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flowering plants. — The other articles are of interest specially tion of the aldehydes with azoic compounds, by J. Bardilowsky to British botanists.

(French), being an inquiry into the mechanism of the reaction

between the aldehydes and the salts of aromatic amines.-Note on THE American Meteorological Journal for February contains the heat of combination of bromine and iodine with magnesium, a carefully prepared summary of the proceedings of the Inter- by N. Beketoff (French).-On Seldjuk verses, by C. Saleman national Meteorological Conference at Munich from August 26 (in German). - Astronomical determinations in North Russia, by to September 2, 1891, by A. L. Rotch. As we have already O. Backlund (in German). -Remarks upon the Upper Silurian given a brief account of the Conference, and the report will deposits of the Baltic provinces, in connection with the work of shortly be published, we need not further refer to Mr. Rotch's Prof. W. Dames (with a map), by Prof. Fr. Schmidt. article.---The Meteorological station of Naha, Liukiu Islands, Japan, by Y. Wada, of the Tokio ObservatoryThe station

Memoirs of the Kazan Society of Naturalists, vol. xxiii., I to was established in July 1890, and is very favourably situated for 5, and Proceedings.-On the tundra of the Kanin peninsula, by the study of the typhoons of the China and Japan seas, as a

A. I. Jacoby, with a map. The author explored the western great many pass near the station. As soon as the island is con- coast, and gives many interesting facts as to the flora of the nected by telegraph with Kiushu it will be the most important

tundra and its inhabitants.-On the biology of the Helianthus of all the Japanese stations for storm-warnings on the coasts of annuus, by A. Gordyaghin. Having discovered that the leaves China, Corea, and Siberia. -The wind-rush at Washington,

of the sunflower are visited by nearly twenty different species D.C., on November 23, 1891, by Prof. H. A. Hazen. This

of insects, and that some of them, especially the ants (Myrmica violent gale was probably the most destructive that has ever

lavinodis and Lasius niger), suck the leaves, the author susbeen noted at that place. It passed across the city from a south

pected the existence of " extra-nuptial” nectariæ--the supposior south-west direction; the wind at the Weather Bureau reached

tion being confirmed by a similar observation previously made 60 miles per hour [80 miles and upwards have been

by Delpino; and he made experiments to ascertain whether recorded in this country), but the effects show that during the

drops of nectar do appear on the leaves. The observations gusts it must have been very much greater. A cloud-burst

have confirmed the supposition ; they are being continued.-On occurred during the gale, and the water in a canal which is 25

the noxious insects of the model farm of the Kazan School, by feet wide rose about 8 feet in a few minutes. The curve

A. Smirensky.- On the means of measuring the absorbing showing the barometric oscillation will be found in the Monthly power of the soil, by B. Sorokin. —The Proceedings contain: Weather Review for that month.

a list of 300 birds of the province of Astrachan, by W. Kleb.

nikoff ; the report of a Committee nominated for the exploraBulletin of the New York Mathematical Society, vol. i. No. 5 tion of the soil in the province of Kazan ; a note on the produce (New York, February). - This number opens with a care- of a dry distillation of birch bark ; and a report upon ornitho. fully drawn up account of Klein's modular functions, by F. N. logical researches in the province of Kazan, with a list of all Cole; the occasion being an able presentation of the theory noticed birds. in the work “Felix Klein: Vorlesungen iiber die Theorie der elliptischen Modulfunctionen, ausgearbeitet und vervollständigt von Dr. R. Fricke.” Of this Mr. Čole remarks: “The clearness of treatment and skilful grouping of the many intricate features of

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. the subject have rendered this theory now thoroughly accessible.

LONDON. Dr. Fricke has contributed many of the intermediate steps necessary to the symmetry and completeness of the subject." Zoological Society, April 5.-W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., The reviewer, also a pupil of Klein, supplies many little bits of in the chair. — The Secretary read a report on the additions personal narrative.—The next article is an abstract by “S. N.” that had been made to the Society's Menagerie during the of the periodic perturbations of the longitudes and radii month of March 1892.-Mr. Sclater exhibited and made vectores of the four inner planets of the first order as to the remarks on the heads of a pair of Swayne's Antelopes (Bubalis masses, computed under the direction of Simon Newcomb.- swaynei) obtained by Mr. J. W. K. Clarke and his party in Then follows a brief sketch of solution of questions in the Somali-land, and sent for exhibition by Messrs. Rowland Ward theory of probability and averages, by G. B. Zerr. This and Co.-Prof. F. Jeffrey Bell read a note regarding the real pamphlet forms Appendix ii. to the “Mathematical Questions habitat of the Land Planarian Bipalium kewense, which, as it ... from the Educational Times.”—The notes give a brief appeared, was indigenous to one of the South Pacific islands. -A account of the Proceedings of the Society, and also contain an communication was read from Mr. Edgar A. Smith, on the Land addendum to Prof. Hathaway's article (in No. 3), “Early Shells of St. Helena, based on a large and complete collection History of the Potential.'

of the terrestrial Mollusks of that island made by Captain W. H.

Mr. Bulletin de l'Académie des Sciences de St. Petersbourg, nou- Turton, R.E., and deposited in the British Museum.

Smith estimated the total number of truly indigenous species of velle série, t. ii., No. 2.-A preliminary communication (in German) upon the rocks collected by M. Lopatin on the living on the island-the remainder having been exterminated by

this group in St. Helena to be 27, of which 7 only are now Podkamennaya Tunguska. The series of Archaic rocks of the destruction of the primæval forests. -Mr. F. E. Beddard read Siberia, which formerly were described as dolerites, and which

some notes on the anatomy of the Indian Darter (Plotus melano. so constantly occur in Siberia, offer great difficulties as to their gaster), as observed in a specimen of this species recently living petrographical determination, well known to all geologists. The author now begins the publication of a most welcome of a Pheasant from the valley of Zarafshan in Central Asia,

in the Society's Gardens.-Mr. Seebohm exhibited a specimen monograph on these rocks, based upon no less than 450 samples which he referred to a new species, distinguishable from Ph. analyzed under the microscope. The extension of these rocks is principalis by its white collar, and proposed to call it Ph. immense, as they seem to spread, with small interruptions, in tarnovskii.- Mr. R. J. L. Guppy exhibited specimens of the the shape of an immense zone covering the space between 50° animal, the teeth and jaws, and the shell and egg of Bulimus and 70° N. lat., over Siberia, North America, South Greenland, oblongus, and remarked briefly thereon.- Mr. G. B. Sowerby Ireland, Scotland, Norway, Sweden, and North Russia. The read descriptions of seven new species of Land-Shells from the author describes them as “Palæozoic traps,” or typical “plagio. United States of Colombia.-A communication was read from clase-pyroxene-olivine rocks," which offer all possible gradations Mr. W. Schaus, containing descriptions of some new species in their evolution. The communication being but a preliminary of Lepidoptera Heterocera from Brazil, Mexico, and Peru. one, nine different "types" are described and illustrated.-On a new leucite rock from the same locality, by the same Geological Society, March 23.-W. H. Hudleston, author, also illustrated by a plate.-On the Perseids ob- F.R.S., President, in the chair.—The following communications served in Russia in 1890, by Th. Bredichin (in French). The were read :-On the occurrence of the so-called Viverra observations were made by several astronomers at Pulkova, Hastingsiæ of Hordwell in the French phosphorites, by Ostrogojsk, Kineshma, Moscow, and Libau. The weather R. Lydekker. --Note on two Dinosaurian foot-bones from the was not favourable from August 1 to 9, and quite unfavourable Wealden, by R. Lydekker.-On the microscopic structure, and on the 12th and 13th. Nevertheless, the author arrives at in- residues insoluble in hydrochloric acid, in the Devonian Limeteresting results in comparing the centres of radiation of the stone of South Devon, by Edw. Wethered. Microscopic meteors in 1890 with the orbit of the comet 1862 III. The examination of the Devonian Limestones of South Devon shows centres of radiation are given on a separate plate.-Combina- ! that they have been built up by calcareous organisms, but that the outlines of the structure have for the most part become Clarke's Antelope (both recently described species), which, like obliterated by molecular changes, and the limestones are often the Zebra skin, had been lately brought from Somali-land by rendered crystalline In connection with this the author alludes Mr. Merewether.-Mr. W. S. D'Urban exhibited specimens of to the disturbances which have affected the limestones. He the shell-slug Testacella maugei from Devonshire.- A paper was finds occasional rhombohedra of dolomite, and discusses the then read by Mr. D, Morris, on the phenomena concerned in probability of their derivation from magnesian silicates contained the production of forked and branched palms, the conclusions in the rocks. A description of the insoluble residues follows. arrived at being the following :-(1) Branching is habitual in The micas, the author considers, may be of detrital origin, but certain species of Hyphæne ; occasional in others, and occasional this is by no means certain ; he is disposed to consider that the also in the genera Areca, Rhopalostylis, Dictyosperma, Oreozircons, tourmaline, and ordinary rutile were liberated by the doxa, Leopoldinia, Phoenix, &c. (2) Branching in many cases decomposition of crystals in which they were originally included. results from injury to or destruction of the terminal bud, causing Minute crystals, referred to as “microlithic needles," resemble the development of axillary or adventitious buds below the apex : “clay-slate needles,” but are not always straight : they occur these buds when lengthened out produce branches. (3) In some in every fine residue, and as inclusions in siliceous and micaceous cases, as in Nannorhops ritchieana and Phenix sylvestris, flakes. The siliceous fragments which inclose them frequently branching is caused by the replacement of flowering buds by contain many liquid inclusions, which does not necessarily branch buds. In such cases the branches are usually short, and imply any connection between the two, though there may are arranged alternately along the stem. The terminal bud possibly be some connection. Micro-crystals of quartz occur, is apparently neither injured nor destroyed.-A paper by Mr. and have been derived from decomposing silicates. The reading A. W. Waters, on the gland-like bodies in the Bryozoa, was, in of this paper was followed by a discussion, in which Dr. Sorby, the absence of the author, read by Mr. W. Percy Sladen. Prof. Bonney, Dr. Hicks, Prof. Rupert Jones, the President, and others took part.

Dublin.

Royal Society, March 16.-Prof. W. Noel Hartley, F.R.S., April 6.-W. H. Hudle: ton, F.K.S., President, in the

in the chair. - Prof. Haddon presented a paper by Prof. chair.— The following communications were read :-Geology F. Jeffrey Bell on the Echinoderms collecied during the of the gold-bearing rocks of the Southern Transvaal, by Society's fishery survey of the west coast of Ireland. Psolus, Walcot Gibson. The author describes the general characteristics of the rocks of the Southern Transvaal, and gives a sum

sp. juv, was recorded for the first time from Ireland (500

fathoms), Astropecten sphenoplax, n. sp. (500 fathoms). Amongst mary of previous work on the area ; he then discusses the

other rarities Asthenosoma hystrix was largely represented ; the physical relations of the gold-bearing conglomerates and assovarious rocks in detail. He concludes that the gold-bearing regard A. (Calveria) fenestratum as a synonym of A. h;strix.-, ciated rocks in the Witwatersrandt district, and describes the specimens differ so much that were it not for intermediate forms,

more than one species might be described. Prof. Bell proposes to conglomerates and the quartzites and shales of the Witwatersrandt district (wbich have undergone considerable metamorphism) Standard Gauge, to help in appreciating the small ultra-visible

G. Johnstone Stoney, F.R.S., read a paper entitled " Proposed form one series, of which the base and summit are not seen ; quantities that have to be taken into account in studying Molethat this series is much newer than the gneisses and granites on cular Physics." The gauge is wedge-shaped. The base of the the eroded edges of which they rest, and older than the coal- wedge is formed by taking Angström's normal map of the solar bearing beds which unconformably overlie them; that the entire spectrum, and extending its scale (the degrees of which are series associated with the gold-bearing beds has been thrust over millimetres) both ways, till it reaches zero in one direction and the gneisses, and was not originally deposited in its present 10,000 in the other. The gauge is then completed by erecting position, the movements having taken place in two directions, viz, from south to north and from east to west ; that, after the

a micron or sixthet-metre (sixthet, the fraction represented by

one in the sixth place of decimals) over the 10,000 mark and cessation of these movements, the strata were injected with basic drawing the inclined plane from the top of this to the zero mark and sub-basic igneous material, and much of the country was flooded with lavas of the same character ; and that the conglo- with a gradient of one in 10,000,000, lying upon

at the other end. The gauge is thus a wedge ten metres long,

Ångström's merates have been formed mainly at the expense of the underTying granites and gneisses, which were largely threaded with

map ; and the wave-length of any solar ray is the ordinate (the auriferous quartz-veins and contained larger masses of quartz. perpendicular distance from the base line of the gauge up to its The author then describes the geology of districts outside the sloping top) immediately over the line representing it in the typical area, which, though at first sight more complex, are

map. The wave-lengths of visible light are the ordinates of really simpler than that of the typical area. The conclusions

this gauge extending from 76 to 3.8 metres from its apex. At arrived at from an examination of these areas confirm the results

between 3 and 2 metres from the apex we reach an ordinate of the study of the rocks of the Witwatersrandt district. The

which is the minimum visibile (the least separation between reading of this paper was followed by a discussion, in which

two points which will admit of their being seen as iwo with the President, Prof. Green, Mr. Attwood, Mr. Topley, Mr.

waves so coarse as those of light). The ordinate at one metre Alford, Prof. Lapworth, and Mr. Teall took part. The from the end is the seventhet-metre (or metre x '000,000, 1).

The average distance to which the molecules of air dart in precipitation and deposition of sea-borne sediment, by R. G. Mackley Browne. The author discusses the mode of deposition three-quarters of a metre from the

apex (Phil

. Mag. for August

the intervals between their encounters is the ordinate at about of current-borne sediment upon the ocean-floors, and considers the effects of current-action in sisting the material and causing it

1868, p. 138). The ordinate of the gauge at I decimetre to accumulate into stratified linear ridges having directions

from its apex is the eighthet-metre (or metre X 000,000,01). generally parallel with those of the currents--the dip of the

The ordinate at one centimetre from the apex is the ninthetstrata varying according to the velocity of the currents. He

metre (or metre x '000,000,001). This is about the average considers that the conclusions deducible from his analysis ap

interval at which the molecules of a gas are spaced, when pear to be in accord with the evidence afforded by the structure

the gas is at the temperature and pressure of ordinary air of ancient subaqueous sedimentary deposits.

(loc. cit., p. 140). The ordinate at one millimetre from the

apex is the tenthet-metre (or metre x '000,000,000, 1). This is Linnean Society, April 7.-Prof. Stewart, President, in somewhere about the “size" of a gaseous molecule, meaning the chair. -Mr. Spencer Moore exhibited and made remarks | by this the distance within which the centres of two molecules upon some samples of Maté or Paraguayan tea recently must come in order that an encounter may take place-that is, brought by him from South America.—Mr. J. Tristram Valentine that they may be able sensibly to bend each other's path. It exhibited a skin of Grevy's Zebra, recently brought from Somali. may also be taken as about the distance to which the average land by Mr. H. D. Merewether, who had purchased it from a interval between the centres of the gaseous molecules is reduced caravan arriving from the Southern Dolbahanta country, to the when the gas is condensed into a liquid or solid. This is the south-east of Berbera. Although it corresponded in the character smallest magnitude for which the gauge is proposed as conand disposition of the stripes with the type specimen from Shoa, venient. Within the last-mentioned small range numerous and and with a skin in the British Museum from Berbera (P.Z.S., coinplicated events are known to take place, viz. all those that 1890, p. 413), it differed in the stripes being brown upon a pale go on within the molecules, among which are those that sandy or rufescent ground, instead of black upon a white ground. originate the lines in the spectra of gases. Whenever any way It was suggested that this might be the desert form, the type of estimating these quantitatively shall be discovered, we shall specimen representing the mountain form.-Mr.' Tristram want another and more acute-angled gauge to help us in Valentine also exhibited horns of Swayne's Hartebeest and appreciating them.

cases.

PARIS.

He believes the result of this experiment may be extended Academy of Sciences, April 11.-M. d'Abbadie in the to the case of man.-Dr. Schweizer had investigated the behaviour chair. -On a new determination of the latitude of Paris Obser- of spermatozoa towards electric currents. Only in a few cases vatory, by M. l'Amiral Mouchez. (See Our Astronomical

was he able to observe that some of the more active ones swam Column). —Note by M. l'Amiral Mouchez, accompanying a against the current. He found that the position they assumed star photograph obtained by Dr. Gill, Director of the Cape in parallel rows with their heads turned towards the kathode Observatory. (See Our Astronomical Column.)-On the flow was not in any way a result of their vitality. from rectangular orifices, without lateral contraction : theoretical Physical Society, March 25.-Prof. Kundt, President, in calculation of the delivery and of its distribution, by M. J. the chair, —Dr. Mewes spoke on emission and absorption.—Dr. Boussinesq.-On the absorption of light by tourmaline, by Gross, in his experiments, extending over many years, on the M. A. Potier.-Researches on persulphuric acid and its salts, decomposition of sulphur has recently tested it' electrolyticalty. by M. Berthelot.-On the stability of the sand dunes of the Bay Barium and strontium sulphate were fused in a silver crucible, of Biscay, by M. Chambrelent. A long account is given of the which formed one electrode, and a powerful electric current sent inethods that have been adopted to prevent the encroachment of through the mass by means of a second electrode of platinum sand along the coast of the Bay of Biscay.--Note by M. Dehérain, wire. Analyses of the products resulting from the electrolysis accompanying the presentation of his “ Traité de Chimie Agri- yielded a new compound of platinum and barium ; at the same cole."--On a new genus of Cretaceous Echinoids, Dipneustes time 50 per cent. of the sulphur, originally present as sulphates, aturicus, Arnaud, by M. G. Cotteau.-Experimental study of was found to have disappeared, and its place to have been taken the decimal equation in observations of the sun and planets, by 40 per cent. of a new substance, which the speaker had also made at Lyons Observatory, by MM. André and Gonnessiat. -- obtained during the electrolysis of sulphur. According to his On the latitude obtained by means of the great meridian circle views, sulphur is to be regarded as a compound of this new of Paris Observatory, by M. Périgaud. -On a series of determi. substance with hydrogen. - Dr. Budde described new experinations of latitude made with the great meridian circle of Paris ments on the inert layer in emulsions of chloroform and soda, Observatory, by M. F. Boquet.- Observations of Swift's comet which confirmed him in his view that the layer is due to the (1892 March 6) and Denning's comet (1892 March 18) made with rapid evaporation of chloroform from the upper surface of the the great equatorial of Bordeaux Observatory, by MM. G. Rayet mixture. A mixture of chloroform and water is even more suitable and L. Picart.-On the theory of Jupiter's satellites, by M. J. J. for the experiments, and, since chloroform is more soluble in cold Landerer. (For the five preceding communications see Our i than in warm water, he takes a solution of chloroform saturated Astronomical Column.)-On transformations in mechanics, by in water at oo, and then warms it 10 20°; at the latter temM. P. Painlevé.-On the evaluation of the numbers of permu- perature the chloroform separates out in minute drops, yielding tations and complete circular arrangements, by M. E. Jablonski. a perfectly opaque emulsion, while the upper layer remains clear, -On the specific heats of metals, by M. Le Verrier. The owing to the evaporation of the chloroform. When this upper author has measured the specific heats of lead, zinc, aluminium, layer is removed by a pipette it remains clear, and must theresilver, and copper, at various temperatures between oo and fore contain less chloroform than the lower saturated portions. 1000° C.-On the polarization of diffused light by disturbed The regular configuration of the inert layer in vessels of varying media, by M. A. Hurion.-On the decomposition of silver shape had been at one time regarded by Dr. Budde, in agreepermanganate and on a particular association of oxygen with ment with Liebreich, as due to capillary action. His more silver oxide, by M. Alex. Gorgeu.-On some new salts of iron, recent researches have, on the other hand, shown that it is due by MM, Lachaud and C. Lepierre. --Action of sulphuric acid to currents in the fluid resulting from differences of temperature, on some cyclic hydrocarbides, by M. Maquenne. - Researches and may therefore be altered at will. When the external temon some sugar principles, by M. J. Fogh.-On the formation of perature is lower than that of the fluid, downward currents are oxyhæmoglobin by means of hæmatine and albuminoid matter, established along the walls of the vessel, upward currents in the by MM. H. Bertin-Sans and J. Moiressier. -Law regarding the centre of the fluid, and the meniscus is convex : when the exappearance of the first epiphysiary point of long bones, by ternal temperature is higher, the reverse effect is produced, and M. Alexis Julien.-On an apparatus which enables Paul Bert's the meniscus is concave. experiments on air and compressed oxygen to be easily repeated, April 8.-Prof. du Bois Reymond, President, in the by M. G. Philippon.-Distinguishing characters of ovine and chair. - Dr. Lammer gave an account of alterations made caprine species : applications to the study of Chabins and

by him, in conjunction with Dr. Brodhan, on a spectroMouflons, by MM. Cornevin and Lesbre. - Halo seen at Parc photometer, with a view to improving the photometric part de Baleine (Allier) on April 6, by M. de Montessus de Ballore. of the instrument by the introduction of his glass-cube. In -Research on the geographical and geological conditions which

connection with the above, Dr. Lammer went very fully into characterize earthquake regions, by M. de Montessus de Ballore. Prof. Abbe's theoretical researches on the delineation of non

luminous objects, which had been made during the latter's BERLIN.

studies on the mode of action of microscopes, and transferred Physiological Society, March 18.-Prof du Bois Rey, the results arrived at by Abbe to the conditions existing in a mond, President, in the chair.—Dr. Gumlich described experi spectrophotometer. nents made on himself on the urinary excretion of nitrogen. Ile had determined separately total nitrogen, nitrogen of urea,

Meteorological Society, April 5.—Prof. Schwalbe, Preof ammonia, and of the extractives during periods with a mixed sident, in the chair.-Dr. Sprung spoke on atmospheric rings, diet, a pure flesh diet, and a vegetable diet. During the second

and explained the formation of solar and lunar rings as the the nitrogen excreted as urea increased until it amounted to

result of refraction of parallel solar rays in ice-prisms. The 85-6 per cent, of the total nitrogen, and that excreted as ex

priso.s must be three-sided, and the maximal intensity of light tractives and ammonia was also greater than during a mixed

is obtained when the angle of entry and exit from the prism is diet. During a vegetarian diet the urea nitrogen markedly dimin. 22°, in which case the deviation is minimal

. Solar and lunar ished ; that of the extractives and ammonia was also absolutely

halos are the result of the bending which light undergoes at the less than with a meat diet, although it had increased relatively edges of minute ice- particles. The phenomenon can be obto the re-t.-Dr von Norden communicated, in connection

served by strewing lycopodium powder on a sheet of glass, and with the above, an extended series of determinations of urinary looking at a flame through this film. The speaker further nitrogen made on patients suffering from different diseases;

exhibited some photographs of rings and halos, explained the among these two cases of phosphorus poisoning were of special and gave the formulæ involved in the calculation of the phe

conditions which are necessary for their successful production, interest.

nomena.-Dr. Schumbert made a communication in connection April_1.-Prof. du Bois Reymond, President, in the with Dr. Lachmann's (see report of previous meeting), and gave chair. --Dr. Lilienfeld had found that the influence of

a synopsis of temperature maxima and minima observed at leucocytes on the clotting of blood is due entirely to their woodland stations, both in the woods and just outside them. nuclei, the stroma being quite inert. He isolated the che

Some interesting differences were observed, depending upon mically active substance from the leucocytes of the thymus the kind of trees and the position of the thermometer. After gland, and calls it leuconuclein.--Dr. Rosenberg had investigated some remarks by Dr. Lachmann on a paper by von Bebber in on a dog working in a tread-mill the assimilation of a diet con

Himmel und Erde on the same subject, Dr. Hofmann in consisting of definite portions of lean meat, fat, and rice during clusion exhibited an apparatus for registering the observation of periods of work and repose, and found it to be the same in both

meteors.

AMSTERDAM

INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.-Electric-Light Measuring In

struments : James Swinburne. Royal Academy of Sciences, April 2.- Prof, van de

PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, at 8. Sande Bakhuyzen in the chair. -Mr. Kapteyn communicated ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-The Sculpturing of Britain-its Later Stages: the result of a discussion of a great part of the photographs

Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S. taken at the Cape Observatory under the direction of Her

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 27. Majesty's Astronomer, D. Gill. The diameters of the stars on GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Notes on the Geology of the Northern 370 of these photographs, covering an area of nearly 9000

Etbai or Eastern Desert of Egypt: with an Account of the Emerald

Mines : Ernest A. "Floyer.-The Rise and Fall of Lake Tanganyika : square degrees of the sky, have been compared to the visual

Alex, Carson. (Communicated by R. Kidston.) magnitudes of these stars according to the estimations of Messrs. ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 7. Gould and Schönfeld. It is shown that for stars of equal visual

British ASTRONOMICAL Association, at 5. brightness the actinic effect on the plates has been considerably

THURSDAY, APRIL 28. greater for the stars situated in or near the Milky Way, than for

Royal Society, at 4. 30. stars situated in considerable galactic latitudes. The different

INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Notes on the Light of the

Electric Arc: A. P. Trotter. causes that may have co-operated to produce this phenomenon ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.—The Chemistry of Gases: Prof. Dewar, have been carefully considered, and the conclusion is arrived at, F.R.S. that neither influences of meteorological causes, nor causes of

FRIDAY, APRIL 29. systematically different sensitivity of ihe plates, are sufficient to

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 7.30.- The Steam-Hammer and its account for it ; and that the systematic errors in the estimations of Relation to the Hydraulic Forging-Press : H. H. Vaughan. the visual magnitudes are, in all probability, of secondary import

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.–The Physiology of Dreams: Dr. B.

Richardson, F.R.S. ance. It seems very probable, therefore, that the principal cause must be sought in peculiarities of the light of the stars themselves.

SATURDAY, APRIL 30. The fact discovered by Mr. Pickering, that the Milky Way ROYAL INSTITUTION, ar 3.-J. S. Bach's Chamber Music (with many

Musical Illustrations): E. Dannreuther. must be considered as an aggregation of stars of the first type explains only a small fraction (not o'i mag.) of the differences found. Mr. Kapteyn therefore thinks that we are driven to BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. the conclusion that the light of the stars of the first type in the Books.-Blowpine Analysis, and edition : J. Landauer; translated by Milky Way is considerably richer in violet rays than the light of l Taylor (Macmillan), - Air Comprimé ou Raréfié ; A. Gouilly (Paris,

Gauthier-Villars).-La Distribution de l'Electricité, Installations Isolées : stars of the same type in great galactic latitudes. From this would R. V. Picou (Paris, Gauthier-Villars). -Résistance des Matériaux : M. follow, according to the researches of Mr. Pickering, that the same Duquesney (Paris, Gauthier-Villars).-Machine à Vapeur: V. Dwelschaumust hold for stars of the other spectral types. In the mean

vers-Dery (Paris, Gauthier-Villars). - Elements of Materia Medica and while direct photometric and photographic experiments seem

Therapeutics : C. E. A. Semple (Longmans).-Fruit Culture: J. Cheal

Hunt very desirable, in order to prove the reality of the phenomenon (Simpkin).

(Bell). --- My Water-cure : S. Kneipp (Grevel). -Color-vision : by more direct evidence than is contained in the plates of the PAMPHLET.-On the Physics of Media: J. J. Waterston (Kegan Paul). Photographic Survey. Such experiments have been already

Serials.-The Asclepiad, No. 33, vol. ix. (Longmans). Geological undertaken by the Cape Observatory.--Mr. Hubrecht gave an

Magazine, April (K. Paul). Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society,

3rd series, vol. iii. Part 1 (Murray).-Himmel und Erde, April (Berlin, account of the placentation of certain Lemurs and Insectivora, Paetel).-The Annals of Scottish Natural History, No. 2 (Edinburgh, as a result of his recent excursion in the Indian Archipelago. Douglas). -- Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, No. 96. The placenta of Tarsius spectrum is a discoid one, and differs from

vol. xxi. (Spon)-The Eagle, March (Cambridge, Johnson). - Journal of

Anatomy and Physiology, vol. xxvi. Part 3 (Williams and Norgate). -Mind, that of other Lemuroids hitherto known, in which a diffused dis

April (Williams and Norgate). –Massachusetts Institute of Technology, tribution of villi over the whole surface of the chorion has been Boston, Annual Catalogue, 1891-92 (Boston).- Journal of the Royal observed. In Nycticebus this coating loses its villous character

Statistical Society, March (Stanford). - Journal of the Chemical Society, at one pole of the egg in the latest stages of pregnancy. Certain

April (Gurney and Jackson). – Bulletin de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences

de St. Petersbourg, ncuvelle série, ii., xxxiv., feuilles 34-41.-- The Engineer stages of the discoid placenta of Galeopithecus were further ing Magazine, April (New York). described, as was also the double placenta of Tupaja javanica, each placenta having a reniform shape, these being situated right and left of the embryo, which has its ventral surface turned

CONTENTS.

PAGE towards the mesometrium.--Mr. Pekelharing reported on his

The Yahgan

577 further investigations about the coagulation of the blood. He Quantitative Analysis. By J. W. R.

578 states that the A. fibrinogen of Wooldridge is the same substance Astronomy

579 which can be precipitated from the diluted plasma by acetic

Our Book Shelf:acid, viz. a nucleo-albumin, the zymogen that, by combination Cheal : “ Practical Fruit Culture'

579 with lime, forms fibrin ferment. Wooldridge's tissue-fibrinogen is Landauer : “Blowpipe Analysis”

580 also a nucleo-albumin from which can be obtained, by treating it Letters to the Editor :with lime-salts, fibrin ferment. In accordance with Dr. Wright, Prehistory of Egypt.-W. M. Flinders Petrie Mr. Pekelharing has found that, in the dog and in the rabbit, an Aphanapteryx in the New Zealand Region.-Prof. albumose can be split off from the nucleo-albumin, and in this Henry O. Forbes manner the formation of the fibrin ferment can be prevented, or Pigments of Lepidoptera.-F. Gowland Hopkins the action of the ferment already formed can be paralyzed.

C.G.S. System of Units. --O. H, Tittmann ; Prof.

J. D. Everett, F.R.S.

Influenza in America.-Prof. Edward S. Holden
DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

Dust Counting on Ben Nevis. By Angus Rankin. 582
LONDON.

Abstract of Mr. A. Ricco's Account of the SubTHURSDAY, APRIL 21

marine Eruption North-west of Pantelleria, LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-On some New Plants from China : W. B. October 1891. (Illustrated.) By G. W. Butler

584 Hemsley, F.R.S.-On the Relation of the Acaridæ to the Arachnida : H. Giraffes. M. Bernard.

Notes CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.

585 Our Astronomical Column:FRIDAY, APRIL 22. INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 7.30.—The Speed and Power of

Astronomy at the Paris Academy, April 11
Locomotives: Edmund L. Hill.

Solar Heat
SATURDAY, APRIL 23.

Periodic Variations in Latitude
Royal BOTANIC Society, at 3.45.

Recent Advances in Physical Chemistry. By Prof.
MONDAY, APRIL 25,
W. Ostwald

590 ARISTOTELIAN SOCIETY, at 8.-Prof. Wm. James's Treatment of Self: G. The General Circulation of the Atmosphere. By Dawes Hicks,

Dr. J. M. Pernter .

593 TUESDAY, APRIL 26

Relation of v. ltaic Electromotive Force to MoleANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, at 8.30.-The Social and Religious Ideas

of the Chinese, as illustrated in the Ideographic Characters of the cular Velocity. By Dr. G. Gore, F.R.S.
Language : Prof. R. K. Douglas. -The Mythology and Psychology of Scientific Serials .
the Ancient Egyptians : Joseph Offord, Jun.

Societies and Academies

597 Royal STATISTICAL Society, at 7.45. -An Inquiry into the Statistics of the Production and Consumption of Milk and Milk Products in Great

Diary of Societies

600 Britain: R. Henry Rew.

Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received

600

580

581 581

581

582

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585

589 589 589

596 596

when changes of composition accompany changes of THURSDAY, APRIL 28, 1892.

properties in definite kinds of matter. If this were done we should not be deluged with those catalogues of the

properties of innumerable disconnected substances which THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY.

are frequently sold under the misleading name of textOutlines of Theoretical Chemistry. By Lothar Meyer, books of chemistry. Professor of Chemistry in the University of Tübingen.

The paragraphs on the determination of atomic weights Translated by P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc., and w. from stoïchiometric values (pp. 11-13) seem to me exCarleton Williams, B.Sc. Pp. 220. (London : Long- tremely lucid and apposite, provided the reader will give mans, Green, and Co., 1892.)

his close attention to them. I do not think the subject of

chemical equivalents is treated sufficiently fully to make “GOOD OOD wine needs no bush," but a well-known bush

it clear (pp. 13-16). Paragraph 13 does not make makes one look for good wine. The translation of Prof. Lothar Meyer's “Die Modernen Theorien der perfectly intelligible the process whereby atomic weights

are determined from the crystallographic relations of Chemie,” made by Messrs. Bedson and Williams, is so compounds. I am much taken by the order in which well known and so appreciated by all English-speaking the author arranges his treatment of combining weights, chemists, that everyone welcomes a new book by the equivalents, thermic equivalents, crystallographic equivaauthor of “Modern Theories,” and expects the book to lents, &c., culminating in Avogadro's law. The deterbe a good one. The “ Outlines of Theoretical Chemistry” mination of atomic weights by the application of the law is a translation, by the translators of the “ Modern of Avogadro is made very clear in a couple of paragraphs Theories," of a book published in German in the course (pp. 39-42); and the author is especially to be congratuof last year. The translation is exceedingly well done ; lated, in my opinion, on paragraph 26, wherein he most the English runs smoothly and lucidly; the book reads skilfully and gracefully avoids the popular error of making as if it were composed in English, rather than as a trans

a stumbling-block of so-called “abnormal vapour-densilation from another tongue.

ties.” The subject matter of this book is very similar to that

Paragraph 28, which deals in about thirty lines with of “Modern Theories"; details are avoided wherever the

nascent state," would much better have been omitted ; author thought this could be done with advantage, and the treatment is neither interesting nor accurate. It the treatment is made as general as possible. In his

seems to me that paragraphs 34-40, which are supposed preface to the English translation the author says :

to give a clear general conception of the periodic law, “The general-I may say the philosophical review quite fail to enable the student to grasp this all-important of the subject has been my chief aim, to which the details generalization. I think that much too little space is should be subordinated.”

given to the periodic law, which comprises in itself all The book is not divided into chapters, but runs

other schemes of chemical classification ; and that too on from paragraph to paragraph. Beginning with a much space is devoted to valency, which, at the best, is statement of the province of chemistry, the author a conception that is of very limited application. Anyone passes in review the stoïchiometric laws, sketches the who turns from the study of Mendeleeff's great work on atomic hypothesis, considers the various aspects of “The Principles of Chemistry” to the paragraph on chemical equivalents, states and applies the law of p. 76 will be greatly astonished; the paragraph reads Avogadro, refers to Prout's notions about the relations thus :between the values of atomic weights, and states and

“Formerly it was more or less explicitly assumed that briefly illustrates the periodic law ; he then considers in

a chemical compound was held together by the total several paragraphs the constitution of compounds in the attractive force of the affinities of all the atoms contained light of the molecular and atomic theory, and, through a in it; but, as our knowledge increased, it was gradually short discussion of physical isomerism, he passes to the recognized that the connexion is between atom and consideration of such physical properties of bodies as

atom, and that the atoms are attached to each other like

the links in a chain, the continuity ceasing if even a melting and boiling point, capillarity, solubility, evapora- single link of the chain is removed." tion, &c., and the connexions between these and the molecular weights and constitutions of bodies. Finally

This sentence seems to imply that no one now looks the author devotes some fifty or sixty paragraphs to the on a molecule as held together by the interactions between treatment of the thermal and electrical aspects of chemical all the atoms; but if one says this view is held by none, one changes, and the subject of chemical affinity.

must make a few exceptions, such as Mendeleeff and the At the outset the essential character of chemical chemists of his school. The treatment of atomic linkage phenomena is emphasized :-

on pp. 80-83 seems to me to be very one-sided and un

satisfactory. We are told (p. 81) that such a formula as “Chemistry deals with the changes which affect the H,0.Soz is inadmissible because it represents the commaterial nature of the substance. Chemistry, then, is the science which treats of matter and its changes” (p. 2).

pound as made up of atomic groups which are already

saturated, and “therefore have no free affinities for It is to be wished that all writers of books, whether mutual combination ”; but on p. 107 we are informed elementary or advanced books, on chemistry, and all who that, in substances which crystallize with water, “every endeavour to help others to learn this science, would keep molecule is united with a definite number of molecules of steadily before them the characteristic feature of all water." But how can water molecules unite with, say, chemical events, viz. that they are those which occur dehydrated alum, if the group H,0 is saturated and “has

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