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184. In diagraming sentences containing Infinitives without the to, the word should be supplied, being placed in brackets to show it is understood. Thus:
The lady bade the boy open the door at once.
lady bade boy [to] open door
Exercise 130. — Diagram the following sentences.
1. Who saw him die? 2. I heard Susie sing. 3. Let us haste away. 4. The keeper makes the lion obey. 5. You need not fear that danger any more. 6. You must watch me write this. Few men dare face a furious bull. 8. Bid the servant come here. 9. I saw the merchant fall on the pavement. 10. Let us go home at once. 11. Will you help me mend this boat? 12. Mrs. Harris made the tramp come in and get some supper.
185. In analyzing or diagraming sentences containing Participles, treat the Participle as an Adjective Ad. junct. Thus :
Having crossed the bridge we waited in the shade.
186. Parse Participles and Infinitives as follows:
At length, broken in fortune, he was ready to resign. broken is a perfect participle, from the verb break; it belongs to the pronoun he.
to resign is a present infinitive from the verb resign; it is used as an adverbial modifier of the adjective ready.
The general, already growing afraid, commanded the men to retreat.
growing is a present participle, from the verb grow; it belongs to the noun general.
to retreat is a present infinitive, from the verb retreat ; with its subject men it is used as the object of the verb commanded.
Exercise 131. --- As the teacher may direct, parse the Participles and the Infinitives in the following, or diagram the sentences.
1. They were certain to be beaten. 2. Tom ran crying down the street. 3. Much discouraged, I decided to return. 4. I was unable to find my way. 5. Having walked far, John sat down to rest. 6. The work was very difficult to understand. 7. Let me go now. 8. Are you willing to send him the desired contribution ? 9. The letter, torn and defaced, could hardly be read. 10. Thinking it over, John wished to apologize. 11. We heard the train crash by. 12. A picture painted by Van Dyck was sold, bringing but a small price. 13. Having once been restored to health, people are apt to forget their illness. 14. I prefer to walk, being well rested now. 15. Tell me how to read it.
NUMBER, GENDER, AND. CASE OF NOUNS
187. Notice the difference in form between each Noun in the first column and the corresponding Noun in the second column:
It will be seen that the forms of these Nouns change with the number of things spoken of. The form used when we are speaking of one thing — a single thing - is called the Singular Number; the form used when we are speaking of more than one is called the Plural Number.
188. The Plural Number is now most commonly formed by adding s to the Singular; as :Singular. Plural.
Exercise 132.- a. Give the Plural of
Window. Flower. Rose. Stone. Grocer. Letter. Basket. Sob. Rock. Bud. Eye. Egg. Rook. Crow. Bird. Beast.
Fig. Pen. Cat. Pencil. Desk. Bottle. Picture. Board. Fire. Rug. Poker. Wall. House. Garden. Tree. Horse. Colt. Gate. Door.
6. Give twenty other nouns which form their Plurals by the addition of s to the Singular.
189. The Plural Number was once most commonly formed by adding es to the Singular. Es is still added to Nouns ending in s, x, 2, ch, and sh; as :Singular. Plural.
rush-es grass grass-es
box-es ditch ditch-es
topaz topaz-es Exercise 133.— Give the Plural of —
Miss. Glass. Class. Omnibus. Leech. Breach. Witch. Hitch. Moss. Mass. Pass. Guess. Mess. Patch. Peach. Watch. Brooch. Coach. Bench. Wrench. Bush. Wish. *Hash. Dish. Mesh. Blush. Brush. Tax. Buzz.
190. When the Singular Number ends in y following a vowel, the Plural is formed by adding s; if the y does not follow a vowel, the Plural is formed by changing the y into i and adding es; as : Y FOLLOWING A VOWEL.
Y NOT FOLLOWING A VOWEL.
valley valleys lady
daisies Exercise 134.- Give the Plural of
Beauty. Chimney. Body. Bay. Day. Toy. Journey. Ally. Alley. Abbey. Baby. Berry. Donkey. Copy. Essay. Dairy. Jockey. Monkey. Lily. Pulley. Puppy. Penny. Reply. Ruby. Gallery Galley. Joy. Delay. Buoy.
1 That is, a, e, i, o, or u.
191. A few Nouns form their Plural Numbers, not by adding es or s, but in other ways once more common than now:(1) By change of vowel; as :Singular. Plural.
Exercise 135. — (a) Say what is the Number of each Noun.
1. The top of the tree is full of birds. 2. There are thirty days in the month of September. 3. Quick believers need broad shoulders. 4. Foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests.
5. The days are cold, the nights are long,
The north wind sings a doleful song.
A misty light is on the sea;
And the foam is flying free.
Ditch. Moss. Army. Daisy. Baby. Donkey. Board. Horse. Book. Bag. Shrub. Patch. Bush. Tax. Valley. Lady. Chimney. Leaf. Calf. Wife. Hoof. Cliff. Echo. Hero. Motto. Grotto. Englishman. Foot. Brother.
(c) Give the Singular of —
Gates. Boxes. Rushes. Topazes. Alleys. Allies. Journeys. Gypsies. Cups. Spoons. Mats. Meadows. Hashes. Foxes. Brooches. Watches. Shelves. Elves. Loaves. Roofs. Cargoes. Negroes. Mosquitos. Geese. Teeth. Children. Mice. Brethren.