molecular weights, given on p. 137, is based on the constant :62", trip being to Canada and the United States, and extended which has been shown by van 't Hoff and others to be

to Jamaica, whence she returned to England. Two months

later she started for Brazil, where she made a long stay, erroneous. But it is much easier to find fault than to compose such

and then returned direct to England. The next journey a book as this. A careful perusal of the work leaves the and Java, and then home again. Her paintings attracted

included Teneriffe, California, Japan, Singapore, Borneo, impression on my mind that, as a synopsis and suggestive remembrancer to the student who knows general chemistry attention, and she complied with a request to exhibit well, this book will prove useful, but that it is too con

some 500 of them at Kensington. This matter being densed and too slight to be of much service to him whois arranged, she proceeded to India, landing on the way at beginning the study of general chemistry. Most of the Lisbon, Gibraltar, Malta, and Galle; and India was subjects dealt with cannot be made clear except by going traversed almost from east to west and north to south.

The narrative of this journey is perhaps the most ininto details, and illustrating them with considerable profusion. When one attempts to deal with these matters in teresting part of the whole work. On her return home a broad and general way, and at the same time to devote there was an exhibition of the accumulated paintings in only a few pages to each section, one is almost obliged Conduit Street ; and a visit to Mr. Darwin, which ended either to make statements so generalized that they are of in a determination to go to Australia and paint the very little use to the earnest student, or only to touch the flowers of the fifth quarter of the globe. It should be fringe of each part of the subject. Chemistry is an abstract

mentioned that in the meantime Miss North had adopted science to a much less degree than physics ; hence such a suggestion of the Pall Mall Gasette that her paintings short statements as those which sum up and include in

should find their home at Kew, and her generous offer themselves whole provinces of physical knowledge cannot

was accepted. So it was, that when Darwin told her yet be made in chemistry. Where the “Outlines of Theo

that her collection of paintings would be an imperfect retical Chemistry” fails for the most part it fails because representation of the vegetation of the world without the no book could succeed; it fails because it attempts to do

Australian element, she took it as a “royal command," that which cannot, at present, be done.

and prepared to go forthwith. This journey some of the

old scenes were revisited, brief halts being made at Galle M. M. PATTISON MUIR. and Singapore, a longer stay with the Rajah and Rani



Brooke in Borneo, and thence to Queensland. New South The foregoing is an outline of her journeyings, but the Wales, Victoria, West Australia, Tasmania, and New book sbould be got for the details, which are almost Zealand were successively visited; but incessant travels always interesting, often clever and quaint. Here and there ling, climatal changes, and continuous work had begun one meets with uncompromising criticisms and descripto tell on the constitution of this brave woman, who tions of persons that might have been expunged with suffered much in the colder regions. Now, the great advantage. The descriptions of the vegetation of various object was to make the collection of paintings as complete regions, with particulars of the principal elements, are as possible, and she spared neither her pocket nor her pleasant and instructive, often containing much original person in trying to carry it out. Her book is so essentially information ; and will be greatly appreciated by those the history of her gallery at Kew that one cannot dis who frequent the gallery at Kew, of which the book, as sociate them. The Australian journey was fruitful beyond already stated, contains the history. all others, and the Australasian section of the gallery is After completing her work at Kew, Miss North took an perhaps the most attractive of all, being a marvellously old-fashioned house at Alderley, in Gloucestershire, where complete representation of the varied and curious flora she formed a charming garden ; but her constitution was of that region. The homeward route was across the broken, her sufferings increased, and she died in August Pacific, calling at Honolulu, landing at San Francisco, 1890.

W. B. H. and off at once to the redwood and mammoth-tree forests for more painting. Then across America by the southern route, and back to old haunts in the North-Eastern States,

AMERICAN TOWN TREES. and home again to open the gallery, which had been built during this journey. Hanging the pictures was a

Our Trees. By John Robinson. (Salem : Horton and most laborious task, from which Miss North took no rest.

Son, 1891.) At this time the writer first made her acquaintance, and

'HIS was engaged by her to botanize the paintings and com

and its neighbourhood consists of reprints of pile a popular instructive catalogue. This occupied two newspaper articles written in 1890-91 for the benefit of or three months; and most interesting work it was, usually local readers: they have been re-compiled into book form brightened by her presence.

at the request of the directors of the Essex Institute, and No sooner was the opening of the gallery accomplished, date from the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem. than the terribly jaded donor of this munificent gift to Several points strike a careful reader of the book. the public began to think of visiting new regions to The writer draws special attention to the fact that the further enrich it. But I must be brief, for even to articles, or chapters, are not intended as botanical essays ; catalogue these journeys occupies much space. South and the reader will probably decide that the remark was Africa was next visited, and several months' uninterrupted unnecessary, for a more unscientific work dealing with a work, much of it done under trying conditions of failing scientific subject would be difficult to find; but there is a health, yielded so bountifully that it was determined to peculiar charm in a certain style of talks about natural build a wing to the gallery, for the existing walls were objects-for instance, in some of the more chatty paraalready completely covered.

graphs of White's “ Selborne," or Walton's“ Angler," and Miss North intended going from South Africa to Mada- even Evelyn's “ Flora "—which attracts the most devoted gascar, but the means of communication were irregular student to refreshing looks around his subject-matter and uncertain, and her health so bad that she returned from every-day points of view, and this little work home ; but having to some extent recovered, she went the possesses that charm. Few facts of scientific importance following year (1883) to the Seychelles, to paint the beauti- are met with in such writings, and still fewer of the ful palms and screw pines of those islands. Even this did generalizations which make science what it is : the not satisfy her, and she started on her last journey specialist may even deride the writin

“ talkeeNovember 1884. Chili was her goal, and the principal talkee"-gossip, if you will ; and even the broadest object of this long journey was to paint the Araucaria thinker may be inclined to wonder why such articles imbricata in its home, as she had already painted the are written ; all this, and more, may be true, and yetBrazilian and Australian species. She also succeeded in there is the charm, nevertheless, and it is very apt to painting a considerable number of the characteristic seem appropriate where trees and flowers are concerned. types of the vegetation of that country. But this voyage, Whether it is advisable that such writings should increase by way of the Straits of Magellan, tried her waning | is a matter likely to settle itself, simply and certainly, strength very much, and a less energetic person would because very few can produce them. A scientific work, have collapsed entirely. In the last chapter of her“Re- then, this is decidedly not. It is a series of homely collections” we read that all was enjoyment until they chats about trees, by one who knows and loves them. reached Bordeaux. " Then my nerves gave way again The latter fact leads to another-namely, that such a (if they were nerves), and the torture has continued more writer cannot help telling you something worth learning or less ever since.” Beautiful Rio was touched on the even though it be by the way, and merely incidental. outward voyage, and on the homeward route, by Panama, In the first place we gather some ideas as to what trees old friends were looked up in Jamaica. England was are common in the streets and gardens of a Massachusetts reached in the spring, and it cost another year to re- town, and the evidently thriving condition of magnolias, arrange the gallery ; the introduction of the South African, sumachs, maples, witchhazels, mulberries, hickories, Seychelles, and Chilian paintings entailing renumbering gingkos, catalpas, sassafras, and many other beautiful throughout, in order to preserve the geographical order. trees, makes envious one who knows what difficulties are


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