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plunge into the filth of factious poli- English-So straight-forward, artless, tics, and to become leaders of the rab steady, and courageous, that no one ble, against all that is dear to the could refrain from revering him whose country?-5. Will it produce public heart was an English one. He has good, for the nation to be informed ever scorned factious deeds he has that the men who have been degraded ever disdained to court popularity-he and punished, and who owe their has ever proved to every one that he wretched notoriety to their enmity to heard nothing but his conscience, and our best institutions, and their efforts saw nothing but his country. If his to produce public convulsion, are alike colleagues

were dismayed by perils, he honourable and deserving ? If the an was the hero to re-nerve them-if swers be-No! what are we to think they were seduced by interest, he was of the parliamentary praise which has the patriot to bring them back to their been bestowed on Mr Wilson and duty—if they abandoned him, he Lord Cochrane?

fought the good fight without them We do not say this for the sake of and triumphed. Whatever others may doing disservice to these persons ; if

have done, Lord Eldon has never comthe matter affected their personal in promised his friends—Lord Eldon has terests alone, Mr Canning and Sir J. never conciliated away his creed-Lord Mackintosh might splice them toge Eldon has never concealed his sentither; and make a two-headed four ments, to escape sarcasm and slander legged king of them, and it would ex -Lord Eldon has never for a moment cite in us only merriment. But they deviated from that glorious path, which are used as the instruments for de can only be trod by the best and the stroying the foundations of society, greatest. Against this illustrious inand therefore it is our duty to disable dividual, charges were made, which, them as far as we can for being put no matter how it was denied, were to such use any longer. This duty evidently meant to destroy his chanothing shall prevent us from dis racter for both ability and integrity, charging. The eulogies which have to cover him with parliamentary cenbeen heaped upon these mountebanks, sure, and to drive him in disgrace are directly levelled against all the from office. These charges notoriousdistinctions between honour and dis ly originated in the most unworthy honour, between guilt and innocence, motives, and they were only supportbetween merit and demerit; and they ed by the assertions of those who are calculated to teach the community brought them, and which were proved to follow dishonour, guilt, and deme to be monstrously untrue. It might rit alone. So long as our rulers hold have been expected that the members such persons up to public admiration, to a man would have started from it will be a mockery in them to define their seats in indignation, to defend a crime, to make laws, and to call upon public servant like Lord Eldon, and the people to be innocent, peaceable, that they would have spurned from and well-affected.

them charges, thus made and thus supAfter having thus acted towards Mr ported, by acclamation. But no! the Wilson and Lord Cochrane, how did House of Commons, which, according the House of Commons act towards to the papers, heard Wilson's nauseous Lord Eldon ? Here is a man who pos- boasting with delight, and cheered the sesses the most rare talents and ac proposition for replacing Lord Cochquirements, who combines these with rane in the navy, actually divided on the the most rare qualities of conduct, and question, whether the Lord Chancelwho has employed the whole in the lor should or should not be visited most beneficial manner possible for with parliamentary condemnation un. his country, for the longest period heard-whether he should or should that human life will admit of. Com not without trial have his fame blastpare him with such people as Brough ed, and be covered with ignominy ! am and Mackintosh-compare his These matters we conceive to be of views, principles, and life, with theirs, the very highest public import. Only and en his gigantic powers, his let our rulers convince the nation that splendid virtues, and his invaluable such men as Wilson and Lord Cochservices, will be correctly judged of. rane are spotless and meritorious peoIndependently of these, his conduct ple ; and that such as Lord Eldon are throughout has been so - thoroughly the contrary; and they need do no

thing more to ruin the nation. The to the hope that these demagogues, in whole that is valuable to us, stands case of renewed troubles, would shew

upon the old distinctions between the more forbearance towards the govern* worthless and the deserving--between ment than formerly, an idiot would good and evil. Conduct like this can not indulge it. not fail, if persisted in, of blasting. In so far as Conciliation is meant to public spirit-of leading public func- destroy party spirit, it is levelled against tionaries to scorn honour and honesty the best interests of the state. Party -of corrupting public feeling-of spirit is the soul of public spirit; it is blinding public judgment and of the guardian of the public weal. What

producing everything that the worst the friends of the nation have to do, is · enemy of the state would wish to wit to keep parties properly balanced, and ness.

to keep them under the guidance of We are well aware that all this is proper leaders. The tremendous danto be ascribed to the new systems of gers through which we so lately passConciliation and Liberality. We wish ed, were brought upon us, not by the from our souls that some member of existence of party spirit, but by the the new trimming school would write base conduct of those who led the para book to explain these systems, and ties opposed to the government. The to advocate them. The distinctions of Whig heads slandered the King—they which we have spoken are either just, attacked royalty in the abstract-they or they are unjust ; no sophistry or waged war, not

merely against the Micant phrases can prove that they are nisters, but against the legislature, the both--that black is both black and aristocracy, the church, the magiswhite in the same moment. If they tracy, and the whole of our political be just, maintain them if they be and social system ; and while they did unjust, abolish them. If it make no this, their coadjutors, the Radical chiefs, difference whether men be honest or deluged the country with the most knavish, honourable or dishonourable, abominable calumnies and falsehoods virtuous or vicious, loyal or seditious, to prove it. When the leaders thus tell us so in plain English ; but do not applied every incitement to rebellion say that the laws which have hitherto to their followers that could be applied, governed society ought to be observed, it was perfectly natural that these foland then stigmatize us as bigots, be- lowers should become rebellious, and cause we treat those who violate them it is certain that this was the cause of as offenders.

their being so. Government at this Looking at this merely as a matter moment, instead of Conciliating, ought of policy, we think it the worst that to exert itself to the utmost to destroy, could be followed. The demagogues as public men and party leaders, all who acted so depraved a part during who then acted the demagogue-it our late convulsions, are now deserted ought to exert itself to the utmost to by the multitude ; they are scorned by place the Opposition exclusively under every one ; they lie at the lowest point the guidance of such men as the Marof contempt and helplessness; and it quis of Lansdown, Mr Calcraft, and is this, and this alone, which keeps Mr Baring. It may call the feeding them peaceable. The courtesy and and caressing of such people as Waithkindness which they receive from some man, Wilson, Hobhouse, &c., when of the Ministers cannot possibly have they are forsaken by all beside, Conciany other effect than to raise them liation ; but it will speedily find that again, to give them power, and to this is something of a very different make them once more mischievous. nature, or we are much mistaken. Wilson was ruined, utterly ruined, Passing to other matters, it must and the Ministers have restored him give sincere grief to every friend of the to character and to influence. What country, to find that so many barristers are our lower orders to think when have got into the House of Commons, they see Waithman, Wilson, Hob- and that they take so large a share in house, Hume, &c., complimented by the transacting of public business. Of such men as Lord Liverpool and Mr those who were only educated for the Canning ? They must believe that bar, and who forsook it for political those persons are really upright, know- life before they became immersed in ing, and worthy of being followed. As practice, we do not speak; our words VOL. XVI.


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apply only to the hacks-10 such as ever. As to any use that barristers Brougham, Derman, Williams, &c. are of in the House of Commons, they We do not wish to cast groundless cen are of comparatively none, as far as sure on any body of men ; but we will the country is concerned. We agree say, because our words are amply jus- in a reinark made by the late lamented tified by history, that barristers are Marquis of Londonderry, that they disqualified, by their habits and occu are disabled by their habits for taking pations, for being members of the le correct views of great state questions. gislature. They are not, perhaps, The debates on the Manchester meetworse by nature than other men, but ingon the charges against Lord Elthey are apprenticed to, and they don—with regard to the introduction spend their lives in, that which must of the Queen's nameinto the Liturgyincapacitate them for discharging the and on the case of Smith, abundantly duty of a Member of Parliament. Their prove that their party-spirit renders regular calling is to say for hire any- them worse than useless in the disthing that is put into their mouths, cussion of mere legal matters. With whether true or false, whether just regard to new laws, it is the princior unjust; and we are very certain ples of these laws which have to be that, admitting exceptions, men in ge- debated, and barristers are incapable neral cannot follow a calling like this, of debating them ; and speaking merewithout having their principles cor- ly of the drawing up of the laws, the rupted.

acts that issue from the House geneWe will refer in proof of this, not only rally testify, that they could not be to the history of all legislative assem more faulty than they are, if there. blies thatever existed, since lawyers be were not a lawyer in it. came a distinct portion of mankind, Passing on the late Session increases but to the history of our own Parlia- the sorrow which has been so long ment—to that of the existing House felt, that eloquence should have fallen of Commons. Brougham is a man of to so low a point in the House of Comgreat abilities and acquirements, and mons. The debates form the grand yet what is his parliamentary con source to which the nation at large reduct? What are his speeches, with re sorts for instruction in state matters, gard to truth, integrity, just views, and they will now rarely supply such and right feelings? When we hear instruction. Compared with the dehim in the House of Commons, we bates of former times, they make us hear nothing but the special pleader of ashamed of our present statesmen. If a party-nothing but the counsel, who Mr Canning had gone to India, weak for this party will say anything or do as the Opposition is in speakers, it anything, no matter what the conse would have driven the Ministers out quences may be to the country. We of the House by superiority of oratory. can scarcely forbear exclaiming-what Were Mr Canning to be abstracted a noble statesman has been hereruined from his side of the House, there is by the fraud and chicanery of the bar! not at present a single individual in Great as his powers are, a balance be- it capable of leading it; and if we extween the good and the evil that he cept Mr Peel, there is scarcely a sinhas occasioned since he became a gle young man on the Tory side, who member of the legislature, might make shews any promise of ever becoming a us shudder. Denman would be still commanding speaker. It frequently more mischievous than Brougham, enough happens, that when truth and were he not nearly destitute of talent. reason are on the side of Ministers, That the House has patience to lis- they are worsted in debate by their ten to the interminable and violent inferiority in point of eloquence. This speeches of this weak man, on all proves against them a neglect of duty, manner of subjects, amazes us, for as well as of interest, and we fear the these speeches are actually intolerable time is not far distant, when they will in a newspaper. As to Williams, we bitterly deplore their negligence. Mr need only say, that the proceedings Peel does not appear to cultivate his respecting the Lord Chancellor, and capabilities, and he rather sinks than the “ facts” that were cited to sup- rises as an orator. We lament this port the charges against him, would deeply. He may, if he pleases, in a well justify a law for excluding prac- less space of time than ten years, betising barristers from Parliament for come the most powerful man in the

empire; the nation reveres his charac- ment, the Pope himself sent his reter and conduct, and the mighty of script to silence all who might gainsay the land are with him in principles : us. Who, after reading this letter of those who think as he thinks, are all his holiness, will dare to say that powerful in the State, and they will Popery is changed, and that it will continue to be so. But he will never admit any Protestant into heaven? become this, if he do not make him It is a matter of rejoicing that these self a powerful orator. It has been two topics—the two grand levers of said, that s

Eloquence is the bridle disaffection and madness--are now with which a wise man rides that powerless. How the causes which renmonster of the world, the people ;" der them so act upon their friends, we and, in spite of the contempt with need not describe. which eloquence is spoken of by those Of the remission of taxes that was to whom it is denied, we believe this made we shall say nothing ; but we to be strictly true. No Minister can will say something with regard to the carry the people along with him by remission that is contemplated. If we his ability and virtues, if he cannot are plunged into war-and the politicarry the House of Commons and the cal horizon is by no means a serene people along with him by his elo- one--we shall in the first two or three quence. Let Mr Peel reflect upon years render our debt what it was this, let him calculate how much Mr when the last war closed ; and we Canning owes to his eloquence, and shall be again saddled with the whole let him labour without ceasing to of the taxes which have been remitted make himself a powerful orator. We since that period. What we shall have need not say, that we do not under to do afterwards can be foreseen by stand the term eloquence to mean every one. Now, when this is the fact, florid froth and declamation, but such when every class in the nation is in a speeches as were delivered by Pitt, state of prosperity, and when our preBurke, and Fox, and such as are deli sent load of taxes sits lightly upon us, vered by Canning, and, when he will would it not be wise to speak more of be honest, by Brougham.

a reduction of debt, and less of a reGlancing from these matters to the peal of taxes ? We regard it to be in business that was transacted in the disputable—we are certain that to do last Session, if we find in it something our duty, to pay only common regard to censure, we likewise find in it some to our interests, we should raise the thing to applaud and rejoice over. sinking fund to eightor ten millions be“ Reform,” and “ Catholic Emanci- fore we repealed another penny of taxes. pation," have been laid upon the shelf The chase of spurious popularity is, by their friends, although we have however, now the rage with all sides, been so long told, that they were and we must not, therefore, expect indispensable for saving the empire that any unpopular care will be taken from ruin. The first is “ laid by,” of the public interests, however loudly because, now that treason is silent, no it may be called for by wisdom. one will ask for it; and as to the se We must, of course, say something cond, its supporters have been cone of the principles of free trade, as they strained to confess, that the conduct are called, when they are so loudly of the Catholics themselves rendered panegyrized by all parties. If these are it impossible to attempt to carry it. to be practised to the extent which is The Catholics have, in truth, lately threatened, they will very speedily fought gloriously for Protestantism. prove themselves to be principles of We were disbelieved and scoffed at; ruin. They stand on a false foundation, the Parliamentary emancipators pro- They assume as their corner stone, that tested that everything was false which any country will at all times provide was said against the Catholics. While as much of any particular kind of lawe were looking around us, almost in bour as its population may call for ; vain, for support among our Protes and this is refuted at the present motant brethren, behald l the Catholic ment by England, and more especially Association stood forward to testify to by Ireland. They assume, that what the truth of what we had uttered; is the interest of one trade is the inteand then, to our astonishment, Bishop rest of all trades, and that what is the Doyle volunteered his evidence in our interest of one country is the interest favour; and then, to our utter amaze of all countries. Their inevitable tens

dency is to produce an equalization of deserve neither relief nor compassion, profits and wages throughout the formed the chief ground on which it world; and as they cannot raise other was craved ; and the Usury Laws were nations to our level, they must sink us working far more lightly than usual to the level of other nations. Their upon the community. Every one constant operation must be to reduce who has any practical knowledge of profits, to lower wages, to prevent the society knows, that in this country, accumulation of capital, and thus they putting the great capitalists out of will act much more against consump- sight, almost every man who begins tion, and consequently trade, in one business, begins it, in a greater or way, than they will act for them in smaller degree, with borrowed money. another. Let us have a free trade in The farmer, the mechanic, the tradescorn, which is so much clamoured for man, the manufacturer, the smaller by some people, and which ought to be merchant,--nearly the whole of these granted if the “ principles of free begin the world with less or more of trade” be just ones, and our farmers, borrowed capital. Every one who has their labourers, and tradesmen, must any practical knowledge of business, immediately sink to the state of the knows that scarcely any borrower can continental ones. They must eat, drink, afford to pay above five per cent inteand clothe themselves, as the conti- rest. The proprietor of land can selnental ones do. What would be the dom pay above three per cent; if the consequences to our agricultural popu- farmer borrow much, five per centruins lation, and what would be the effects him; and five per cent is, in general, on consumption ? He must be a wretch the utmost that trade, on the average, who, for the sake of a little increase of will pay for borrowed money. Why, trade, would inflict such horrible pri- then, are the Usury Laws, which livations on so large a portion of his mit the rate of interest to five per cent, countrymen ; and he must be a fool to be repealed ? Will the repeal raise who can expect that increase of trade rents and profits, and thus enable borwould flow from such privations. We rowers to pay greater interest ? Sercare pot who may say, that “we have jeant Onslow himself dare not say so. grown rich and great in spite of our He dare not say that borrowers, in restrictions, aud not through them ;" general, can even afford to pay five per we will answer, that it is refuted by cent, and still he wishes to destroy common sense, and the whole of hise their chief security against being called tory. We will say, that the gigantic upon for more. mass of capital which fills the nation As to the assertion, that lenders and was either rained upon us from the borrowers meet upon equal ground, clouds, or it was extracted in the main it is so glaringly false, that its being from those restrictions with which our made astonishes us. The lender, with laws or the war surrounded us; and government securities and banks at that we should not have been either his elbow, acts from choice, the borrich or great, had it not been for this rower from necessity; the former may capital. We are the friends of good lend or not at his pleasure, the latter rents, good profits, and good wages ; must have money to save him from these are the grand sources of con- heavy loss, perhaps from ruin ;-the sumption, and consequently of labour one gains reputation by calling comand trade, and to these thé “ princi- petitors around him for his money; the ples of free trade” are irreconcilably other blasts his credit if he make it hostile.

publicly known that he wants to borThese principles gave to the Bill for row. A trader is not, and never will the repeal of the Usury Laws almost be, able to borrow for a term of years all the support it received. It was on upon his personal security; after the the very point of being carried ; and a first twelve months, he is liable to be bill more largely fraught with ruinous called upon at any time for repayment, consequences was never introduced and the moment he receives the money into Parliament. It was perfectly un he fastens it in business, and cannot called for—not a petition worth noti- perhaps repay it for several years

withcing was received in its favour; not a out sustaining grievous injury. If the voice out of Parliament, bating two or laws against usury were repealed, the three factious publications, asked for lender would take advantage of the it ;-the case of the spendthrifts, who borrower's inability to pay, and would

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