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Perissodactyle-like Ungulate, somewhat more specialized together with Acrotherium seems to show that these as regards its dentition than Macrauchenia, but exhibiting South American Ungulates ran riot in the disregard of strongly-marked Artiodactyle affinities in the ankle-joint. all rules as to the number and arrangement of their

Still more remarkable are the generalized affinities dis- teeth. The genus in question is Trigodon, founded played by the group known as the Toxodonts, of which upon the lower jaw of an animal about the size of a pig, the first representative was also discovered during Darwin's but evidently related in the structure of its cheek-teeth to memorable voyage. These Ungulates cannot be included Toxodon. In this mandible the middle of the extremity in either the Perissodactyla or Artiodactyla, and, there of the long and narrow symphysis is occupied by a single fore, come nearer the original generalized Ungulate stock cylindrical incisor tooth, flanked by a pair of larger inthan the animals already noticed. Toxodon, from the cisors, and these, again, by the still larger triangular Pleistocene of Argentina, was of the approximate size of canines. If normal (and from Dr. Moreno's description a Hippopotamus, änd its osteology is tolerably well known. and figure it would seem to be so) this single median It takes its name from the curvature of the molar teeth, incisor is totally unique in the whole mammalian class. which approximate in structure to those of the Rhinoceros, A still more remarkable and puzzling group is typically and, like the incisors, have ever-growing roots. The front represented by the long-known 7 ypotherium from some of teeth are separated from the cheek-teeth by a consider- the Tertiaries of Argentina, which, while presenting many able interval ; the upper dental series being reduced in dental characters connecting it with the Toxodonts, has number by the loss of the outermost incisors and the upper incisors resembling those of the Rodents ; with canines, and the lower by the disappearance of the first most of which it also agrees in the presence of clavicles, premolars; the lower canine is, moreover, rudimentary. which are invariably absent in all true Ungulates. The The feet conform to the Perissodactyle type in having number of the teeth is similar to that obtaining in many three toes, of nearly equal size, and also in the inter- Rodents, with the exception that there are two pairs of locking of the bones of the upper and lower rows of the lower incisors. An allied type has, however, three pairs wrist- and ankle-joints. In the absence of a third tro of these teeth, thus departing further from the Rodent chanter to the femur, and also in the articulation of the type ; and the skull of both genera is constructed on the fibula with the calcaneal bone of the ankle, as well as Ungulate plan. All the teeth are rootless. From other in the structure of the palatal and iympanic regions of beds in Argentina we have the genus described as Hegetothe skull, Toxodon is, however, constructed on a decided therium, which, while having rootless teeth, differs from Artiodactyle type ; so that its characters are to a great Typotherium in possessing the whole typical series of 44, extent intermediate between the existing members of the without any marked interval between them. Here, then, two groups.

we have almost entirely lost the Rodent features which are Going back to the earlier Tertiaries of Argentina and so marked in Typotherium, and thus revert nearer to a Patagonia, a number of Ungulates allied to Toxodon, normal Ungulate type; it is unknown whether clavicles but with much more generalized characters, have been were present. Still more generalized is an allied group brought to light. The skulls from Patagonia brought typified by Interatherium, in which the dentition is back by Darwin, and named Nesodon, also belong to this always complete, the anterior premolars have distinct same generalized group. In Nesodon there is the full roots, and the incisors conical roots. This genus and complement of 44 teeth ; and the same formula also the allied Protypotherium thus appear to be connected obtains in the recently described Protoxodon, in which both with Typotherium and the Toxodonts; the specific the feet are known to have been tridactylous in both name rodens applied to one of the species of Protypolimbs, although retaining rudiments of the metacarpals therium apparently indicating the existence of Rodentof the first and second digits, and being of a longer and like upper incisors. more slender type than in Toxodon. The allied animals The existence of these intermediate forms renders it described as Acrotherium, some of which were about the exceedingly difficult to come to any satisfactory conclusize of a pig, present a peculiarity totally unknown among sion as to whether Typotherium really has any genetic

a other O'ngulates ; and, indeed, in any Eutherian Mammals affinity with the Rodents (among which it was placed by except some individuals of the small African long-eared the late Mr. Alston); for if there be such relationship it fox (Otocyon). This peculiarity consists in the presence would seem to imply the descent of all Rodents from a of eight cheek-teeth on either side of each jaw; the con- form more or less closely allied to Interatherium-a view stancy of this character being proved by its occurrence which can scarcely be maintained. in a considerable number of specimens. Whereas, how- That these Typotheroids were, however, in some ever, in Otocyon the eight cheek-teeth are reckoned as manner connected with the Toxodonts is tolerably clear ; four premolars and four true molars, in Acrotherium and there are nearly equally clear indications of a more there are said to be five premolars and three true molars. or less distant connection between the Toxodonts and If this interpretation be correct, it is difficult to point out the Macrauchenias. The most probable explanation of a probable derivation for this most remarkable type of the latter relationship is that both groups took origin from dentition, since no other heterodont mammals are definitely generalized Ungulates allied to those found in the Eocene of known to have more than four premolars.

the United States, and known as the Condylarthra, which If, however, the cheek-teeth really prove to be four appear to have been the common ancestral stock of both premolars and four true molars, there might be a possi- the Artiodactyle and Perissodactyle modifications of the bility of direct inheritance of the fourth molar of the order. On this view the retention of characters common Marsupials, although even then there is the difficulty to both the groups last-mentioned by the Toxodonts and that none of the Lower Eocene Ungulates of the United Macrauchenias is readily accounted for; the MacrauStates are known to have possessed more than three of chenias having acquired sufficiently well-marked Perissothese teeth. And the probability accordingly suggests dactyle characters to admit of their inclusion in that itself that the additional tooth may be an acquired re- group, while the Toxodonts cannot be placed in either dundancy. There are a number of other more or less of the two existing divisions of typical Ungulates. Having closely allied types which have received distinct generic thus diverged at an early epoch (perhaps in the neighnames, such as Colpodon and Adinotherium, but it is at bourhood of Central America) from the original generalpresent somewhat difficult to realize all their distinctive ized Ungulate stock, the ancestral Toxodonts and features and peculiarities. One genus, however, if the Macrauchenias become the dominant forms in South specimen on which it was established is normal, is so America, where they appear to have developed into remarkable as to call for special notice; and taken

such numerous and unexpected modifications of struc610

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the existence of these puzzling and aberrant types need
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4'5 THE CHANGEFULNESS OF TEMPERATURE December ...

67
AS AN ELEMENT OF CLIMATE.
ONE
NE of the features in which the climates of great

Year
continents most contrast with those of oceanic

31

47 islands, and those of higher latitudes with the climates of the tropics, is the greater range through which the temperature varies between night and day, and between confirmed by the general tables, that temperature is sub

These three stations serve to illustrate the fact, amply winter and summer. Another, perhaps not less important, is the greater changefulness of the temperature ject to greater and more rapid changes in the winter from day to day. Both of these are comprised under

than in the summer ; either December or January being, the general expression variability of temperature, and

as a rule, the month of greatest variability. they are similar in their effects on living organisms, but

Since the publication of this memoir, the inquiry thus they depend on very different causes, and in their local started by Dr. Hann has been followed up by several association are often manifested in very different

writers with especial reference to particular countries. degrees ; places with a great annual and diurnal range

Prof. O. Döring, for instance, has thus discussed the of temperature, displaying great constancy of climate statistics of the Argentine Republic ; Herr E. Wahlén,

those of 18 stations in Russia; Dr. V. Kremer, those of at any given season of the year, while others, at which the former variations are moderate in amount, are,

57 stations in Northern Germany; and Mr. Robert Scott, nevertheless, subject to irregular vicissitudes of consider

those of 7 observatories in the British Isles, at which the able magnitnde. The Punjab and Sind may be cited as

temperature has been recorded by thermographs since examples of the former class, Western and Central 1869. These are Valentia, Armagh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Europe of the latter.

Falmouth, Stonyhurst, and Kew. At all these stations

the variation was found to be less than at Oxford; but Now, although from a sanitary point of view these two kinds of variation are of equal importance, the

this may be partly due to the longer period (15 years) degrees in which they have respectively engaged the

over which the records extend, and partly also to the fact attention of climatologists and others are strikingly

that the daily means compared are those of the twentydifferent. While the daily and annual range of tempera- whereas the Oxford register was for lo years only, and

four hourly measurements of the thermograph curve, ture of all the more important and many minor places that have furnished meteorological registers are now

the observations less numerous. On the general average well known, or are easily ascertainable from published

of the year, it was greatest at Kew (2017), and least at records, the first systematic inquiry into the changeful

Falmouth and Valencia (1°9). ness of temperature as an element of climate was that

Finally, Dr. Hann has resumed the subject in a made by, Prof. Hann in a memoir published in the memoir published in the Transactions of the Vienna Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Academy of Sciences in Academy, in which he discusses the temperature records 1875. In this paper, Dr. Hann tabulated the results of of 66 stations in the Austrian Empire and the adjacent ninety stations, seven of which are situated in the territories, of which one-half extend over from 10 to 20 southern hemisphere, and the remainder chiefly in years, and the majority of the remainder over at least Europe, Siberia, Canada, and the United States. The

five years; all, however, are corrected to the period extraction of the data was not a little laborious, since it | 1871-80. In the case of Vienna, not less than 91 years consisted in taking out from the daily registers, of gener- affords the means of comparing the results of any decade

have been included in the reckoning, and this register ally from five to ten years, the differences of the mean

with those of a long period. temperatures of every pair of successive days throughout the whole period ; then classifying them according to

The first point that stands out in the results of this algebraic sign, as rises or falls of temperature, and also, discussion is that even a period of ten years is inin certain cases, according to their incremental values.

sufficient to give more than an approximate value. The The means of these different categories were then taken general mean change at Vienna, between any two conmonth by month, and the results are given in numerous

secutive days, is 30:4 F., but in the decade 1861-70 it tables in the memoir. The changefulness of tempera

was only 30:26, whereas in the decades 1801-10 and ture at any given place is the general mean of all 1871-80 it averaged 30:53. The means of the individual changes during the period considered, irrespective of months show much greater variation ; that of December their being rise or fall. As instances of these, I take the especially, ranging between 3°2 and 4*3 in different following three stations, representing respectively the decennia, or through 30 per cent of the general mean climates of Siberia, England, and Canada. They show

for the month. It is evident that when computed from

shorter periods than ten years the discrepancies will 1 The term "variability" of temperature, adopted by Mr. Scott for the element now in question, has been already used in so many different senses, 1"Die Veränderlichkeit der Temperatur in Oesterreich," von J. Haon, that in this paper I have adopted in preference the term "changefulness, W.M.K. Akad., aus dem Iviii. Bande der Mat. Naturwiss. Classe der ki which is not open to the same objection.

Akad, d, Wissenschaften.

year.

be still greater. In order, therefore, to obtain com- ant from a medical point of view that the statistics of all parable values, even for neighbouring stations, it is health resorts should be analyzed in the manner of which essential that the data compared should be those of the Prof. Hann has here given so admirable an example. same interval.

H. F. B. Both as regards season and amount, the changefulness of temperature depends very greatly on local geographical circumstances, so that neighbouring_places

FORESTRY IN AMERICA.1 very often differ greatly from each other. In Europe it increases from west to east and from south to north, T cannot be said that, as far as the issue of reports in both cases towards the interior of the continent. It and pamphlets on forestry is concerned the Agriincreases also on the whole with altitude, but very irre- cultural Department at Washington has been idle ; if gularly, being great on exposed plateaux, and compara- only this activity would resolve itself into the estabtively small on mountain peaks. Places situated in lishment of a State Forest Service, and the formation of valleys show very great differences, according to their State forests out of the wreck of the former forest wealth exposure. Among the Austrian stations, those on the of North America ! southern slopes of the Alps have the greatest vicissitudes, An important series of papers on forest matters has owing to the warmth they acquire in sunny weather and come to hand, and though they date as far back as the consequent greater fall of temperature when a change 1889, they are probably new to many of the readers of of weather sets in. In general the changes of temperature NATURE. at high elevations are greater than at low altitudes in The first paper is by Dr. James, Professor of Public summer, but less in the winter season. In the high Finance and Administration in the University of Pennsylmountain valleys in spring the changes are much smaller vania, and is entitled “The Government in its Relation than on the neighbouring plains.

to Forests." The Professor has evidently studied his In the British Isles, Mr. Scott found that the number subject thoroughly, and the remedy he proposes is the of rises exceeding 5° between any two consecutive days exact counterpart of that which has been so successfully was greater than the number of falls of the same amount, applied to the forests of India. He commences by stating and also that the mean value of the rises exceeds that of that the forests of any large country not only constitute the falls. In Austria, also, except in the Southern Tyrol a large portion of its wealth, but form the indispensable and on the coasts of the Adriatic, rapid rises are greater basis of a fourishing manufacturing and commercial than rapid falls in the winter, and less in the summer ; but industry. They are also one of the most important on the whole the former preponderate. In the south, elements in determining the climatic conditions of a however, rapid falls are greater than rapid rises at all region, and, through these, the distribution of the populatimes of year, and therefore also on the mean of the tion, of industrial pursuits, and of disease and health.

This peculiarity is a still more marked charac- He states that the value of the forest crop in the teristic of lower latitudes, since in Northern India it was United States in 1880, the census year, was 700,000,000 found that rapid falls are about three times as numerous dollars (= £140,000,000), and that if the value of the total as rapid rises, and on the whole greater in amount. annual output of the mines, quarries, and petroleum wells

The duration of rises of temperature is somewhat were added to the estimated value of all steamboats and greater than that of falls, and both are rather greater at other craft on American waters, it would still be less than mountain stations than at low levels. Thus the passage the value of the forest crop, by a sum sufficient to purchase of a wave of temperature, on the mean of the two all the canals, telegraph companies, and construct and stations Klagenfurt and Salzburg, occupies, on an average, equip all the telephone lines in the States. 4:56 days, on the Sonnblick 4'93 days; or, in other words, He then shows how Government has fostered agricul65 waves pass within the month at the higher and 7 at ture by offering land on easy terms, by establishing the lower stations. The longest period of continuous model farms and agricultural schools, by improving the cooling that occurred at any station was ten days at the breed of stock, by free distribution of seed, and in many mountain observatory of Hoch Obir, and the longest other ways; it has also assisted manufactures by the continuous rise of temperature ten days at Klagenfurt. protective tariff, bounties, and exhibitions, &c.; and There is a marked annual periodicity in the length of that vast sums have been spent by the State on improving the temperature waves, with two epochs of maximum, rivers and harbours, and on the general means of comviz. in March and September, and two of minimum, in munication-railroads and roads. Game and fish are July and December. From the data afforded by certain also protected by the State, but although from their stations in Austria and Saxony, Dr. Hann computes forests the Americans have been drawing more natural the following formula for their annual variation in Central wealth than from all other sources together, yet practi: Europe-

cally nothing has been done to preserve them from the

devastations of selfish people. Besides the great demands 4:813 + 0'138 sin (26° 45' + x) + 0'164 sin (318° 27' + 2x). on the forests for timber, three-fifths of the people in

the States use wood for ordinary domestic fuel, and the The last subject investigated in Dr. Hann's memoir is value of the wood fuel annually consumed is placed at the question whether the inter-diurnal changefulness of

325,000,000 dollars. temperature shows any periodical variation during the

Prof. James then treats at length of the vast indirect sun-spot period; for which purpose he takes the 90

value of forests in maintaining a steady supply of water years' registers of Vienna, Wilna, and Warsaw. He in rivers, and preventing floods. He shows that the finds that on the mean of these stations a certain minute maintenance of a system of factories and mills dependent variation is indeed apparent, but it is one of two maxima

on a watercourse becomes impossible when the stream and two minima, and the whole range is so small that it is converted into a mountain torrent for one quarter of is doubtful whether it is other than fortuitous.

the year and is all but dry during another quarter; and In the foregoing paragraphs only a few of the more

instances the River Schuylkill, from which Philadelphia important results of Prof. Hann's investigation have been

draws its water-supply, where the current has become noticed. His memoir contains many others of interest, too shallow and sluggish to carry off the ever-increasing well worthy of study, and forming important contributions to general climatology ; and like the original memoir, I "Department of Agriculture, Forestry Division. Bulletin No. 2.-Republished seventeen years ago, it will doubtless stimulate

port on the Forest Condition of the Rocky Mountains, and other Papers." Others to prosecute the subject.

With a Map showing location of Forest Areas. Second Edition. (Washing

It is especially import- ton: Government Press, 1889.)

quantity of impurities which pour into it, and conse

NOTES. quently the quality of its water is steadily deteriorating.

The Professor considers it proved by European experi- The following are the members of the Royal Commission ence that a certain percentage of forest land is indispens- appointed to investigate the question of a Teaching University able for any civilized country, and that when the forest for London :-Lord Cowper (Chairman), Lord Reay, Bishop area sinks below that percentage, through carelessness, or a

Barry, Sir Lyon Playfair, Sir William Scovell Savory, Sir selfish desire to get all the advantages from the resources

George Murray Humphry, Mr. George G. Ramsay, Rev. Canon of a country for the present generation, regardless of the interests of posterity, the result can only be an impaired

Browne, Mr. Henry Sidgwick, Mr. John Scott Burdon Sanderindustry and declining prosperity. He asserts that in

son, Mr. Jannes Anstie, Mr. Ralph Charlton Palmer, and Mr. the United States nothing is being done to cultivate

Gerald Henry Rendall. No one who has devoted serious forests, whilst vast areas, besides those which fall under

attention to the subject is likely to be of opinion that the choice the axe, are being wasted by fires and by unregulated graz- of Commissioners is satisfactory. It shows that the Government ing: so that, to put it mildly, the Americans are using up has not grasped the problem. their forests at a much greater rate than they are replacing them, and are changing the character of their

The International Congress of Chemical Nomenclature at streams, soil, and local climate. Emphasis is laid on the

Geneva has been attended by many representatives from various fact that tree-planting is not forest-culture, and based on

European countries. The representatives from England are the experience taken from European countries, Mr. James Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S., Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S., insists that only the State can insure the preservation of and Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S. the forests of America, and that private enterprise is powerless to prevent their eventual destruction.

PROF. A. CHAUVEAU has been clected to the presidency of His proposals to remedy matters are therefore that the the Société de Biologie, in place of Prof. Brown-Séquard, whose Federal and State Governments should remove timber term has expired. The Société de Biologie was founded by lands from the list of lands for sale, and after a thorough Claude Bernard and a group of friends. Claude Bernard and examination as to what forests are of climatic and indus- Paul Bert were Presidents before M. Brown-Séquard. trial importance, should retain them under the control of Government. He also advocates the establishment of a

A COMMITTEE has been formed to make preparations for the School of Forestry, where men could be trained to erection of a monument to Prof. de Quatrefages in his native manage the extensive tracts of forest lands in the owner- village, Vallerangue (Gard). ship either of private individuals or of the State; and calls for further legislation, and active enforcement of

WE regret to have to announce the death of Prof. Annibale existing laws to protect forests from fires and browsing

de Gasparis, Director of the Observatory at Naples, which animals. Here we have in a nutshell a proper forest took place on the 21st of this month. Born in Bugnara, in the policy sketched out for the United States; and it remains province of Aquila, on November 9, 1819, he passed the first to be seen whether there is sufficient patriotism in the few years of his youth in Tocco Casuria, where he studied leading men to carry it out, or whether the great power classics. Going thence to Naples in 1838 he began the study of the timber trade, which has always insisted on non- of mathematics under Prof. Tucci, dealing specially with the interference with their business on the part of the State, problems relating to bridges and rivers. Afterwards he de. will still obstruct the road to progress. There is not space for much more than mere reference to !

voted himself to astronomy, in which soon gained great the other papers contained in the Bulletin, the first being celebrity. In 1840 he was appointed assistant at the Capoa most comprehensive report, by Colonel E. T. Ensign,

dimonte Observatory, where he became a diligent observer and on the forest conditions of the Rocky Mountains, show

an industrious calculator. His discovery of the three minor ing the estimated area of forest still existing in each planets-Hygieia, Parthenope, and Egeria --created a great stir county of the States of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, in the scientific world, and secured for him the Royal AstroColorado, and New Mexico, in 1887. A coloured map of nomical Society's medal. Nominated as Director of the Obserthe area shows the position and extent of the forest tracts.

vatory in 1864, owing to the death of Capocci, he worked This report concludes with a most useful tabular state

incessantly for the advancement of practical astronomy, and ment, giving the area of forest in each county and for each State, as well as the character of the forest growth, followed up his observations for the capture of small planets. the uses made of the timber, the principal causes of

Eunomia, Psyche, Massilia, Theinis, Ausonia, and Beatrix were destruction of the forests, chiefly fires. Measures are

all discovered owing to his ever careful scrutiny. His theosuggested for the adequate protection of the forest growth, retical labours included many on pure mathematics, while those and any noticeable changes in the flow and volume of on astronomy related principally to the best methods of delerwater in streams are noted. Under this head, we find mining the orbits of comets. The investigations he carried on that the streams have dininished in volume and their from time to time were numerous, and the results appeared in How has become more intermittent in one-quarter of the many periodicals, of which we may mention the Alti della R. ninety-one counties referred to, which altogether com

Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Mathematiche de Napoli and prise an area of 555,081 square miles, still containing the Astronomische Nachrichten. De Gasparis was naturally 83,460 square miles of forests in 1887.

The other papers are: “The Forest Flora of the Rocky robust, and enjoyed good health until he was attacked by the Mountain Region,” by G. B. Sudworth, and “On the

maladies which killed him. His powers of work were tremenClimate of Colorado and its Effects on Trees,” by G. B.

dous ; he was always making either some calculation or obserParsons. The latter ascribes the barrenness of the eastern

vation. Being taken ill rather suddenly, he went away to slopes of the Rocky Mountains to the extremes of tem- recruit, but he became worse and worse, until at last he could perature, and to the desiccating power of the north and

The sad days of the last year of his life he spent north-west winds, which are frequently powerful enough in reading the classics which he loved best, until his sight to bark young trees by pelting them with gravel.

failed him. The Bulletin closes with a valuable paper on Slides and Avalanches," by B. E. Fernow, the present

Mr. John HARTSUP, the Astronomer to the Mersey. Docks Chief of the Forestry Division of the Washington Agricul- and Harbour Board, met with a fatal accident on the 21st while tural Department.

persorming one of his Observatory duties. It seems that he

W. R. FISHER. was accustomed to examine occasionally the anemometers

1

not move.

“Snow

situated on the flat roof of the building, the roof being skirted the Essex Field Club. By means of the funds voted to this by a low wall about 20 inches in height. Being near the wall, I joint committee, peripatetic courses of lectures on various scienand looking up at the anemometers, he was seized with a fit of tific and technical subjects have been carried on in different giddiness, such as he had lately been accustomed to, and fell to rural centres with considerable success during the past year. the ground, breaking his neck. His sister-in-law, who saw The principle on which the joint committee has carried on this the sad accident, had previously been cautioned by him not to work has been to employ only thoroughly qualified lecturers, go too near the wall when on the roof, for he considered it a and to insist upon the instruction being made as practical as dangerously low one. Mr. Hartnup was a member of the possible. In some cases the lectures have been followed by Royal Astronomical and Liverpool Astronomical Societies, and practical work, in which the students have been taught how to a Fellow of the Meteorological Society. He had succeeded use the microscope, and to dissect plants, as a means of acquiring his father in 1885, so that he was thoroughly familiar with the a good working knowledge of vegetable physiology. This Observatory in which he had to work.

practical work has been so much appreciated in the rural centres Miss Amelia B. EDWARDS, whose death we have already

that there has been an actual competition to gain admission to recorded, has in her will endowed a Chair of Egyptology. Her

the class, the number of students being nece

ecessarily limited by library, which is very valuable, she has bequeathed to Somer.

the supply of apparatus and material. One of the most popular ville Hall, Oxford.

courses given under the auspices of the joint committee has been

that on general science, a kind of elementary introductory We regret to hear that the venerable Prof. Sven Lovén has course showing the advantage of acquiring scientific knowledge been compelled, as a result of the infuenza, to retire from his in its applications to daily life. There has been such a demand position as Senior Keeper in the State Museum of Natural His for this subject that four lecturers have been engaged to meet tory, at Stockholm, where he has been active for fifty-one years. the wants of different parts of the county. Special courses on Prof. Lovén is now seeing through the press two important marketable fish and oyster culture will shortly be commenced works on Echinoderm morphology, one dealing with the young

for the benefit of the maritime centres. The organizing joint stages of Echinoidea, the other with the Cystidea. We trust he committee has, we are informed, not been reappointed by the may long be spared to enrich the world with these and other new County Council, but that its labours have been appreciated fruits of his wide knowledge and deep thought.

is shown by the fact that the Council has decided to merge ihe

joint committee in the main Technical Instruction Committee. The twelfth annual exhibition of natural history objects of The latter will thus secure directly the co-operation of the six the South London Natural History Society will be held on

representatives of the Essex Field Club, among whom are Sir May 5 and 6 at the Bridge House Hotel, London Bridge, the Henry Roscoe, Prof. Meldola, and Mr. G. J. Symons. Essex

5 whole of which building has been secured for the occasion.

is to be congratulated upon the wisdoin which its Councillors These exhibitions are growing in popularity, and several

have displayed in securing the services of such well-known thousand visitors have each year taken lively interest in the scientific advisers. exhibits. This year they will be exceptionally varied and novel. Lectures will be delivered by Mr. F. Enock on “The Lise- A very beautiful aurora was visible from Westgate-on-Sea on history of the British Trapdoor Spider," by Mr. Step on

Monday evening last. When it was first observed, about 9.30 " Edible and Poisonous Fungi,” and by Mr. George Day on

p.m., the sky was brilliantly illuminated to a height of about 30° " Various Natural History Subjects."

above the horizon, extending laterally quite 50°. It seemed to

be decidedly of a pinkish colour, but to all appearance this An Exhibition which will be interesting from a scientific as tint gradually disappeared. About ten minutes later, two fine well as from a popular point of view will be held this year in

streamers were thrown out, their approximate positions on the the open ground near the Earl's Court railway station. It will

celestial sphere corresponding to the lines joining the stars to illustrate the development of horticulture, and as Mr. H. E.

Cygni, e Draconis, and a Lacertæ, * Cephei. Their light was Milner, F.L.S., is the chairman of the executive committee, we

considerably more intense than the aurora itself, the beams may expect that the scheme will be admirably carried out.

reminding one rather of those produced by a strong search light. There are to be examples of the gardens of all ages, including

East and west of these, two more beautisul bright streaks were shot restorations of the ancient gardens of Egypt, Greece, and Rome;

out, extending to a height not quite so great as the former two. copies of those in China and Japan, and types of the Baronial,

The west one became especially fine, its light exceeding that of Italian, Tudor, Jacobean, Georgian, and Victorian eras. A

any of the others. Their positions, as near as could be gathered, large sub-tropical garden will be laid out, and there will be re.

lay between the stars p Cygni and o Draconis for the west one, presentations of the tea gardens of India and Ceylon. Various

and for the east one o Andromeda and + Cassiopeia. Five foreign countries—especially Belgium, Holland, France, Italy,

minutes later these vanished, and the two central ones merged and Germany-will co-operate to show the progress they have into one and also disappeared. At 12.30, only one streamer made in horticulture.

was visible, while its light and that of the aurora itself was of a In September a splendid Exhibition of fruit will be held in a very seeble nature. temporary building, which is to be erected on a site on the Thames Embankment, near Blackfriars, lent for the purpose by

The weather during the past week has become on the whole

much more seasonable all over the country. Westerly winds the City Corporation. The Exhibition will be held under the auspices of the Fruiterers' and Gardeners' Companies, the Royal has been mild and genial ; but the temperature, although high

have prevailed during the greater part of the period, and the air Horticultural Society, the British Fruit Growers' Association,

for the season, was lower than at the commencement of the and other kindred societies, and will last at least a week. In

month. Rain has fallen very generally within the last few days connection with the Exhibition lectures and object-lessons will be given on subjects relating to fruit culture and the planting have occurred in many places. A brilliant aurora, to which

in all parts of the kingdon, and thunder, lightning, and hail of fruit trees.

reference is made in the preceding note and in several letters, The Technical Instruction Committee of the Essex County was observed in Scotland and in several parts of England during Council appointed last year an organizing joint committee, Monday night. The weather report of the Meteorological consisting of six members of their own boly, and six members of Office for the week ending April 23, showed that bright

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