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excess of sulphuric acid at a low temperature, three isomerides Carruthers presented to the Society a half-length portrait in oils are formed-namely, para-nitro-ortho-toluidine (about 75 per of Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., P.C., F.R.S., a former cent.), meta-nitro-ortho-toluidine, CH,Me(NH)(NO)[1:2 : 5] | President, painted by Mr. Leslie Ward; and the remarks (about 3 or 4 per cent.), and ortho-nitro-ortho-toluidine, which he made on the services rendered to biological science by C&H,Me(NII)(NO2)[1:2:6] (about 20 per cent.). The separa- Sir John Lubbock drew from the latter a graceful acknowledg. tion of the ortho-nitro-ortho-toluidine from the mixture is ment of the honour conferred upon him.-Amongst the exhibieffected by taking advantage of the greater solubility of this tions which followed, Mr. E. M. Holmes showed some new isomeride in slightly warm water. The authors give a table of marine Algæ from the Ayrshire coast ; Mr. J. G. Grenfell the properties of the ortho- and para-nitro-ortho-toluidines, and showed some Diatoms with pseudopodia, illustrating his remarks of their products on reduction and other derivatives.-Researches with diagrams, upon which an interesting discussion followed. on the gums of the arabin group : Part ii. Geddic acids, The President exhibited and made some observations on a tooth Gedda gums; the dextro-rotatory varieties, by C. O'Sullivan. of the walrus, which illustrated in a curious manner the periods The Gedda gums described consist of the calcium, magnesium, of growth.-Mr. R. V. Sherring called attention to a large and potassium salts of gum acids, the calcium salt pre series of framed photographs which had been taken under his dominating, and more or less nitrogenous matter, which is direction in Grenada, and illustrated the general character of probably combined with a true gum acid. They dissolve easily the West Indian flora as well as the physical features of that in water, forming a yellow or reddish syrup, neutral to test- particular island.-Mr. J. E. Harting exhibited a specimen of paper, which is dextro-rotatory. The gum acids are obtained Wilson's Petrel which had been picked up in an exhausted pure by dialyzing their acidified solution, and by fractional state in the Co. Down on October 2 last, and had been forprecipitation with alcohol. The gum acids in any one sample warded for inspection by Mr. R. Patterson, of Belfast. Mr. of gum bear a very simple relation to one another, and are Harting gave some account of the species, and remarked upon closely related to the gum acids contained in other samples. A the unusual number of Petrels, Shearwaters, Skuas, and other table of their relationships is given. The composition and marine birds which had been driven inland to a considerable partial constitution of any one of the gum acids wbich have been distance during the recent gales.-A paper was then read by as yet examined may be expressed by the general formula, the Rev. Prof. Henslow, entitled " A Theory of lleredity C, 19-20-9.0C1.H2020-PC10H80g. These gum acids, based on Forces instead of any special form of Matter.” The when heated at 80°-100° for 10-30 minutes with a solution con- author maintained that no special form of matter (as is generally taining 2 per cent. H,SO., are hydrolyzed, yielding arabinon and supposed) other than protoplasm is required ; the latest disa gum acid of lower molecular weight. The gum acids thus pro- coveries of the organized structure of protoplasm militating duced closely resemble the gum acids existing in the natural against the idea of any other special form of matter. Taking gums, but are less optically active and more insoluble in weak illustrations from the animal and vegetable kingdoms, he alcohol. The most marked difference between these gum acids inquired why two varieties of chickens fed from the first day to and those existing in the natural gums is that they are only full growth were different? It seemed to him more probable that hydrolyzed with difficulty with 2 per cent. sulphuric acid. They the results were due to different arrangements of the same kinds are, however, slowly broken down by several hours' digestion, of molecules rather than to different kinds of "germ-plasm." and acids of successively lower weight are formed. The lowest Ranunculus heterophyllis, he pointed out, produced a "landstage of the hydrolysis is represented by the general equation :- form" and a "water-form" according to its environment ; it C,H39-2.0.0-7.0C,H,O,0 + 30 H,0

therefore exhibited both “beredity" and " acquired characters."

As the materials of its structure were the same in both cases, = CH380,9 + 2nCH.06.

the different results, he considered, must be due to different The compound C 3 H 380g has not yet been obtained in sufficient arrangements of its molecules, and must be effected by forces. quantity for an examination of its properties. Those gum acids The sudden appearance of stomata on the “land-form” illusobtained from Gedda gum are highly dextro-rotatory, whilst trated a case of forces normally "potential ” while the leaf is those from gum arabic, although otherwise identical, are in submerged, becoming “actual" when the leaf developed in air. active.—Some compounds of the oxides of silver and lead, by After some further deductions, Prof. Henslow concluded that Emily Aston. The author finds that on following the direc- protoplasm and the forces bound up with it were perfectly able tions given by Wöhler for the preparation of the compound io do all the work of transmitting parental characters, as well Ag,0,2PbO the product varies in composition. A substance of as to acquire new characters, which in turn might become the composition 2 Ag.O, PbO is obtained when a mixture of lead hereditary as well. and silver hydroxides is allowed to stand in presence of caustic soda, and also by precipitating the mixed nitrates of lead and

Physical Society, November 6.-Dr. E. Atkinson, Vicesilver, and exhaustively extracting with caustic soda. - The President, in the chair. - Prof. Sydney Young read a paper on the electrolysis of potassium acetate solutions, by Dr. T. S. Murray. temperatures, pressures, and volumes, in which he gave the

corresponding On electrolyzing a dilute aqueous solution of potassium acetate only hydrogen and oxygen are evolved; with concentrated solu.

results of an investigation made with a view of testing whether tions a mixture of ethane, hydrogen, oxygen, methyl acetate, and

these theoretical deductions agree with experimental facts.

From his virial equation, carbon dioxide is evolved. On diluting the solution the amount of ethane decreases, at first very slowly, but finally with great rapidity. Reducing the current has a similar influence. With

) (2) - b) = R(I +al), rise in temperature, the ethane diminishes, and ceases to be

Van der Waals showed that, if the absolute temperatures of formed at 100°. In contradiction to Jahn, the author finds that the employment of a large anode reduces the yield of ethane ; the

various substances be proportional to their absolute critical largest yield is obtained with a very small anode ; variations in their critical' pressures, and their volumes, both as liquid and

temperatures, their vapour pressures will be proportional to the cathode do not influence the electrolysis. The results of the experiments are illustrated by curves.

as saturated vapour, will be proportional to their critical volumes. The author believes that

These deductions have now been put to the test of experiment. the ethane is formed, not by partial oxidation of acetic acid, but by a simple interaction of the acetions (CH,COO): He finds relating to the temperatures, pressures

, and specific volumes of

Some years ago, Prof. Ramsay and the author published data that the yields of ethane from equivalent solutions of potassium, methyl

, ethyl-, and propyl-alcohols, ether, and acetic acid. sodium, and calcium acetates are equal.—A new method of Since then, experiments have been made on benzene and its preparing B-dinaphthylene oxide, and the constitution of its halogen derivatives—fuor

, chloro-, bromo-, and iodo-benzenetetra-sulphonic acid, by W. R. Hodgkinson and L. Limpach carbon tetrachloride and stannic chloride, and in a few cases Beta-dinaphthalene oxide is obtained by heating 2: 3' B-naphthol.the observations have been carried to the critical points. The sulphonic acid to low redness; the distillate is freed from Bnaphthol by extraction with alkali, and the residue crystallized with any exactness, the author, instead of expressing the tem

critical volumes being in many cases difficult to determine from acetic acid. It crystallizes in rhombic plates, and melts at

peratures, pressures, and volumes of each substance in terms 153". On sulphonation it yields a tetra-sulphonic acid, which is identical with the product obtained by the continued action of substances with one of them taken as a standard. Fluorbenzene

of their critical values, found it necessary to compare the various sulphuric acid on B-naphthol.

was chosen as standard on account of the very simple relations Linnean Society, November 5.- Prof. Stewart, President, observed between the monohalogen derivatives of benzene, and in the chair. -On behalf of a number of subscribers, Mr. the fact of its critical constants (temperature, pressure, and

+

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volume) having been determined with considerable accuracy, true. According to Prof. Tait, the two states were not conSome of the critical constants of the various substances examined tinuous. Prof. Herschel remarked that Prof. Tait had estab. are given in the following table, the brackets indicating calculated lished his law on the assumption that the co-volume is four values

times the volume occupied by the molecules. This law, he said, had been amply verified by experiments on explosions.

Dr. Burton, referring to Prof. Ramsay's remarks on the comTempera- Pressures Volumes in c.c.'s Substance. tures in in mms.ofl

pressibility of molecules, said the law of force between attract

ing molecules should be accurately known before any deductions gramme cular.

were made ; and he pointed out that, at constant volume, the

pressure should be proportional to the absolute temperature, if Fluorbenzene CeHF 286.55 33,912 2:43 233

allowance be made for the negative pressure of attraction. Mr. Chlorobenzene CeHC1 (360) (33,912) 2*34 (262)

Blakesley, in speaking of molecular forces, said he had observed Bromobenzene C.H;Br (397) (33,912) 1976 (275)

that, when water is allowed to evaporate from glass, a furrow is Iodobenzene CAH, (448) (33,912) 147 (298)

formed in the glass, which marks out the original boundary of Benzene

C.He
36,395 2.82 219

the liquid. To all appearance, the particles of glass are torn Carbon tetrachloride CCI. 283'15 34,180

away by the molecular forces acting along the boundary. Stannic chloride Snci, 31807 28,080

Geological Society, Nov. 11. —Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., Ether

(C,H;),0 19494
27,обо

President, in the chair.—The following communications were Methyl alcohol

CH,OH 2400
59,760

read :-On Dacrytherium ovinum from the Isle of Wight and Ethyl alcohol

C,H3OH 243-1
47,850

Quercy, by R. Lydekker. The author described a cranium and
Propyl alcohol
CH,OH 263*7 38,120

mandible of Dacrytherium Cayluxi from the Quercy phosAcetic acid ... ... CH. COOH 3216 43,400 2.46

147

phorites, which proved the identity of this form with the Dichubune ovina of Owen from the Oligocene of the Isle of Wight.

This species should thus be known as Dacrytherium ovinum. It Other tables of experimental data—including boiling-points at was shown tha tthe mandible referred by Filhol to D. Cayluri corresponding pressures, vapour pressures at corresponding belongs to another animal.- A discussion followed, in which temperatures, molecular volumes of liquid and saturated Mr. Charlesworth and Mr. E. T. Newton took part.-Supplevapours at corresponding pressures and at corresponding tem- mentary remarks on Glen Roy, by T. F. Jamieson. The peratures, and ratios calculated therefrom, accompany the author discusses the conditions that preceded the formation of paper. From these the author infers : (1) that Van der Waals's the Glen Roy Lake, and appeals to a rain-map of Scotland in generalizations are nearly true for chloro-, bromo-, and iodo support of his contention that the main snowfall in glacial times benzene when compared with fluorbenzene ; (2) that for would be on the western mountains. He gives reasons for benzene, carbon tetrachloride, stannic chloride, and ether, the supposing that, previously to the formation of the lake, the generalizations may only be taken as rough approximations valleys of the Lochaber lakes were occupied by ice, and that to the truth ; and (3) that for the three alcohols and acetic the period of the formation of the lakes was that of the decay of acid, they do not hold good at all. The tables further show the last ice-sheet. He supports the correctness of the mapping that more consistent results are obtained when the comparisons of the terraces by the officers of the Ordnance Survey, and are made at corresponding pressures rather than at corresponding shows how the absence of the two upper terraces in Glen Spean temperatures, particularly in the case of molecular volumes of and of the highest terrace in Glen Glaster simplifies the explanasaturated vapours. The subject of saturated vapours is also tion of the formation of the lakes by ice-barriers. The alluvium treated by another method. If Van der Waals's deductions of Bohuntine is considered to be the gravel and mud that fell into were strictly true, then the ratios of the actual densities of the the lake from the front of the ice when it stood at the mouth of saturated vapours of different substances to their theoretical Glen Roy during the formation of the two upper lines. During densities should be equal at corresponding pressures.

These

the last siage of the lake, the ice in the valley of the Caledonian ratios have therefore been calculated, and show an approximate Canal is believed to have constituted the main barrier, whilst agreement amongst benzene and its halogen derivatives, carbon the Corry N'Eoin glacier played only a subordinate part. The tetrachloride, stannic chloride, and ether. For the other author suggests the possibility of a debacle during the drop of substances the agreement is less satisfactory. It is also noted water from the level of the highest to that of the middle terrace, that the ratio of the actual critical density to the theoretical and in support of this calls

attention to the breaking down of density is for many substances about 4'4. The alcohols differing the moraines of the Treig glacier at the mouth of the Rough so widely from the other compounds, were compared amongst Burn. He believes that when the water dropped to the level of themselves instead of with fluorbenzene, with the result that the lowest terrace, it drained away quietly, at any rate until it somewhat closer agreement was found, but the deviations were receded from Upper Glen Roy. In discussing Nicol's objections, still far outside the limits of experimental error. Of the critical | he maintains that notches would not be cut at the level of the constants the volumes are the most difficult to determine, because cols, and observes that the discrepancy between the heights of at the critical point the curves connecting temperature and the terraces and those of the cols has probably been increased by volume, and pressure and volume, are parallel to the axes of the growth of peat over most of the ground about the watervolume. Accordingly, the author, in some cases, has deduced sheds. The horizontality of the terraces is stated to be a fact, this quantity by plotting against temperature the numbers and cases are given where waterworn pebbles are found in representing the ratios of the molecular volumes both of liquid connection with the “ roads," these being especially noticeable and saturated vapour to those of fluorbenzene at corresponding in places where the south-west winds would fully exert their temperatures and also at corresponding pressures. Four curves influence, and the structure of the terraces is considered to be result, which should intersect at the critical temperature, and such as would be produced at the margins of ice-dammed lakes, the point of intersection gives the ratio of the molecular Further information is supplied concerning the distribution of critical volume of the substance to that of fluor-benzene. This the boulders of Glen Spean syenite. These are found on the method leads to results in fair accord with direct determina- north side of tbe Spean Valley, at the height of 2000 feet above tions. In the discussion which followed the reading of the the sea and 1400 feet above the river, and fragments of the paper, Prof. Ramsay said the results proved that Van der syenite have been carried towards the north-east, north, and Waals's generalizations were only rough approximations, and he north-west. In an appendix, the author discusses Prof. Prestsuggested that some force bad been neglected or a term omitted wich's remarks on the deltas, and his theory of the formation of from the equations. Perhaps the assumption that the molecules the terraces. After some remarks from Prof. Bonney and Mr. are incompressible was not correct. He also strongly protested Marr, the President said he agreed that no explanation that had against the tacit assumption of Van der Waals's laws, and yet been proposed for the parallel roads of Lochaber was free deductions made therefrom, which had recently become so from difficulties. Yet he had long felt that these were far fewer common, particularly in German text-books. Prof. Perry and less formidable in the glacier theory than in any other. inquired whether the quantities a, b, and a, had been deter- Had the terraces been marine, there ought surely to be similar mined for different substances and found to be constant. Prof. terraces in some at least of the hundreds of sheltered glens in Ramsay said that for substances in states analogous to those of the Scottish Highlands, where the conditions for their formation perfect gases, the quantities were approximately constant, but and preservation were at least as favourable as in Glen Roy and when the liquid state was approached this was no longer | its adjacent valleys. And though the absence of marine shells in the Lochaber shelves might not be a serious difficulty, it was investigation it seems that the increase in the length of the day hard to understand why such shells should not be found in many produced by tidal action is almost the same in amount as the localities had the whole country been submerged to the height decrease resulting from the secular contraction of the earth due of the higbest Glen Roy "road.” Then no satisfactory ex- to its cooling, so the length of the siderenl day remains practically planation on the marine theory had ever been given of the invariable. -On the research on the number of roots common to coincidence of the terraces with well-marked cols; while a several simultaneous equations, by M. Émile Picard. -On the further formidable objection to this theory lay in the nature and law of intensity of lighi emitted by phosphorescent bodies, by distribution of the detritus of the shelves, which, in his opinion, M. Henri Becquerel. A correction to a formula given in a was very unlike material arranged in a tidal sea, but was quite previous paper. - The heat of formation of hydrazine and of what might be looked for in a freshwater lake. He thought hydrazoic acid, by MM. Berthelot and Matignon. Hydrasinethat the author's present paper lessened some of the difficulties (1) Heat of solution of hydrazine sulphate at 10°•6 is - 8.70 of the glacier theory by simplifying the grouping of the ice cal. per molecule. (2) Heat of neutralization : (a) by sulphuric dams. There still remained the objection that is the Great acid + 5'55 cal. per equivalent ; (') by hydrochloric acid + 52 Glen and the valleys round Ben Nevis were choked up with ice, cal. per equivalent. Hydrazine is therefore a weak base comGlen Roy and its neighbours could hardly have been filled with parable to ferric oxide (3) Heat of combustion of 1 mol. water. But this difficulty, which every glacialist must have felt, crystallized hydrazine sulphate = + 127.7 cal. (4) Heat of was probably more formidable in appearance than in reality. formation N,H, = - 4*75 cal. Hydrazoic acid-(1) Heat of As Mr. Marr had pointed out, conditions did actually now solution of ammonium salt, = - 7'08 cal. per mol. (2) Heat exist in Greenland very similar to those which, according to the of neutralization : (a) by baryta water + 10'0 cal. ; (6) by amtheory so ably expounded by the a uthor, formerly existed in monia + 8'2 cal. Hydrazoic acid, dilute, is comparable to Lochaber.

amidobenzoic acid, superior to hyponitrous acid. (3) Heat of Royal Meteorological Society, November 18.—Mr. Baldwin combustion of the am. salt + 163-8 cal. per mol. at constant Latham, President, in the chair. -Mr. R. H. Scott, F.R.S.,

volume, and + 163*3 cal. at constant pressure, by explosion in gave an account of the proceedings of the International Meteoro- compressed oxygen. (4) Heat of formation of am. salt: (a) logical Conference, which was held at Munich from August 26 crystallized - 25*3 cal. ; (6) in solution - 32'3 cal. Heat of to September 2.- The following papers were also read :-AC

formation of the free acid in dilute solution = -616 cal. -Oxi. count of an electric self-recording rain-gauge, by Mr. W. J. E.

dation of nickel carbonyl, by M. Berthelot. (See Notes.) Binnie. This is a very ingenious instrument, and has been con

Tables of Vesta, by M. G. Leveau. A comparison of the meridian structed on the assumption that all drops falling from an orifice, observations made of the minor planet Vesta, from January to or tube are identical in weight, as long as the dimensions of the April 1890, with positions given in the Nautical Almanac, and orifice are not varied. -On wet and dry bulb formulæ, by Prof.

in an ephemeris computed by means of M. Leveau's tables of I. D. Everett, F.R.S. This is a criticism of the methods this planet. The tables are founded on 5000 meridian observainvestigated some years ago by M. August and Dr. Apjohn for

tions made between 1807 and 1888, and the masses taken for determining, by calculation, the maximum vapour tension for Jupiter and Mars, respectively, are 1/1045 63 and 1/3,648,000. the dew point from the temperatures of the dry and wet bulb.

The mean differences of position are greater in the Nautical Prof. Everett also criticizes the values adopted by Regnault, and Almanac than in M. Leveau's ephemeris, both in right ascension says that, in presence of the uncertainty as to a rational formula, and declination.-On secular variations of eccentricities and inhe thinks Mr. Glaisher did wisely in constructing his table of clinations, by M. J. Perchot.--On linear differential equations, factors, which give the dew point approximately by the most

by M. André Markoff. - On the dielectric power, by M. Julien direct calculation which is admissible. The inherent difficulties Lefebvre. From experiments described, the following mean di. of hygrometric observation and deduction are great, and have

electric constants have been derived : sulphur (flower and roll), not yet been fully overcome.-- Results of meteorological 3:6; sulphur, cast in rolls six months previously, 39; ice, observations made at Akassa, Niger Territories, May 1889 different specimens, 345 and 24; ebonite, 2-3; paraffin, to December 1890, by Mr. F. Russell, F.R.G.S. This is in brown, 2'i, white, 2'o; petroleum, 19; carbon bisulphide, continuation of a former communication respecting the same 1'7; spirits of turpentine, 1'5. The results agree fairly well place. After detailing the results of the various observations,

with those obtained by Gordon. M. Lefebvre also finds that the author says that this period was very unhealthy, and the

the dielectric constant of sulphur increases with the time. - On year 1890 especially so. The weather was exceptionally dry, an application of photography to the polariscope, by MM. with small.pox and phthsis amongst the native population. The

Chauvin and Charles Fabre. -Action of light on ruthenium West Coast reports generally were also unfavourable in reference peroxide, by M. A. Joly. ---Salts formed by oxygen compounds to the condition of resident Europeans, and at the principal of ruthenium inferior to ruthenic and heptaruthenic acids, by M. ports quarantine regulations were put in force consequent upon A. Joly.-On the iodonitroso and bro nonitroso compounds of an outbreak of yellow fever in places situated to the south-west. platinum, by M. M. Vezes. On the coloration of solutions of At Bonny ten deaths occurred from November to February out

cobalt, and the state of its salts in solution, by M. A. Étard. of a population of some sixteen Europeans.

The nitration of silk, by MM. Léo Vignon and P. Sisley.-On

the implanting of large pieces of decalcified bone to fill up losses SYDNEY.

of the substance of the skeleton, by M. Le Dentu. It has been Royal Society of New South Wales, September 2.-H.

found that pieces of decalcified bone Substituted for a portion or c. Russell, F.R.S., President, in the chair. - The following which, before disappearing, allows the periosteum or the osseous

the whole of a diseased bone plays the part of a temporary support papers were read :-On a wave-propelled vessel, by Lawrence Hargrave.-Notes on a spontaneous disease among Australian

tissue sufficient time to reconstruct a new bone. -On some rabbits , by M. Adrien Loir. —Notes on recent celestial photo. phenomena of reproduction of Cirrhipedes, by M. A. Gruvel.

– graphs, by H. C. Russell, F.R.S.-Some folk-songs and myths On the age of the fauna of Samos, by Mr. Forsyth Major.-On from Samoa, by Rev. G. Pratt and Dr. John Fraser.- A quick

a Neolithic flint working (exploitation) of a new type, by M. filter without the aid of pumps was exhibited and described by

Armand Viré. W. M. Hamlet.

BERLIN. October 7.-H. C. Russell, F.R.S., President, in the chair.

Physiological Society, October 30.-Prof. du Bois-Reymond, - The following papers were read :-Notes on the use, con

President, in the chair.-Prof. Gad reported on experiments, struction, and cost of service reservoirs, by C. W. Darley.-Dr.

conducted under his direction by Dr. Schtscherbak, on the Fraser presented some myths and historical records from Samoa. alteration of the movements of eating in rabbits which result The myths had reference to an ancient practice of offering every

from removal of certain parts of the cerebrum. day a human sacrifice to the sun, and to a chief called "Malie- Meteorological Society, November 3.-Prof. Schwalbe, loa the Fierce," and showed how that was stopped. The President, in the chair.—Dr. Zenker spoke on the relationhistories were chiefly genealogies of the kings of Manu'a. ship of solar radiation, as it would really occur if the sun were

directly overhead and there were no atmosphere, to the actually PARIS.

existing and observed temperatures of stations, taking into acAcademy of Sciences, November 16.—M. Duchartre in the count their proximity to oceans and continents. - Prof. Hellmann chair.-On the secular acceleration of the moon and the varia- made a short communication on the recent experiments in bility of the sidereal day, by M. F. Tisserand. From the author's America on the artificial production of rain.

Physical Society, November 6.-Prof. du Bois-Reymond, President, in the chair.—Dr. Raps explained certain modifica. tions which he had introduced into his automatic mercurial air-pumps, and de constrated the action of the pump on a Geissler tube, which he rapidly exhausted so completely that a phosphorescent light made its appearance in it.—The President made some remarks on photographs of the human retina. Prof. Kundt described Dr. Zehnder's new and simple differential. refractor, an instrument by means of which the two rays destined to produce interference may be kept some 50 to 100 cm. apart, and be subjected separately to varying experimental conditions.

LONDON INSTITUTION, at 6.- The Tower of Babel and Confusion o

Tongues (Illustrated): Theo. G. Pinches.
CAMERA CLUB, at 8.30.-On Toning Bromide Paper and Transparencies
(with Demonstration and Illustrations) : A. R. Dresser.

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 4.
PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 5:-On a Permanent Magnetic Field: W. Hibbert.

-Note on the Production of Rotatory Currents : Prof. Ayrton, F.R.S.
GEOLOGISTS' ASSOCIATION, at 8.-Supplementary Observations on some

Fossil Fishes from the English Lower Oolites : Arthur Smith Woodward.

-Organic Matter as a Geological Agent: Rev. A. Irving.
INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 2.--Students' Visit to inspect the

New Refrigerating Plant at Nelson's Wharf, Commercial Road, Lambeth.
CAMERA CLUB, at 8.-Retouching : Redmond Barrett.

76

17 77

BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

Books.-Leçons sur les Métaux, and fasc. : A. Ditte (Paris, Dunod).

Hand-book to the Geology of Derbyshire, and edition : J. M. Mello (BemLONDON.

rose). - Annals of British Geology, 1890: J. F. Blake (Dulau).--The Ouse: THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 26.

A. Ji Foster (S.P.C.K.). --Hand-book of Psychology-Feeling and Will ;

J. M. Baldwin (Macmillan). -Index-Catalogue of the Library of the ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.-On Instability of Periodic Motion : Sir William Surgeon General's Office, U.S. Army, vol. xii. (Washington). - Electricity

Thomson, Pres.R.S.-A New Mode of Respiration in the Myriapoda : F. tested Experimentally, 3rd edition : L. Cumming (Longmans).- Problems ! G. Sinclair.-Further Observations on the Gestation of Indian Rays : J. in Chemical Arithmetic: E. J. Cox (Percival). -An Account of British Wood-Mason and A. Alcock.-On some Variations observed in the

Flies, vol. i. Part 2: F. W. Theobald (Stock).-A Treatise on the GeoRabbit's Liver under certain Physiological and Pathological Circum- metry of the Circle: W. J. McClelland (Macmillan). -Beast and Man in stances : Dr. Brunton, F.R.S., and Dr. Delépine.--On the Electromotive India : J. I.. Kipling (Macmillan). - Principles of Agriculture : edited by Phenomena of the Mammalian Heart : W. M. Bayliss and Dr. E. H. R. P. Wright (Blackie).

Elementary Inorganic Chemistry, new edition: Starling.

A. H. Sexton (Blackie). -Euclid, Book XI.: A. E. Layng (Blackie). INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Description of the PAMPHLETS:-Water and Water-Supply: J. Hopkinson (Hereford).

Standard Volt and Ampere Meter used at the Ferry Works, Thames History of Liberia : J. H. T. McPherson (Baltimore). — The Nuptial Ditton : Captain H. R. Sankey (late R. E.) and F. V. Andersen.

Number of Plato : J. Adam (Clay). LONDON INSTITUTION, at 6.- On the Spread of Commerce in Europe in SERIALS.--Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 53 Band, 1 Heft Prehistoric Times : Prof. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S.

(Williams and Norgate). -Cyclone Memoirs, Part 4; W. L. Dallas (Calcutta). CAMERA CLUB, at 8.30.-Some Analogous Aspects of Painting, Music, and - Journal of the Anthropological Institute, November (K. Paul). -Govern. Poetry (Musical and Pictorial Illustrations) : Rev. F. C. Lambert.

ment of India Meteorological Department, Monthly. Weather Review.

Mar ar April 1891 (Calcutta).-Indian Meteorological Memoirs, vol. iv., FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 27.

Part 7 (Calcutta).
INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 7.30.—Modern Railway Carriages :

Walter Clemence.
CAMERA CLUB, at 8.-Retouching: Redmond Barrett.
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 28.

CONTENTS.

PAGE Royal BOTANIC SOCIETY, at 3:45. Essex Field CLUB, at 6.30 (at Loughton).-On some Ancient Lake Re- Electro-magnetism. By Prof. A. Gray.

73 mains at Felstead, with Notes on other similar Remains in the District :

Fungus Eating J. French.—The Life-History of the Hessian Fly: F. Enock.

75 “Extension Psychology." By C. LI. M.

76 SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 29.

Our Book Shelf:-
SUNDAY LECTURE SOCIETY, at 4.-How came the Great Ice Age? (with
Oxyhydrogen Lantern Illustrations): Sir Robert S. Ball, F.R.S.

Dobbin : “Arithmetical Exercises in Chemistry

Pamely : “ The Colliery Manager's Hand-book."-C.
MONDAY, NOVEMBER 30.
ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.-Anniversary Meeting.

L. N. F.
SOCIETY OF Arts, a1 E.-The Pigments and Vehicles of the Old Masters :
A. P. Laurie.

Mills : “Photography Applied to the Microscope"
ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Conversazione.

Flammarion : “Copernic et la Découverte du Système ARISTOTELIAN Society, at 8.-Croll's Philosophical Basis of Evolution : Arthur Boutwood.

du Monde.”—G. ....

77 LONDON INSTITUTION, at 5.-Recent Progress in Astronomy (Illustrated): Blake: “Annals of British Geology, 1890" Sir Robert Ball, F.R.S.

77 CAMERA CLUB, at 8.30.- Lantern Evening.

Letters to the Editor:

78 TUESDAY, DECEMBER 1.

Warning Colours.-Frank E. Beddard
ZOOLOGICAL Society, at 8.30.-Notes on Transcaspian Reptiles : G. A.

The Salts in Natural Waters.-R. B. H.
Boulenger.- Further Descriptions of New Butterflies from British East Mental Arithmetic.-Clive Cuthbertson,
Africa, collected by Mr. F. J. Jackson during his Recent Expedition,
Part íl.: Miss E. M. Sharpe.-On the Association of Gamasids with A Rare Phenomenon.—Alexander Graham Bell

79 Ants : A. D. Michael.-Notes on the Bornean Rhinoceros : Edward Bartlett.

Henry Nottidge Moseley, F.R.S. By Prof. E. Ray INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.- Monthly Ballot for Members.- Lankester, F.R.S. ....

79 Renewed Discussion on Portland Cement and Portland-Cement Concrete : Messrs. Banber, Carey. and Smith.

On the Virial of a System of Hard Colliding Bodies.
WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 2.
By Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S.

80 SOCIETY OF Arts, at 8.-Secondary Batteries: G. H. Robertson.

The Implications of Science. II. By Dr. St. George EVTOMOLOGICAL Society, at 7.-Notes on Lycæna (recte Thecla) Rhymnus, Mivart, F.R.S. ...

82 Tengstræmii, and Pretiosa : George T. Baker.- The Effects of Artificial Temperature on the Colouring of Vanessa urticæ and certain other Species Examinations in Science of Lepidoptera : Frederic Merrifield.-On the Variation in the Colour of

Notes ...
the Cocoons of Eriogaster lanestris and Saturnia carpini : W. Bateson
(communicated by Dr. D. Sharp, F.R.S.).

Our Astronomical Column :-
THURSDAY, DECEMBER 3.
Determination of the Solar Parallax

89 Chemical SOCIETY, at 8.-Ballot for the Election of Fellows.-Phosphorus

Photometric Observations . .

90 Oxide, Part II. : Prof. Thorpe, F.R.S., and A. E. Tu.ton.-On Frangulin, The Pamirs ... Part II. : Prof. Thorpe and Dr. A. K. Miller.-The Structure and Cha

90 racter of Flames: A. Smithels and H. Tingle. --The Composition of Elizabeth Thompson Science Fund

91 Cooked Vegetables : Miss K. J. Williams.-On the Occurrence of a Mydicatic Alkaloid in Lettuce: T. S. Dymond.-On some Metallic

University and Educational Intelligence

92 Hydrosulphides: S. E. Linder and H. Picton.-On the Physical Consti- Scientific Serials

92 tution of some Solutions of Insoluble Sulphides : Harold Picton. --Solution and Pseudo-Solution : H. Picton and S. E. Linder.

Societies and Academies
LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-A Contribution to the Freshwater Algæ of the
West of Ireland: W. West. -The Tick Pest in Jamaica : Dr. W. H. W.

Diary of Societies.
Strachan.

Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received

.

78 78

85 85

.

.

92 96

.

96

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 3, 1891.

figure among the requisites for the work, and grow in strength as it proceeds. Surely the finishing touch in a geologist's education is given by the making of a geo

logical map. FIELD GEOLOGY.

That the art cannot be learned from books alone, goes Outlines of Field Geology. By Sir Archibald Geikie, without saying ; that books can do but little towards F.R.S. (London: Macmillan and Co., 1891.)

teaching it, may be safely maintained. But there is no EOLOGISTS, we are sometimes told, are a com- reason why a master should not in

the impeachment has a spice of truth in it. They may pursuit by an eloquent description of its charms. And take comfort when they reflect that no serious conse- that a book which deals with field-geology has been found quences have ever followed from this tendency, in spite of of service, and that geologists are not averse to hear the the facilities which the formidable weapons they carry praises of their favourite employment, are proved by the with them offer for pushing it to an extreme. Their fact that the little book on this subject by the Directorhealthy out-door life prompts banter, and the passes are General of the Geological Survey is now in its fourth apt to be so quick and keen that the uninitiated may be edition. pardoned if they think the buttons are off the foils.

The work is primarily addressed to geologists, but it The meetings of the Geological Society have witnessed appeals also to those who have no claim to so distinctive many a sharp passage of arms. It may be permissible a title, and no wish for it. It shows how much pleasure to recall one. A well-known member of the brotherhood, may be derived from an acquaintance with the science no safe long ago among the majority, of large and varied ex- larger than any intelligent person may easily acquire ; perience, was indulging in just a little brag about the how even this moderate amount of knowledge enhances broad areas he had surveyed. The retort came sharp the enjoyment of travel and of the daily walk. But let and quick from one whose quips and cranks are now alas the author speak for himself. heard no more: “Where are your maps?” And the contemptuous answer was, that the chief requisites for offers many attractions. Few men are so unobservant as

“To those who are fond of country rambles geology geological mapping were a stout pair of legs and sound

not to be struck, now and then, by at least the more wind. There were elements of truth in this lively salient features of a landscape. Even in a flat, featureless sparring, despite its extravagance.

country, the endless and apparently capricious curvings of It is a truism that need hardly be repeated, that geology the sluggish streams may occasionally suggest the quescannot be learned without out-door work, and geological tion why such serpentine courses should ever have been excursions are a necessary item in all geological teaching and breaks out into hills or crags ; still more, when it But what do they amount to ? There is a leader who

towers into rugged mountains, cleft by precipices down knows the country well. He selects a line along which which the torrents are ever pouring, and by ravines in sections follow one another in close succession. The ex- the depths of which the hoarse streams ceaselessly posures are so plentiful and near together that even the murmur, one can hardly escape the natural curiosity to beginner realizes without difficulty the order in which the know something about these singular aspects of the several rock-groups follow one above the other, and there should be precisely

as they are."

landscape, when and how they arose, and why they are ample opportunities for mastering their lithological character and fossil contents. A longitudinal section is Our author goes on to say that “the day is now hapreadily constructed, and figures with more or less of mis- pily past when the sterner features of the land awakened conception in the note-book of each of the party. An only a feeling of horror ; when they were styled hideous admirable start this. But what is it compared with the and unsightly ; when they were never visited save under mental discipline that goes along with the making of a

the necessities of travel, and were always left behind geological map, and the grip of the subject that results with a sense of relief.” That the appreciation of the from this form of geological work? There is as much beauty of mountain scenery is a taste of modern growth difference between the two as between that form of sport can hardly be disputed. It is open to question whether which consists in riding behind a pack of hounds who the comforts of modern travel have not done as much to follow a trailed herring, and the stalking of deer in their foster it, as a scientific curiosity to know how the forms native wilds.

which charm our eye were produced. But, however this It is in mapping more than in any of its other branches may be, the awakening and the satisfying of such curiosity that geology rises to the level of an educational tool. are added items to the stock of pleasures which the lover Here there must be the instinctive skill, acquired by long of Nature derives from her wilder aspects. practice, which leads the surveyor to select in his pre

Some of the inducements to field-work having been liminary work the traverses most likely to give a broad thus attractively put forward, the author defines the aim view of the structure of the district he is working over ; of the book. The student the patience which forbids, when the first rough sketch “must betake himself to Nature from the first. His comes to be filled in, that a single square yard of ground lessons in the field should accompany his lessons shall be left unvisited, lest some bit of evidence should be from the text-book or lecture-room. In many cases he missed ; and the constructive power which pieces together The following chapters are offered for his help.

must grope his way without guide or assistance. the accumulated mass of multifarious data into a con

Their aim is to point out how observations may be made, sistent whole. Keenness of eye, neatness of hand, judg- what kinds of data should be looked for, what sort of ment, unwearied application, and chastened imagination evidence should be sought to establish a conclusion, and

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