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a height not exceeding twenty feet above the hull, a white light in a lantern constructed so as to show a clear, uniform, and unbroken light, visible all around the horizon, at a distance of at least one mile.

A vessel of one hundred and fifty feet or upward in register length, when at anchor, shall carry in the forward part of the vessel, at a height of not less than twenty and not exceeding forty feet above the hull, one such light, and at or near the stern of the vessel, and at such a height that it shall be not less than fifteen feet lower than the forward light, another such light.

RULE 10. Produce boats, canal boats, fishing boats, rafts, or other water craft navigating any bay, harbor, or river by hand power, horse power, sail, or by the current of the river, or which shall be anchored or moored in or near the channel or fairway of any bay, harbor, or river, and not otherwise provided for in these rules, shall carry one or more good white lights, which shall be placed in such manner as shall be prescribed by the Board of Supervising Inspectors of Steam Vessels.

RULE 11. Open boats shall not be obliged to carry the side lights required for other vessels, but shall, if they do not carry such lights, carry a lantern having a green slide on one side and a red slide on the other side; and on the approach of or to other vessels, such lantern shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision, and in such a manner that the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the red light on the starboard side. Open boats, when at anchor or stationary, shall exhibit a bright white light. They shall not, however, be prevented from using a flare-up in addition if considered expedient.

RULE 12. Sailing vessels shall at all times, on the approach of any steamer during the night-time, show a lighted torch upon that point or quarter to which such steamer shall be approaching.

RULE 13. The exhibition of any light on board of a vessel of war or revenue cutter of the United States may be suspended whenever, in the opinion of the Secretary of the Navy, the commander in chief of a squadron, or the commander of a vessel acting singly, the special character of the service may require it.

FOG SIGNALS.

RULE 14. A steam vessel shall be provided with an efficient whistle, sounded by steam or by some substitute for steam, placed before the funnel not less than eight feet from the deck, or in such other place as the local inspectors of steam vessels shall determine, and of such character as to be heard in ordinary weather at a distance of at least two miles, and with an efficient bell, and it is hereby made the duty of the United States local inspectors of steam vessels when inspecting the same to require each steamer to be furnished with such whistle and bell. A sailing vessel shall be provided with an efficient fog horn and with an efficient bell.

Whenever there is thick weather by reason of fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms, or other causes, whether by day or by night, fog signals shall be used as follows:

(a) A steam vessel under way, excepting only a steam vessel with raft in tow, shall sound at intervals of not more than one minute three distinct blasts of her whistle.

(b) Every vessel in tow of another vessel shall, at intervals of one minute, sound four bells on a good and efficient and properly placed bell as follows: By striking the bell twice in quick succession, followed by a little longer interval, and then again striking twice in quick succession (in the manner in which four bells is struck in indicating time).

(c) A steamer with a raft in tow shall sound at intervals of not more than one minute a screeching or Modoc whistle for from three to five seconds.

(d) A sailing vessel under way and not in tow shall sound at intervals of not more than one minute

If on the starboard tack with wind forward of abeam, one blast of her fog horn;

If on the port tack with wind forward of the beam, two blasts of her fog horn;

If she has the wind abaft the beam on either side, three blasts of her fog horn.

(e) Any vessel at anchor and any vessel aground in or near a channel or fairway shall at intervals of not more than two minutes ring the bell rapidly for three to five seconds.

(f) Vessels of less than ten tons registered tonnage, not being steam vessels, shall not be obliged to give the above-mentioned signals, but if they do not they shall make some other efficient sound signal at intervals of not more than one minute.

(g) Produce boats, fishing boats, rafts, or other water craft navigating by hand power or by the current of the river, or anchored or moored in or near the channel or fairway and not in any port, and not otherwise provided for in these rules, shall sound a fog horn, or equivalent signal, at intervals of not more than one minute.

RULE 15. Every vessel shall, in thick weather, by reason of fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rain storms, or other causes, go at moderate speed. A steam vessel hearing, apparently not more than four points from right ahead, the fog signal of another vessel shall at once reduce her speed to bare steerageway, and navigate with caution until the vessels shall have passed each other.

STEERING AND SAILING RULES.

SAILING VESSELS.

RULE 16. When two sailing vessels are approaching one another so as to involve risk of collision one of them shall keep out of the way of the other, as follows, namely:

(a) A vessel which is running free shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is closehauled.

(b) A vessel which is closehauled on the port tack shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is closehauled on the starboard tack.

(c) When both are running free, with the wind on different sides, the vessel which has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of the other.

(d) When they are running free, with the wind on the same side, the vessel which is to windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is to leeward.

STEAM VESSELS.

RULE 17. When two steam vessels are meeting end on, or nearly end on, so as to involve risk of collision each shall alter her course to starboard, so that each shall pass on the port side of the other.

RULE 18. When two steam vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision the vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other.

RULE 19. When a steam vessel and a sailing vessel are proceeding in such directions as to involve risk of collision the steam vessel shall keep out of the way of the sailing vessel.

RULE 20. Where, by any of the rules herein prescribed, one of two vessels shall keep out of the way, the other shall keep her course and speed.

RULE 21. Every steam vessel which is directed by these rules to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, on approaching her, if necessary, slacken her speed or stop or reverse.

RULE 22. Notwithstanding anything contained in these rules every vessel overtaking any other shall keep out of the way of the overtaken vessel.

RULE 23. In all weathers every steam vessel under way in taking any course authorized or required by these rules shall indicate that course by the following signals on her whistle, to be accompanied whenever required by corresponding alteration of her helm; and every steam vessel receiving a signal from another shall promptly respond with the same signal or, as provided in Rule Twenty-six:

One blast to mean, “ I am directing my course to starboard."

Two blasts to mean, “ I am directing my course to port.” But the giving or answering signals by a vessel required to keep her course shall not vary the duties and obligations of the respective vessels.

RULE 24. That in all narrow channels where there is a current, and in the rivers Saint Mary, Saint Clair, Detroit, Niagara, and Saint Lawrence, when two steamers are meeting, the descending steamer shall have the right of way, and shall, before the vessels shall have arrived within the distance of one-half mile of each other, give the signal necessary to indicate which side she elects to take.

RULE 25. In all channels less than five hundred feet in width, no steam vessel shall pass another going in the same direction unless the steam vessel ahead be disabled or signify her willingness that the steam vessel astern shall pass, when the steam vessel astern may pass, subject, however, to the other rules applicable to such a situation. And when steam vessels proceeding in opposite directions are about to meet in such channels, both such vessels shall be slowed down to a moderate speed, according to the circumstances.

RULE 26. If the pilot of a steam vessel to which a passing signal is sounded deems it unsafe to accept and assent to said signal, he shall not sound a cross signal; but in that case, and in every case where the pilot of one steamer fails to understand the course or intention of an approaching steamer, whether from signals being given or answered erroneously, or from other causes, the pilot of such steamer so receiving the first passing signal, or the pilot so in doubt, shall sound several short and rapid blasts of the whistle; and

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if the vessels shall have approached within half a mile of each other both shall reduce their speed to bare steerage way, and, if necessary, stop and reverse.

RULE 27. In obeying and construing these rules due regard shall be had to all dangers of navigation and collision and to any special circumstances which may render a departure from the above rules necessary in order to avoid immediate danger.

RULE 28. Nothing in these rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the owner or master or crew thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to carry lights or signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper lookout, or of a neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case. (Sec. 1.)

PENALTY.

A fine, not exceeding two hundred dollars, may be imposed for the violation of any of the provisions of this Act. The vessel shall be liable for the said penalty, and may be seized and proceeded against, by way of libel, in the district court of the United States for any district within which such vessel may be found. (Sec. 2.)

The Secretary of Commerce of the United States shall have authority to establish all necessary regulations, not inconsistent with the provision of this Act, required to carry the same into effect. (Sec. 3.)

The Board of Supervising Inspectors of the United States shall have authority to establish such regulations to be observed by all steam vessels in passing each other, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, as they shall from time to time deem necessary; and all regulations adopted by the said Board of Supervising Inspectors under the authority of this Act, when approved by the Secretary of Commerce, shall have the force of law. Two printed copies of any such regulations for passing, signed by them, shall be furnished to each steam vessel, and shall at all times be kept posted up in conspicuous places on board.

All laws or parts of laws, so far as applicable to the navigation of the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal, inconsistent with the foregoing rules are hereby repealed. (Feb. 8, 1895, sec. 4.) Rules for the Red River of the North, and Rivers Emptying Into the

Gulf of Mexico, and Their Tributaries.

Sections forty-two hundred and thirty-three, forty-four hundred and twelve (with the regulations made in pursuance thereof, except the rules and regulations for the government of pilots and steamers navigating the Red River of the North and rivers emptying into the Gulf of Mexico and their tributaries, and except the rules for the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal), and forty-four hundred and thirteen of the Revised Statutes of the United States, and chapter two hundred and two of the laws of eighteen hundred and ninety-three, and sections one and three of chapter one hundred and two of the laws of eighteen hundred and ninety-five, and sections five, twelve and thirteen of the Act approved March third, eighteen hundred and ninety-seven, entitled "An Act to amend the laws relating to navigation,” and all amendments thereto, are hereby repealed so far as the harbors, rivers,

and inland waters aforesaid (except the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal and the Red River of the North, and rivers emptying into the Gulf of Mexico, and their tributaries) are concerned. (June 7, 1897, sec. 5.)

The following rules for preventing collisions on the water shall be followed in the navigation of vessels of the Navy and of the mercantile marine of the United States: (R. S., 4233.)

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STEAM AND SAIL VESSELS.

Rule one. Every steam vessel which is under sail and not under steam shall be considered a sail vessel; and every steam vessel which is under steam, whether under sail or not, shall be considered a steam vessel. The words steam vessel shall include any vessel propelled by machinery. (Mar. 3, 1905, sec. 10.)

LIGHTS.

Rule two. The lights mentioned in the following rules, and no others, shall be carried in all weathers, between sunset and sunrise.

Rule three. All ocean-going steamers, and steamers carrying sail, shall, when under way, carry

(A) At the foremast head, a bright white light, of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least five miles, and so constructed as to show a uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of twenty points of the compass, and so fixed as to throw the light ten points on each side of the vessel, namely, from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on either side.

(B) On the starboard side, a green light, of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles, and so constructed as to show a uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, and so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the starboard side.

(C) On the port side, a red light, of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles, and so constructed as to show a uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, and so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the port side.

The green and red lights shall be fitted with inboard screens, projecting at least three feet forward from the lights, so as to prevent them from being seen across the bow.

Rule four. Steam-vessels, when towing other vessels, shall carry two bright white mast-head lights vertically, in addition to their side lights, so as to distinguish them from other steam-vessels. Each of these mast-head lights shall be of the same character and construction as the mast-head lights prescribed by Rule three.

Rule five. All steam-vessels, other than ocean-going steamers and steamers carrying sail, shall, when under way, carry on the starboard and port side lights of the same character and construction and in the same position as are prescribed for side-lights by Rule three, except in the case provided in Rule six.

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