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seen to be true. Any man who really doubted whether, if refer to that system of thought it is my object here to his legs were cut off, they might not at the same time controvert. remain on, would have a mind in a diseased condition. I have heard it proclaimed in this theatre by Prof.
There is, however, another reason which indisposes Huxley that we cannot have supreme certainty as to our some persons to see the necessary force of this law. It own continuous existence, and that such knowledge is is due, I think, to a second fact of mental association. but secondary and subordinate to our knowledge of our
Things which are very distant, or which happened a present feelings or "states of consciousness.” long time ago, are known to us only in roundabout Of course I am not thus accusing him of originating ways, and we often feel more or less want of certainty any such erroneous view. In that matter he is but a about them. On the other hand, we have a practical follower of that daring and playful philosopher Hume. I certainty concerning the things which are about us at any say “playful,” because I cannot myself think that he given moment. Thus we have come to associate a feeling really believed his own negations. He seems to me too of uncertainty with statements about things very remote. acute a man to have been himself their dupe. But howBut nothing can well be more remote from us than "the ever this may be, I here venture directly to contradict most distant regions of space" or "before the origin of the Hume's and Prof. Huxley's affirmation, which is also solar system.” It is not surprising, then, that this mental adopted by Mr. Herbert Spencer, and to affirm that we association should call forth a feeling of uncertainty with have the highest certainty as to our own continuous respect to any statement about universal truth.
existence. It is, no doubt, wonderful that we should be able to It is, of course, quite true that we have complete know any necessary and universal truths ; but it is less certainty about our present feelings, as also that we canexceptionally wonderful, when we come to think the matter not know ourselves apart from our feelings. But it is no all round, than it may at first sight appear to be. It is less true that we cannot be conscious of feelings apart wonderful ; but so, deeply considered, is all our know- from the "self” which has those feelings. Now, it is ledge. It is wonderful that through molecular vibrations, assumed by those I oppose that we can know nothing or other occult powers of bodies, we have sensations- with absolute certainty unless we know it by itself or such as of musical tones, sweetness, blueness, or what “unmodified,” or as existing absolutely." But in fact not. It is wonderful that through sensations, actual and nothing, so far as we know, exists apart from every other remembered, we have perceptions. It is wonderful that entity and unmodified -or “absolutely," as it is, in my on the occurrence of certain perceptions we recognize our opinion, absurdly called. No wonder, then, if we do not own existence past and present. So, also, it is wonderful know things in a way in which they never do, and that we recognize that what we know “is," cannot at the probably never can, exist. We can really know nothing same time “not be.”. The fact is so, and we perceive it by itself because nothing exists by itself
. It is not to be so ; we know things, and we know that we know wonderful, then, if we only know ourselves as related to them. How we know them is a mystery, indeed, our simultaneously known feelings, or vice versa. but one about which it is, I think, perfectly idle to It is quite true that we never know our own substantial speculate. It is precisely parallel to the mystery of essential being alone and unmodified, but then we have sensation. We feel things savoury, or odorous, or brilliant, never for an instant so existed. Our knowledge of ourselves or melodious, as the case may be, and with the aid of the in this respect is like our knowledge of anybody and scalpel and the microscope we may investigate the material everybody else. Most persons here present doubtless conditions of such sensations. But how such conditions know Prof. Tyndall, yet they never knew him, no can give rise to the feelings themselves is a mystery one ever knew him, except in some "state"-- either which defies our utmost efforts to penetrate. I make no at home or away from home, either sitting or not pretension to be able to throw any light upon the problem sitting, either in motion or at rest, either with his ** How is knowledge possible ?" any more than on the head covered or uncovered—and this for the very problem “How is sensation possible?" or on the ques- good and obvious reason that he never did or could tions “How is lise possible?” or ' How is extension exist for a moment save in some “state." But this possible." But " Ignorantia modi non tollit certitudinem does not prevent your knowing him very well, and the fati." And we know that we are living, that we feel, same consideration applies to our knowledge of ourselves. and that we do know something-if only that we know when I consider what is my primary, direct consciouswe doubt about the certainty of our knowledge.
ness at any moment, I find it to be neither a consciousAnd a propos of such doubt, let me here put before you ness of a " state of feeling "nor of my "continuous existthe intellectual penalties which have to be paid for any ence,” but a consciousness of doing something or having real and serious doubt with respect to the implications of something done to me-action or reaction. I have always, science. I think we shall see that nothing less than in indeed, some "feeling” and also some sense of my “selftellectual suicide or mental paralysis must be the result. existence”; but what I perceive primarily, directly, and And such a result must also be logically fatal to every immediately is neither the “feeling” nor the “self-existbranch of science. The first implication I put before you ence," but some concrete actual doing, being, or suffering was the validity of inference.
then experienced. We can, indeed, become distinctly and Now, no one who argues, or who listens to or reads, explicitly aware of either the "feeling” or the "self-existwith any serious intention--the arguments of others, can, ence" by turning back the mind upon itself. But to without stultifying himself, profess to think that no pro- know that one “has a feeling” or is in a “state," or even cess of reasoning is valid. If the truth of no mode of that a "feeling exists,” is plainly an act by which no one reasoning is certain, if we can make no certain inferences begins to think. It is evidently a secondary act--an act at all, then all arguments must be useless, and to proffer, of reflection. No one begins by perceiving his percepor to consider, them must be alike vain. But not only tion a bit more than he begins by expressly adverting to must all reasoning addressed to others be thus vain, the the fact that it is he himself who perceives it
. silent reasoning of solitary discursive thought must be Let us suppose two men to be engaged in a fencing vain also. Yet what does this amount to save an utter match. Each man, while he is parrying, lunging, &c., paralysis of the intellect? It is scepticism run mad. has his “feelings" or“ states," and knows that it is "he
But the implication I regard as one of the most im- who is carrying on the struggle. Yet it is neither his portant of all is the implication of our knowledge of our “ mental states” nor the “persistence of his being ” which own continuous existence, concerning which I said I he directly regards, but his concrete activity—what he is must crave your permission to speak at some length. It doing and what is being done to him. He may, of course, was the mention of this implication which led me to if he chooses, direct his attention either to the feelings
he is experiencing or to his underlying continuous per- and breadth but no thickness, were supposed, by them, sonality. Should he do so, however, a hit from his to be living on a sphere with the surface of which their adversary's foil will be a probable result.
bodies would coincide. They were imagined to have But to become aware that one has any definite feeling experience of length and breadth in curves, but none of is a reflex act at least as secondary and posterior as it is height and depth, or of any straight lines. To such crea. to become aware of the "self” which has the feeling. I tures, it was said, our geometrical necessary truths would say “at least," but I believe that of the two perceptions
truths" at all. A straight line for them (1) of “ feelings,” and (2) of "self,” it is the "self” which would not be the shortest line, while two parallel lines is the more prominently given in our primary, direct prolonged would inclose a space. cognitions.
To this imaginary objection I reply as follows :I believe that a more laborious act of mental digging is “Beings so extraordinarily defective might, likely enough, requisite to bring explicitly to light the implicit mental be unable to perceive geometrical truths which to less state, than to bring forward explicitly the implicit “self- defective creatures such as ourselves-are perfectly existence." Men continually and promptly advert to the clear. Nevertheless, if they could conceive of such things fact that actions and sufferings are their own, but do not at all, as those we denote by the terms 'straight lines' by any means so continually and promptly advert to and 'parallel lines,' then there is nothing to show that the fact that the feelings they experience are “existing they could not also perceive those same necessary truths feelings."
concerning them which are evident to us." Therefore I am convinced that one of the greatest and It is strange that the very men who make this fanciful most fundamental errors of our day is the mistake of objection, actually show, by the way they make it, that supposing that we can know our mental states" they themselves perceive the necessary truth of those "feelings," more certainly and directly than we geometrical relations the necessity of which they verbally know the continuously existing self which has those deny. For how, otherwise, could they affirm what would feelings.
or would not be the necessary results attending such Our perception of our continuous existence also in- imaginary conditions ? How could they confidently volves the validity of our faculty of memory, which is declare what perceptions such conditions would cerimplied in this way, as well as in every scientific ex- tainly produce, unless they were themselves convinced periment we may perform. For we cannot obviously of the validity of the laws regulating the experiences of have a reflex perception either of our “feelings" or our such beings? If they affirm, as they do, that they per“self-existence,” without trusting our memory as to the ceive what must be the truth in their supposed case, past ; since, however rapid our mental processes may they thereby implicitly assert the existence of some absobe, no mental act takes place without occupying some lutely necessary truths, or else their own argument itself period of time, and, indeed, nervous action is not ex- falls to the ground. tremely rapid. In knowing, therefore, such facts by a But this same implication of science, respecting the reflex act, we know by memory what is already past. objective absolute validity of the law of contradiction, Thus our certainty as to our own continuous existence also refutes that popular system of philosophy which necessarily carries with it a certainty as to our faculty of declares that all our knowledge is merely relative, and memory. Therefore, the mental idiocy of absolute scep- that we can know nothing as it really exists independticism is the penalty that has to be paid for any real ently of our knowledge of it, the system which proclaims doubt about our own existence or the trustworthiness of the relativity of knowledge.” the faculiy of memory, for all our power of reposing con- Of course anything which is “ known to us” cannot at fidence in our observations, experiments, or reasonings, the same time be “unknown to us," and so far as this, would, in that case, be logically at an end. On the our knowledge may be said to affect the things we know. other hand, the validity of our faculty of memory esta- But this is trivial. Our“knowing” or “not-knowing blishes once for all (as we have seen) the fact that we any object is-apart from some act of ours which results can transcend our present consciousness and know real from our knowledge-a mere accident of that body's objective truth.
existence, which is not otherwise affected thereby. Let us now see the consequences of the denial, or real Again, as I before remarked, nothing, so far as we doubt of the second implication of science-the “law of know, exists by itself, and unrelated to any other thing. contradiction.” Without it we can be certain of nothing, To say, therefore, that “all our knowledge is relative” and it therefore lands us in absolute scepticism. And if might only mean that knowledge concords with objective we would rise from that intellectual paralysis we must reality. But this is by no means what the upholders of accept that dictum as it presents itself to our minds; and the “relativity of knowledge” intend to signify. They the dictum presents itself to my mind, not as a law of deny the objective validity, the actual correspondence thought only, but a law of things. It affirms, for example, with reality, of any of our perceptions or convictionsthat no creature anywhere or anywhen can at the same even, as Mr. Herbert Spencer tells us, our cognition of time be both bisected and entire.
“ difference." An amusing instance of the way in which very dis- Every system of knowledge, however, must start with tinguished men may be misled as to the question of our the assumption, implied or expressed, that something is power of perceiving necessary truth is offered by an true. By the teachers of the doctrine of the “relativity imaginary case which has been put forward by Prof. of knowledge” it is evidently taught that the doctrine of Clifford and Prof. Helmholtz. Their object in advancing the relativity of knowledge is true. But if we cannot it was to show, by an example, how truths which appear know that anything corresponds with external reality, if necessary to us are not objectively necessary. But the nothing we can assert has more than a relative or pheresult appears to me to show the direct contradictory of nomenal value, then this character must also appertain to what they intended. Their intention evidently was to the doctrine of the “relativity of knowledge." Either support the proposition that we can know "no truths to this system of philosophy is merely relative or phenobe absolutely necessary," and the result is to show that, menal, and cannot be known to be true, or else it is absoeven according to them, “some truths are absolutely lutely true, and can be known so to be. But it must be necessary.” The necessary truths they propose to con- merely relative and phenomenal, if everything known by trovert are that "a straight line is the shortest line man is such. Its value, then, can be only relative and between two points," and that “two straight lines cannot phenomenal, therefore it cannot be known to correspond inclose a space.”
with external reality, and cannot be asserted to be true; For this purpose, curious creatures, possessing length and anybody who asserts that we can know it to be true, thereby asserts that it is false to say that our knowledge subject 6, theoretical mechanics, or of subject 8, sound, is only relative. In that case some of our knowledge heat, and light, with the following exceptions :--The must be absolute ; but this upsets the foundation of the payments for practical chemistry will be £3 for a whole system. Anyone who upholds such a system as pass in the elementary stage, and £6 and £3 ios this may be compared to a man seated high up on the respectively for a first or second class in the advanced branch of a tree which he is engaged in sawing across stage; the payments for mathematics will be £2 for a where it springs from the tree's trunk. The position pass in stage 1, £3 and £2 respectively for a first or taken up by such a man would hardly be deenied the second class in stages 2 and 4, 44 and £3 for a first expression of an exceptional amount of wisdom.
or second class respectively in stage 3, £5 and £4 My time has expired, and I may say no more. The con- for a first or second class respectively in stages 5, 6, and 7, siderations I have put before you this evening, should and £8 and £4 respectively for a first or second class in they commend themselves to your judgment, will
, I think, honours. The payment for section 1 (geometrical lead you to admit that, if we feel confidence and certainty drawing) of subject i will remain as at present, 1os. in any part of any branch of physical science, we thereby The payment for attendance in an organized science implicitly affirm that the human mind can, by conscious- school will be increased to £i in the day school and 105. ness and memory, know more than phenomena-can in the night school. know some objective reality--can know its own continuous As it is of great importance to prevent large numbers existence-the validity of inference and the certainty of of wholly unqualified candidates being presented at the universal and necessary truth as exemplified in the law examinations, the examiners will be instructed to note of contradiction. In other words, the system of the the papers of all such as would not obtain above twentyrelativity of knowledge is untrue. Thus the dignity of five per cent of the marks, and a deduction will be made that noble, wonderful power, the human intellect, is fully from the grant to each school for each such paper sufestablished, and the whole of our reason, “from turret to ficient to cover the cost incidental to its examination. foundation-stone," stands firmly and secure. If I have The committee of a science school in a place in Great succeeded in bringing this great truth home to one or Britain with less than 5000 inhabitants which does not two of my hearers who before doubted it, I am abund receive aid from the local authority, or of any science antly repaid for the task I have undertaken. It only school in Ireland, will be allowed to continue until further remains for me now to thank you for the kind and patient notice on the present system, if they so desire it. hearing you have been so good as to accord me.
The subject of an International Congress of Electricity, to THI
HE Committee of the Privy Council on Education be held at Chicago in connection with the World's Fair, conhave just announced an important decision with
tinues to attract much attention in America. A report about regard to the examinations of the Science and Art Depart- the matter has been presented to the Director-General of the ment in science.
Exhibition by Mr. J. Allen Hornsby, secretary of the department The number of candidates presenting themselves for of electricity. During a recent visit to Europe, Mr. Hornsby examination in science is already so large-about 190,000 discussed the question with several leading men of science in papers in various branches of science were worked at the England and on the Continent, and he was encouraged by examination in May last, besides above 14,000 practical them to believe that, if certain conditions were complied with, examinations—that the machinery of examination and the success of the Congress would be certain. They all agreed registration is already severely strained. These numbers will in all probability soon be so increased as to render
that the Congress should be held under the auspices of the it impossible to make satisfactory arrangements for the
U.S. Government. Invitations, they thought, should be issued examination of the candidates at the local centres, or for by the Government to individual scientific men through the the examination of the worked papers under any system Governments of the countries to which the individuals belong. of central examination.
" This course of action," says Mr. Hornsby, “ in the opinion of At the same time the means recently placed at the the authorities whom I consulted, will insure an official chardisposal of local authorities for providing or aiding acter to the proceedings of the scientific Congress, and will instruction seem to render it unnecessary for the Science | virtually pledge the various Governments to a recognition and and Art Department to continue to give direct aid for adoption of the standards created.” very elementary instruction in science. Such instruction can now be more effectually organized and maintained
Prof. Joseph WOLSTENHOLME, whose name was well known locally.
to mathematicians, died on November 18 in his sixty-third year. Under these circumstances it has been decided that He graduated at Cambridge as third wrangler in the Matheafter the May examinations of 1892 the payments of £1 matical Tripos of 1850, and became a Fellow first of St. John's now made for the second class in the elementary stage of College, then of Christ's, where he was for many years a member each science subject shall cease. An elementary paper of the tutorial staff. After vacating his Fellowship by marriage will continue to be set in each subject, but the results in 1869, he was appointed the first Professor of Mathematics in will be recorded simply as pass or fail, the standard for the Engineering College at Cooper's Hill-a position from passing being about the same as that now required for a which failing health compelled him to withdraw a year or two first class, i.e. about 60 per cent of the marks obtainable. At the same time, with a view to encourage more ad ago.
With the Rev. Percival Frost, he wrote a treatise on solid vanced instruction, which does not seem to be adequately geometry, published in 1863. He also collected many original provided for at present, the payments for the advanced mathematical problems, devised by himself, in a volume which stage and for honours will be considerably increased. appeared in 1867, and again in 1878. The payments on results will then be £2 for a pass in the elementary stage; £5 and £2 ios. for a first or second
We regret to announce the death of Mr. S. F. Downing class respectively in the advanced stage ; and £8 and Principal of the Civil Engineering College, Seebpur, Calcutta, £4 for a first or second class respectively in honours, in
which took place at Coonoor, Madras, on October 16 last, at each subject of science, and in each subdivision of the comparatively early age of forty-seven. The Englishman * The payments on the results of the examinations in 1892 will not be
of October 24 says :-" The deceased gentleman was educated affected by this Minute.
at Trinity College, Dublin, and was a graduate of Dublin
University in Arts and Engineering. He came out to India in all directions, some of which threw up volcanic mud and in 1869 as Professor of Civil Engineering in the Engineering ashes. A number of the passengers alighted and made their Department of the Presidency College, Calcutta, and when that way into the town. Many houses had already fallen, and imDepartment was amalgamated in 1880 with the Dehree Training mense heaps of ruins were visible on every side. Other buildSchool, and transferred to Seebpur with the title of Government ings which were then standing were so severely shattered that Engineering College, Mr. Downing was chosen as first Principal further earth-tremors which followed threw them to the ground. of the new College. In no College in Bengal has so strict a There was a marked subsidence of the earth for a considerable system of discipline been introduced. The beneficial results of area round Gifu. Very soon after the houses collapsed, and that system, consistently adhered to in the face of strong native while hundreds of persons remained buried under the ruins, opposition, have long been apparent ; and the present flourishing fames burst out and spread with such rapidity that the citizens condition of the College affords the best monument which could were compelled to desist from the work of rescue. The fire was be erected to the indomitable perseverance and uniform justice not subdued until the next morning, when it was found that of the administration of its late Principal.”
almost the whole town had been destroyed. The potteries in The death of Mr. Thomas Wharton Jones, F.R.S., is an the presectures of Owari and Mino, and at Seto and other nounced. He was nearly eighty years of age. Prof. Huxley, towns, were reduced to ruins. At Gobo, a temple belonging who was one of his pupils forty years ago, gives in the British
to the Shin sect of the Buddhists, which was crowded with Medical Journal a bright and pleasant account of his intercourse persons, suddenly collapsed, burying fisty of the worshippers. with his “old master.”
A slight shock occurred at Nagerio on the night of Octo
On the following Wednesday morning, while The third series of Hooker's “ Icones Plantarum” (vols. forty Christians were assembled in the Methodist school, xi.-xx. of the whole work) is now complete, and the Bentham
the building began to totter, and the worshippers fled, Trustees, who are continuing the work under the editorship of several being killed or fatally injured. Many streets Prof. D. Oliver, are offering a limited number of sets of this
were blocked with fallen houses, and others were rendered series of ten volumes, for £5 the set. It contains figures of a thousand new plants, including the most interesting discoveries of who were endeavouring to make their escape.
all but impassable by the crowds of panic-stricken people
Hundreds the last thirty years, and the most striking of the new genera of persons were killed by the collapse of a thread factory, and a described by Bentham and Hooker during the progress of their
large brick building. A castle four hundred years old, however, “Genera Plantarum.” As the whole impression consists of remained intact and suffered no damage. It is estimated that only 250 copies, the work will soon become unpurchasable. in the three towns comprising the city of Nagoya from 750 to Thanks to the provision made by the late Mr. Bentham, the
1000 persons lost their lives. From the time of the first distrustees are issuing a fourth series at the rate of one volume, of
turbance up to the morning of October 30, no fewer than 368 100 plates, annually, at the very low price of 165. Persons
distinct shocks were reported. Fissures 2 feet wide and several wishing to secure a copy of the third series should apply at once
seet deep appeared in the earth, while railway metals were to Dulau and Co., 37 Soho Square, W.
twisted, iron bridges broken, river embankments engulfed or The external part of the laboratory which is being built in the destroyed, and fields flooded. A lake 600 yards long and 60 Paris Museum of Natural History for Prof. Chauveau, from the wide was formed at the foot of the Hukusan Mountain in the designs provided by him, is now being finished. This laboratory Gisu prefecture, and great cracks were formed in the ground will be used only for original research in physiology and bac. near the hills. Water sprang from the cracks, and that in the teriology, and when completed will be the finest laboratory in wells was changed to a brownish tint and rendered unfit for France. But the Museum is deeply in debt, and this may cause drinking. The embankments of most of the rivers were de some delay.
stroyed, and in the Gisu district it will be necessary to rebuild Members of the Royal Microscopical Society, and the several them for a distance of 350 miles. The general appearance of London and provincial Societies of a kindred nature, have been the Mizushima division of the Mortosu district underwent a cominvited to subscribe to a fund for the benefit of the family of the plete transformation, and at Nogo in one district there was a
Or 700 temples in the Gifu late Mr. John Mayall. An influential Committee has been marked subsidence of the earth. formed to secure the success of the scheme. Communications prefecture, over one-third were destroyed, and it will take many should be addressed to Mr. T. Curties, treasurer to the Com
months to repair the river embankments. In some parts of the mittee, 244 High Holborn, W.C. The Committee has issued
town of Gisu boiling mud spouted from the fissures for over two a circular setting forth Mr. Mayall's great services to the science hours. The top of the sacred mountain of Fusiyama was rent of microscopy.
asunder, a chasm being formed 1200 feet wide and 600 feet deep. ACCORDING to a telegram despatched to the Standard from
In a special report to the Secretary of Agriculture, Mr. Mark
W. Harrington, Chief of the U.S. Weather Bureau, has preBangkok on Monday night, Chaiya and Bandon, towns situated sented a general summary of the operations of the Weather on the coast of the Gulf of Siam, have been practically destroyed Bureau during the three months which followed its transfer to by a cyclone. The loss of life is estimated at three hundred.
the Department of Agriculture on July 1, 1891. The Service SOME details of the earthquake which caused so much havoc has been reorganized with a view of carrying out the expressed in Japan at the end of October have been received. A large intention of Congress 10 develop and extend its work with part of the Empire was affected, the shocks being strongly felt special reference to agriculture. The office force in Washingin no fewer than thirty-one provinces. In the provinces of ton has been formed into three principal divisions, called reEzozi, Mino, and Owari, several towns and villages were spectively the Executive Division, the Records Division, and the ruined, 3400 persons being killed and 43,000 houses destroyed. Weather-Crop Bulletin and State Weather Service Division. An up train and a down train on the Tokaido Railway were Outside of Washington, local forecast officials have been just meeting at the station of Gifu when the first shock was felt appointed, the person chosen being in every case selected from there. It was accompanied by subterraneous rumblings and the most experienced and competent observers of the Service. violent oscillation, which put the passengers of the train into These officials have been placed in the larger cities, with a great state of alarm. They were further terrified by seeing authority to make predictions for their stations and vicinity, cracks in the earth, two or three feet wide, opening and closing giving the weather more in detail than the Washington forecasts. They are instructed to make a caresul study of the observations and summaries, the volume contains hourly values climatology of their respective sections, both for their own use of atmospheric electricity. Owing to want of funds, the publicaas an aid in predicting and for publication for the information tion of the observations had ceased with those for 1883; but a of the public; and they are directed to give particular attention fresh subsidy to the institution has been granted by a decree of to the effect of the weather on the principal crops at their the Emperor, so that the publication will be continued regularly various stages of growth, so as to be able to include in their in future, and the arrears also worked off. A summary shows forecasts reference to this all-important subject. A vast im. that in 1890 rain sell on 178 days and snow on 84 days. The provement has been effected in the weather maps issued at temperature varied from 74.5 in June to 5°3 in November, nearly all the more important stations. They contain not only giving an annual range of 69°-2. the forecasts prepared at Washington and the local forecasts,
In a recent paper on the camel (Zeits. für uissen. Geogr.) but the data on which the forecasts are based. With regard to
Herr Lehmann refers, among other things, to its relations to weather-signal display stations, Mr. Harrington makes a most
temperature and moisture. Neither the most broiling heat, nor striking statement. On June 30 there were about 630 stations
the most intense cold, nor extreme daily or yearly variations to which the forecasts were telegraphed. On September 30 the
hinder the distribution of the camel. It seems, indeed, that number was 1200-an increase of about 100 per cent. ; and the dromedary of the Sahara has better health there than in large numbers of new stations are being rapidly established. Altogether, the Bureau is evidently in a state of high efficiency, the thermometer sometimes goes down several degrees below
more equably warm regions ; though, after a day of tropical heat, and has profited largely by the attention which has lately been freezing point, and daily variations of 33°7 C. occur. In Semi. devoted to it by Congress.
palatinsk again, where the camel is found, the annual variation MR. HARRINGTON resers in his report to the enormous of temperature sometimes reaches 87° 3. In Eastern Asia, accumulation of meteorological records now in the U.S. Weather winter is the time the animals are made to work.
In very Bureau. These include the observations for the twenty years intense cold, they are sewn up in felt covers. Of course each during which the meteorological work was in the charge of the race of camel does best in the temperature conditions of its Signal Service, and also those for the many preceding years home: a Soudan camel would not Aourish in North-East Asia. when it was in the charge of the Smithsonian Institution. Mr. Camels are very sensitive to moisture. In the region of tropical Harrington proposes to utilize these dala by special studies by rains they are usually absent, and if they come into such with officers of the Bureau. He also desires that they may be caravans, the results of the rainy season are greatly feared. thrown open to all students of meteorology who are competent The great humidity of the air explains the absence of the camel to use them, subject only to such restrictions as may suffice to from the northern slopes of the Atlas, and from well-wooded preserve them from injury.
Abyssinia. This sensitiveness expresses itself in the character
of different races. REFERRING to the International Conference of Meteoro
The finest, most noble-looking camels, with logists at Munich, Mr. Harrington notes that it was attended by Tuarek region, in North Africa), and they cannot be used for
short silk-like hair, are found in the interior of deserts (as in the four American delegates, of whom he himself was one. He was much pleased with the cordial way in which European the animals are shorter and fatter, with long coarse hair ; and in
journeys to moist regions. Even in Fezzan (south of Tripoli) meteorologists expressed appreciation of the meteorological work
Nile lands, and on coasts, it is the same. These animals, too, done in the United States. He speaks especially of the interest excited among students on this side of the Atlantic by the inter
are less serviceable as regards speed and endurance. Herr
Lehmann states it as a law that the occurrence of the camel finds national bibliography of meteorology, begun by General Hazen its limits wherever the monthly average vapour tension in the air and published in part by General Greely. “Evidently,” he
exceeds 12 mm. says, “the general sentiment in Europe is to the effect that the work thus far done by the Signal Office is too important to be
Last week Prof. Cossar Ewart lectured on "Scottish Zoology" left unfinished, and that the interests of meteorology and of to the newly-formed Edinburgh University Darwinian Society, climatology alike demand that the Weather Bureau should of which he is President. Having given an account of some publish the complete work in proper style, after obtaining from of the eminent investigators who have devoted themselves to European co-labourers all possible corrections to the manuscript zoology in Scotland, Prof. Ewart spoke of the need for the enthat has already been milleographed.” Mr. Harrington studied couragement of research at the Scottish Universities. In the closely the meteorological methods adopted in Europe ; and he case of his own department, it ought, he thought, to be possible was particularly struck by the fact that the study of climate has, for him to say to any exceptionally able student, after the comin general, been prosecuted by European meteorologists to a pletion of his curriculum,“ If you are willing to remain for a degree of refinement that has not yet been attained, and is, year or more, I shall be glad to recommend your being elected perhaps, scarcely appreciated, in America. For instance, an a research sct.olar, and to arrange for your obtaining a small sum eminent climatologist, criticizing the location of some instru. from a research fund to provide material, &c., required in any ments on a rise of ground and amid trees, possibly a hundred investigation you may undertake.” Were there two research feet above the surrounding plain, objected that these instru- scholars, or even but one, at work in each of the scientific ments could not represent properly the climate of the surround departments, Prof. Ewart thinks the Scottish Universities would, ing country, but that they should have been placed in the open before long, have a reputation altogether higher and grander Alat fields near at hand. “If this person be correct,” says Mr. than they at present enjoy, to the gain of science and, in Harrington, “it is evident that the demands of agricultural all probability, the further amelioration of humanity. climatology are very different from those of dynamic meteoro.
In his interesting Rectorial address, at Edinburgh, on the logy or the study and prediction of daily weather, and it will be
use of the imagination, Mr. Goschen referred to the need for an important result of our European journey if we shall have imaginative activity in the exact sciences. It would have been received a decided stimulus in the direction of minute climato
difficult for him to say anything new on a subject with which so logy."
many distinguished thinkers have dealt; but the ideas he set DR. E. Biese, the Director of the Meteorological Office of forth about science and the imagination were sound and well Finland, has published the observations taken at Helsingfors expressed. Referring to the work of Sir William Thomson, he during the year 1890. In addition to the ordinary hourly ! said: “When I think of your fellow-countryman, Sir William