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Transitive Verbs have two Voices, the Active and the Passive.

When the name of the doer of the action is the Sub

ject of the Verb, the Verb is in the Active Voice. A Verb in the Active Voice always has an Object. When the name of the object of the action is the Sub

ject of the Verb, the Verb is in the Passive Voice.

Some Intransitive Verbs are used to link the Subject and some Adjective or Noun. These Verbs are called Copulative Verbs, and the Adjective or Noun is called the Attribute.

The Attribute always describes or denotes the person or thing denoted by the Subject.

Verbals are words that are derived from Verbs and express action or being without asserting it. Infinitives and Participles are Verbals.

Participles are Present or Perfect.

Present Participles end with the syllable -ing.
Perfect Participles generally end in n, t, or d.
Participles are Adjuncts of Nouns or Pronouns. Parti-

ciples may be modified by Adverbia) Adjuncts. Transi-
tive Verbs have both Active and Passive Participles,
the former of which take an Object. A Participle of a
Copulative Verb takes an Attribute. A Participle may
be used as a simple descriptive Adjective, being then
placed directly before its Noun.

Infinitives are Present or Perfect, and, if Transitive, are Active or Passive.

An Infinitive may be used as a Subject, an Object,

an Attribute, an object of a Preposition (paragraph 178), or as an Adjective Adjunct, or an Adverbial Ad

junct (paragraph 179), and it may have an Object or an
Attribute of its own, and be modified by an Adverbial

Adjunct (paragraph 177).
An Infinitive may have a subject Noun or Pronoun (para-

graph 180).
The to of an Infinitive is omitted after certain Verbs (para-

graph 183)

Nouns have two Numbers — the Singular and the Plural ; the Singular Number is used when we are speaking of one, the Plural when we are speaking of more than one.

Nouns have three Genders — the Masculine, the Feminine, and the Neuter.

A Noun in the Masculine Gender is the name of a

person or creature of the male sex. A Noun in the Feminine Gender is the name of a

person or creature of the female sex. A Noun in the Neuter Gender is the name of some

thing without animal life. A Noun used as the name of a being that may be

either male or female is said to be of Common Gender.

Nouns (and Pronouns) have three Cases — the Nominative, the Objective, and the Possessive.

The Case of a Noun (or Pronoun) depends upon its relation to some other word, as a Verb, a Preposition, or another Noun.

Nouns (or Pronouns) are in the Nominative Case when used :

1. As the Subject of a Verb.

2. As the Attribute after a Copulative Verb (or after a Verbal preceded by a Noun or a Pronoun in the Nominative Case; see paragraph 200).

3. As the name of a person or thing addressed (Nominative of Address).

4. As a mere exclamation (Nominative Absolute). 5. Independently with a Participle (Nominative Absolute).

6. In Apposition with a Noun or Pronoun that is in the Nominative Case.

Nouns (or Pronouns) are in the Objective Case when used:

1. As the Object of a Transitive Verb or Verbal.
2. As the Object of a Preposition.
3. As the Subject of an Infinitive.

4. As the Attribute after an Infinitive whose subject is expressed.

5. In Apposition with a Noun or a Pronoun that is in the Objective Case.

Nouns (or Pronouns) are in the Possessive Case when used so as to show by their form that something belongs to the person or thing denoted by them.

A Noun or a Pronoun in the Possessive Case is an Adjective Adjunct of some Noun.

KINDS OF PRONOUNS

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Work again Exercises 51 and 53.

Exercise 150.- Pick out the Pronouns ; write those in the Nominative Case in one column, those in the Possessive Case in another column, and those in the Objective Case in another.

me.

1. He thinks I am here. 2. Your brother lent his knife to 3. We left our hats in the cloakroom.

4. Will you go with us to the park ? 5. Jack is waiting in the playground; he wants you to go to him quickly. 6. Mary says that her sister is ill; she caught cold on Friday. 7. The doctor saw her this morning. 8. The dog has hurt its foot; a wheel passed over it. 9. The travelers tried to cross the river, but the swollen waters carried them away, and they lost their lives. 10. That book is interesting; it is full of stories of adventure. 11. If sinners entice thee, consent thou not. 12. Keep thy father's commandments. 13. Ye are the salt of the earth. 14. If thine eye offend thee, pluck it out. 15. The baby was playing with its sister, while their father sat by them, reading his newspaper. 16. Mother says for us to cut these pictures out and paste them in our scrapbook.

219. A Noun in the Possessive Case is almost always followed by another Noun, expressed or understood, but a Pronoun in the Possessive Case is not always followed by a Noun.

Exercise 151.- Pick out the Pronouns in the Possessive Case.

1. This book is mine; where is yours? 2. There is a porch to Mr. Roberts's house, but there is no porch to ours. 3. The thief said that the purse was his, but the lady knew that it was hers. 4. The brothers thought that James's prize was better than theirs. 5. Give me that heart, Castara, for 'tis thine.

220. In the first sentence of Exercise 151 yours means your book; in the second, ours means our house. Parse yours as Possessive in form, but used as the Subject of is; parse ours as Possessive in form, but used as the Object of to.

221. The Pronouns which are used when a person is speaking of himself, or of himself and others, are said to be of the First Person ; as, “I went with my brother to Denver; our father met us at the station and we went with him to the hotel;” “ Here is a lead-pencil ; I brought mine with me.

222. The Pronouns which are used for the person or persons spoken to are said to be of the Second Person ; as, “I told you, Charles, which one was yours; do you not remember?” “ Hast thou thy pistol with thee ?

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223. The Pronouns used for persons or things spoken about, but not spoken to, are said to be of the Third Person ; as, “I met Tom and Mary; he was taking his father's horse to its stable ; she was calling their fowls together to give them the food which she had in her apron.”

Exercise 152.- Say of what Person each Pronoun in Exercises 150 and 151 is.

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