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EVOLUTION, OLD AND NEW.

"The want of a practical acquaintance with Natural History leads the author to take an erroneous view of the bearing of his own theories on those of Mr. Darwin."

Beview of' Life and Habit,' by Mr. A. B. Wallace, 'Nature,' March 27, 1879.

• "Neither lastly would our observer be driven out of his conclusion, or from his confidence in its truth, by being told that he knows nothing at all about the matter. He knows enough for his argument; he knows the utility of the end; he knows the subserviency and adaptation of the means to the end. These points being known, his ignorance concerning other points, his doubts concerning other points, affect not the certainty of his reasoning. The consciousness of knowing little need not beget a distrust of that which he does know."—Palbt's 'Natural Theology,' chap. i.

OLD AND NEW;

OR, THE

THEORIES OF BUFFON, DR. ERASMUS DARWIN,

AND LAMARCK,

*AS COMPARED WITH THAT OF MR. CHARLES DARWIN.

BY

SAMUEL BUTLER,
AUTHOR OF “EREWHON, THE FAIR HAVEN,' 'LIFE AND HABIT,' ETC.

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LONDON:
HARDWICKE AND BOGUE, 192, PICCADILLY.

1879.
[All Rights reserved.]

WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

Erewhon; or, Over the Range. Op. i.

A work of Satire and Imagination. Crown 8vo. Price

The Fair Haven. Op. 2.

A work in defence of the miraculous element in Our Lord's ministry upon earth, both as against rationalistic impugners and certain orthodox defenders. Written under the pseudonym of John Pickard Owen, with a Memoir by his supposed brother, William Bickersteth Owen. Demy 8vo. Price js. 6d.

Life and Habit. Op. 3.

An Essay after a completer view of Evolution. Crown 8vo. Price 7s. 6d.

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PREFACE.

Contrary to the advice of my friends, who caution me to avoid all appearance of singularity, I venture upon introducing a practice, the expediency of which I will submit to the judgment of the reader. It is one which has been adopted by musicians for more than a century—to the great convenience of all who are fond of music—and I observe that within the last few years two such distinguished painters as Mr. Alma-Tadema and Mr. Hubert Herkomer have taken to it. It is a matter for regret that the practice should not have been general at an earlier date, not only among painters and musicians, but also among the people who write books. It consists in signifying the number of a piece of music, picture, or book by the abbreviation "Op." and the number whatever it may happen to be.

No work can be judged intelligently unless not only the author's relations to his surroundings, but also the relation in which the work stands to the life and other works of the author, is understood and borne in mind; nor do I know any way of conveying this information at a glance, comparable to that which I now borrow from musicians. When we see the number against a work of Beethoven, we need ask no further to be informed concerning the general character of the

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