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6. Few, few shall part where many meet.

7. He can weep his sorrows with another's eyes. 8. Where is the other bottle of ink ? I cannot write with this. 9. And all was done, let others judge how well. 10. I do not think either knows; so I do not believe either story.

Exercise 158. — Give the Case of each Pronoun printed in italics.

1. This is my pen, that is yours. 2. These are thy works, Parent of good. 3. Those are our friends, the Johnsons. 4. One hears so many different stories that one feels inclined to doubt all of them. 5. Many be called and few [be] chosen. 6. Has anyone heard of the travelers ? 7. We have heard no one's opinion. 8. I do not want any of you boys. 9. The master wants James or John; either will do. 10. Neither is present this morning. 11. Each to other hath strongly sworn. 12. I am afraid none are left. 13. One must consider oneself. 14. Be generous with thine own and not another's. 15. Love all, trust few, wrong none.


237. Here are five pairs of sentences 1 :
That is the thief.

The thief ran away.
Here is a man. The man's window was broken.
Kate is the girl. You want Kate.
This is the house. Jack built the house.

The knife was lost. The knife cost a dollar. 238. Here are five pairs of sentences that say

the same things by using Personal Pronouns:

That is the thief. He ran away.
Here is a man. His window was broken.
Kate is the girl. You want her.
This is the house. Jack built it.
The knife was lost. It cost a dollar.

1 See “ Notes for Teachers,” page 165, Note 15.

239. In the following five sentences, by using a different kind of Pronoun, we can combine each pair into one sentence :

That is the thief who ran away.
Here is a man whose window was broken.
Kate is the girl whom you want.
This is the house that Jack built.
The knife which was lost cost a dollar.

Exercise 159. - Combine, as in the examples just given, the following pairs of sentences.

1. The girl is crying. The girl is named Sallie.
2. The lady sings beautifully. You see the lady.

3. They did not hear the preacher. They went to hear the preacher.

4. The gentleman is very kind to the poor. You see the gentleman's house.

5. The tree was a chestnut. The wind blew the tree down. 6. The man is better now. The man was hurt.

7. The grocer has sent for the police. The grocer's goods were stolen.

8. The child was very naughty. His father punished the child.

9. My uncle gave me the book. The book is on the table. 10. The horse goes well. I bought the horse.

240. Pronouns like who, which, and that, used in this way to join statements, are called Relative Pronouns.

241. The Noun (or Pronoun) for which a Relative Pronoun stands is called its Antecedent. Like other Pronouns, a Relative Pronoun agrees with its Antecedent in Person, Number, and Gender; but its Case depends on its use in the sentence.

Exercise 160. — Pick out the Relative Pronouns and their Antecedents.

(a) 1. I know the man who made these shoes. 2. The boy drove away the birds which were eating the corn. 3. People love those who are kind to them. 4. The man who came last night left this morning. 5. This is the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 6. The machine which was broken has been mended.

(b) 7. I am the person whose dog was lost. 8. The girl whose brother you met is very clever. 9. The child whose parents were killed has been placed in a home.

(C) 10. The cow that he bought is lost. 11. The dog fetched the birds which its master had shot. 12. The cousin whom

you met is a doctor. 13. Is this a dagger which I see before me? 14. Where is the book that you borrowed ? 15. The gardener whom we employed was honest. (d) 16. He loved the bird who loved the man

That shot him with his bow.
17. He singeth loud his godly hymns

That he makes in the wood.
18. This hermit good lives in that wood

Which slopes down to the sea.

242. We have now had the Relative Pronouns who, which, and that; and have seen that who has the following forms:

Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter,

Singular and Plural


whose Objective


243. The Relative Pronoun what. In the sentence,

“That is what I said," what is a Relative Pronoun, and is the Object of said. (There is no word given to be the Attribute after is.)

When what is a Relative Pronoun, its Antecedent is never expressed.

Thus in the sentence, “Give me what I have earned,” the Antecedent of what is some such Noun as pay, understood; but if we supply this Noun we must then use which or that, instead of what, as, “Give me the pay which I have earned.” The unexpressed Antecedent of what may in most cases be supplied by the words “the thing,” or “that”; as, “This is [the thing] what you told me to get"; or, “I have [that] what you want.”

244. The Relative Pronoun as. The word as, when used after such, and sometimes after many


same, Relative Pronoun; as, “ The story is not such as I like," “ He has not so many books in all, as are found upon one of your shelves,” “ I shall buy the same kind of horse as you bought.” In these sentences as is used as an Object or a Subject of a Verb, and is a Relative Pronoun.

is a

245. The Case of a Relative, like that of any other Pronoun, is determined by its relation to some Verb, Preposition, or Noun in the Sentence. (See the Review of Case on page 115.)

246. Thus a Relative Pronoun may be used as

(a) The Subject of a Verb; as, “ The friend who called has gone.

(6) The Attribute; as, “You are the same sort of man THAT I am.

(c) The Object of a Verb; as, “That is [ ] what I want.

(d) The Object of a Preposition; as, “He is the friend on WHOM I depended."

(e) The Attribute with an Infinitive; as, “ You are the person WHOM I took John to be.

(f) The Possessor; as, “This is Mr. Brown, in whose house you will stay."

of gave.

Take the sentence, “ This is the boy that I gave the book to.” Boy is the Attribute after is. I is the Subject

That is the Object of the Preposition to, and is therefore in the Objective Case, while its Antecedent boy is in the Nominative Case. I gave the book to whom ? To the boy. That stands for boy.

Note that a Relative Pronoun in the Objective Case comes before the Subject.

Exercise 161. — (a) Give the Case of each Relative Pronoun in Exercise 160.

(b) Give the Case of each Relative Pronoun in the following.

1. The pen which I bought is a good one. 2. This is the field of which I spoke. 3. Mr. Brown is the teacher to whom we sent our boy. 4. He is a man on whom we can depend. 5. The girl brought the tea for which she was sent. 6. The ink that I am using is blue. 7. There is a man whom I know. 8. It was my brother's carriage which you saw me in. 9. It was Mrs. West whom they heard the story from. 10. This is the hole that the mouse went into.

247. The Relative Pronoun in the Objective Case is often left out. Instead of saying, “ John is the man whom we expected,” people often say, “ John is the man we expected.”

Exercise 162. — Supply the Relative Pronouns which are omitted (or understood”), and state why they are in the Objective Case.

1. He is a man I trust in. 2. This is the horse Jack bought. 3. The boy got only the punishment he deserved. 4. Mr. Blake is the gentleman we are waiting for. 5. You should not believe every story you hear. 6. Have you seen the house we live in now?

7. I am monarch of all I survey. 8. Few and short were the prayers we said.

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