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192. All beings may be divided into three classes :
(1) Creatures of the male sex;
Exercise 136. - Say of each of the beings named here whether it is of the male sex, of the female sex, or without animal life.
Book. Father. Window. Mother. Brother. Sister. Tree. Uncle. Aunt. Corn. Horse. Mare. Meadow. Bull. Cow. Milk. He-goat. She-goat. Man-servant. Maid-servant. Table. Iron. Stone. Lion. Lioness. Den. Desert. Man. Girl. Pen.
193. All Nouns may be divided into three classes corresponding to the three classes into which all beings may be divided. They are:
(1) Names of beings of the male sex;
194. Each of these classes of names forms a Gender.
Names of beings of the male sex are Nouns of the Masculine Gender.
Names of beings of the female sex are Nouns of the Feminine Gender.
Names of things without animal life are Nouns of the Neuter Gender.
195. There are some Nouns which do not tell us whether the being named is male or female; as, parent, relative, friend, cousin, bird. Such Nouns are said to be of Common Gender.
Exercise 137. - (a) Give the Gender of each Noun.
1. Sir Samuel Baker traveled in Africa. 2. Boys and girls come out to play. 3. The man left father, mother, brothers, sisters, and all other relatives, to travel in a far land. 4. As the husband is, the wife is, thou art mated with a
drag thee down.
The oars ply back again, and yet again,
Still under steadfast men.
(6) Give the Genders of the following Pronouns.
He. She. I. It. My. Thou. Mine. Me. Thy. Thine. Thee. His. Him. Hers. Its. We. Our You. They. Them. Their. Theirs.
196. Notice carefully the following Masculines and the corresponding Feminines : Masculine. Feminine.
Masculine. Feminine. (1) father mother
lion-ess gentleman lady
executor execu-trix nephew niece
count-ess king queen
shepherd shepherd-ess brother sister
(3) man-servant maid-servant drake duck
197. It will be seen
(1) That the name of the female is sometimes an entirely different word from the name of the male.
(2) That the Feminine Noun is sometimes formed from the Masculine by a termination.
(3) That a Noun of Common Gender is sometimes made Masculine or Feminine by having a Masculine or Feminine word placed before it.
Exercise 138. - Give the Feminines corresponding to
Bachelor. Duke. Wizard. Bull. Hunter. Emperor. Bridegroom. Sorcerer. Negro. Abbot. Lord. Steer. Husband. Murderer. Hero. Tiger.
198. Case means the use of a Noun or Pronoun with respect to other words in the sentence.
199. A Noun or a Pronoun used as the Subject of a Verb is in the Nominative Case.
Exercise 139. -- What Nouns or Pronouns in the following sentences are in the Nominative Case?
(a) 1. The ink is red. 2. I broke the chair. 3. Horses die. 4. The sea is blue to-day. 5. It is deep. 6. We shall be there. 7. You may take the book.
8. The house was burned. 9. Winds are sometimes destructive. 10. They blow down houses. 11. She has brought the milk. 12. Father is speaking. 13. John has been ill. 14. The baby is learning to walk.
(6) 15. Is the book new? 16. Is this flower fragrant ? 17. Are you going ? 18. How strong is he? 19. May I go too? 20. Are they for me? 21. Are these apples sweet? 22. Do figs grow on trees ? 23. Is she walking in the woods ? 24. Is John here? 25. Have Mary and Edith come ?
200. The Verb be or any other Copulative Verb (or Verbal) takes the same Case after it as before it.
201. Therefore, a Noun or a Pronoun used as the Attribute after any Copulative Verb, is in the Nominative Case. Thus in the sentence,
I myself am he, I, being the Subject, is in the Nominative Case ; and, as am is a Copulative Verb, he is also in the Nominative Case.
Exercise 140. — Give the Case of the words printed in italics.
1. We are good friends. 2. Nathan said unto David, “ Thou art the man.” 3. That is a nightingale. 4. Doctor Faustus was a good man. 5. I hope I shall be a scholar some day. 6. Art thou the traitor angel? 7. Art thou he that should come ? 8. A man severe he was. 9. Thus Leo became Pope. 10. The boy seems no fool. 11. What a big boy you are growing. 12. You look almost a man already. 13. He remained a bachelor. 14. Gradually the poor woman became an invalid. 15. She now appears a woman of sixty.
202. When a person (or thing) is called or addressed by name, the name is said to be in the Nominative of Address; as, “ Come to me, Oye children”; “O death, where is thy sting ?”
Exercise 141. - Parse the Nouns and Pronouns which are in the Nominative of Address.
1. Where are you going, my pretty maid ? 2. In truth, fair Montague, I am too fond. 3. O grave, where is thy victory? 4. I pray you, sire, to let me have the honor. 5. O night and darkness, ye are wondrous strong. 6. Exult, ye proud patricians. 7. Put on thy strength, O Zion.
203. In the following sentences, —
The sea being smoother, we went for a sail,
He being tired, we concluded to go, the words sea and he are used with Participles, not as Subjects of Verbs, and are said to be in the Nominative Absolute Case.
204. When Nouns and Pronouns are used merely as exclamations they are also in the Nominative Absolute Case; as, “Goodness! how tired I am"; 66 William! what does he know about it?"
Exercise 142. — Pick out the Nominative Absolute.
1. The morning being clear, we started promptly. 2. Napoleon having been defeated, there was peace. 3. The storm having abated, the ships ventured to sail. 4. James leaving the country, William was made king. 5. Bruce lay down, his heart heavy with sorrow. 6. The soldiers charged, sword in hand. 7. The man listened, his face red with anger.
Read again paragraph 22; paragraph 171; paragraph 177.
205. The Object of a Transitive Verb (or Verball) is in the Objective Case.
206. In parsing Nouns fully, we must state not only the kind of Noun, but the Gender, Number, Case, and the reason for the Case; thus,
I saw the soldiers, but Nora did not see them. soldiers is a common noun, masculine gender, plural number; objective case, because it is the object of the verb saw.
1 See paragraph 176.