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Note that the Pronouns hers, its, ours, yours, and theirs have no apostrophe.

224. In the sentences,

“ Your mother said she could not go,

Uncle George, how soon will you be ready?mother is called the Antecedent of she, and Uncle George the Antecedent of you. The Antecedent of a Pronoun is the Noun for which the Pronoun stands.

225. A Pronoun agrees with its Antecedent in Person, Number, and Gender; but its Case depends on its use in the sentence. (See the Review of Case, page 115.)

226. In Parsing a Personal Pronoun, say first what it is, then give its Person, Number, and Gender, name its Antecedent if any is expressed, finally give the Case of the Pronoun and the reason for its Case.

Thus, in the sentence, "My brother says the dog followed him home,” we parse him :

him, pronoun, personal; third person, singular number, masculine gender, agreeing with its antecedent brotherl; objective case, because it is the object of the verb followed.

Exercise 153.-Parse the Personal Pronouns in Exercises 51 and 53.

Work again Exercise 54.

227. Pronouns ending in self (or selves) are often used as the Object of a Verb; as, —

I hurt myself.
We love ourselves.

Jack lost himself. 228. These Pronouns are formed by adding self (Singular) or selves (Plural) to some case of the simple Personal Pronouns. They may be called Compound Personal Pronouns.

Exercise 154. - (a) Pick out the Pronouns.

1. The cat sees itself in the looking-glass. 2. She almost hates herself for her stupidity. 3. Help yourself and others will help you. 4. The travelers found themselves in the

1 See paragraph 225.

2 When these Pronouns are used as Objects, as in the examples in para graph 227, they are often called Reflexive Pronouns.

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middle of a deep wood. 5. An adder does not sting itself. 6. The giant raised himself slowly. 7. We cannot see ourselves as others see us. 8. I gave myself plenty of time.

(b) Supply Pronouns as Objects.

1. Little Mary burnt . 2. Frank threw . ground. 3. The children put to bed. 4. Hide from the dogs. 5. We laid . down on the grass.

229. In the sentence, “I myself saw it,” myself is not the Object, but is in Apposition with I, and in the Nominative Case. The Pronouns ending in self or selves are often used merely for emphasis.

230. The Pronoun thus used for emphasis may be separated from the word with which it goes. We can, for example, say “ John said so himself,” or “ John himself said so.”

Exercise 155.-(a) Pick out the Pronouns used with other words for emphasis. 1. I myself shot the rabbit. 2. Tom himself brought the

3. We ourselves have seen the wreck. 4. You yourself must come. 5. You yourselves must come. 6. Mary herself made the dress. 7. The dog itself rang the bell. 8. I bought the book myself. 9. You were asleep yourself. 10. You were asleep yourselves. 11. So we took it ourselves. 12. Margaret has read the book herself.

(6) Say whether the compounds of self or selves are used as Objects or for emphasis.

1. Tom raised himself from the ground. 2. Tom raised the heavy weight himself. 3. Jack struck the first blow himself. 4. Jack struck himself. 5. The little girl lost herself in the crowded streets. 6. The little girl found the thimble herself. 7. You must help yourselves. 8. You yourselves must attend. 9. And I myself sometimes despise myself. 10. The two boys tried to lift it themselves.

news.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

231. Who (with whose and whom), which, and what are used in asking questions.

EXAMPLES

Who was that boy ?
This is my hat; whose is that?
Whom do you want?
Which of the apples is the ripest ?
What did they say?

232. When thus used they are called Interrogative Pro

nouns.

Exercise 156.- Pick out the Interrogative Pronouns and say in what Case each is.

1. Who hath measured the waters ? 2. To whom are you writing? 3. What do you want? 4. For what are they looking? 5. Whom do the people expect? 6. Whose house is that? 7. What is the matter ? 8. By whom was the man employed ? 9. Whose is the field that was sold ? 10. To whom will you

offer it?

233. In the sentences,

“ In which books are they?"
66 At what time shall we start ?"

which and what stand directly before Nouns, and belong to them. In these sentences, therefore, which and what are Adjectives. But when which and what are not Adjuncts of Nouns but stand for Nouns, they are Pronouns, as, Which is yours ?” “What are you doing?”

ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS

234. Note the following words 1 :-
1. This (plural these), that (plural those).

2. One, any, anyone, someone, no one, other, another, several, few, many, some, more, most, certain, none, all.

3. Each, either, neither.

235. Most of these words may be Adjectives, but they may also be used without Nouns. In the latter use they are Pronouns. We thus have them :

As Adjectives.

As Pronouns.

Take this book.
Are these books yours ?
Who is that man ?
Those birds are tired.
I have only one vote.
I am ready for any number.
I need some money.
I have but a few cents.
Each man has his say.
Neither apple is good.

This is my book.
These are my father's.
That is my uncle.
Are those yours?
One cannot understand him.
Is there any that will help me?
Some fled to the woods.
Few can read that poet.
It sat upon each of them.
I want neither of them.

236. We call these words Adjectives when they are followed by a Noun, expressed or clearly understood, and Adjective Pronouns when not so followed.

Exercise 157. - Say which of the italicized words are Adjectives and which are Adjective Pronouns.

1. Several of my friends have been to India. 2. Ye shall flee when none pursueth you. 3. I have told you that, several times. 4. I wonder who sent me this ? 5. These flowers are beautiful. Someone showed good taste in selecting them.

1 See “Notes for Teachers,” page 165, Note 14.

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