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PARSING OF ALL THE PARTS OF SPEECH

WORDS 6 UNDERSTOOD

256. Before parsing a sentence it is necessary to put in all words which are omitted (or “understood ”).

As a rule there is no need to parse words which are understood, but unless they are inserted the construction of the sentence cannot be seen.

Read again paragraphs 50, 243, 247.

257. Compare the sentences in the first column with those in the second.

Sentences with words understood.

Sentences in full.

Be careful.

[You] be careful. That is what I did.

That is [the thing or the ac

tion] what I did. He is a person I dislike. He is a person (whom] I dis

like. This is the horse I rode on. This is the horse [that or

which] I rode on. We go Monday.

We go [on] Monday. We know he is truthful. We know [that] he is truthful. John arrived, but Tom did not. John arrived, but Tom did not

[arrive]. I will pull down my barns and I will pull down my barns and build larger.

build larger [barns]. This house is my uncle's. This house is my uncle's

[house].

Sentences with words understood.

Sentences in full.

This is St. Peter's.

This is St. Peter's (church). The boy is as old as the girl. The boy is as old as the girl

[is old]. The teacher is as clever as The teacher is as clever as [he kind.

is] kind. She loves him as well as I. She loves him as well as I

[love] him. She loves him as well as me. She loves him as well as (she

loves] me. I am younger than he.

I am younger than he [is

young] NOTE. — Since Relative Pronouns are often omitted or understood (see paragraph 247), a Preposition governing an understood Pronoun is often found apparently without any object, as, “ There goes the carriage we came home in(in governs which or that understood); “ The next place we came to was Chester.”

Exercise 167. Supply the words understood.

1. He wants all he can get. 2. Awake, arise, or be forever fallen.

3. Obey your parents. 4. I know what to do. 5. Who is the woman you spoke to? 6. This is a book I like very much. 7. Have you been at your uncle's? 8. I think he likes you better than me. 9. You understand arithmetic much more thoroughly than I. 10. You will call there, I know you will. 11. Where is the house you mean? 12. Are you taller than John ? 13. Your brother is a strong man, but mine is a stronger. 14. When in London I visited St. Paul's. 15. Tell me where to go.

INDIRECT OBJECT

258. Many Transitive Verbs are followed by two Nouns or Pronouns in the Objective Case ; as,

Alfred lent Fred a knife.

Here knife answers the question lent what? and is the Direct Object. But Alfred acted indirectly upon Fred; and Fred is called the Indirect Object of lent.

EXAMPLES OF INDIRECT OBJECTS

Sentence.

Direct Object.

Indirect Object.

me

his sister

My father promised me a a ball

ball. John gave his sister an an apple

apple. The farmer sent Mrs. a basket of eggs

Brace a basket of eggs. I made Tom a box.

a box

Mrs. Brace

Tom

259. Each of these sentences can be written with a Preposition before the Indirect Object; thus:

My father promised me a ball. My father promised a ball [to]

me.

John gave his sister an apple. John gave an apple [to] his

sister. The farmer sent Mrs. Brace a The farmer sent a basket of basket of eggs.

eggs [to] Mrs. Brace. I made Tom a box.

I made a box [for] Tom.

It will thus be seen that the “ Indirect Object” (with the Preposition which can be placed before it) is practically a Prepositional Phrase, and an Adverbial Adjunct of the Verb. In parsing, say that the Indirect Object is in the Objective Case governed by the understood Preposition ; and in analyzing, call the Indirect Object and its Preposition an Adjunct of the Verb.

Exercise 168. — (a) Pick out the Direct Objects.

(6) Pick out the Indirect Objects and supply the Prepositions understood.

1. Give me the purse. 2. The master lent his man a horse. 3. My mother sent him a letter. 4. The teacher gave his boys a lesson; he taught them French. 5. They did so well that he promised them a holiday. 6. The girl showed the doctor her crushed finger. 7. The child offered the beggar a penny. 8. I had bought myself a pair of boots. 9. The servant will bring you some water. 10. That man owes his grocer seven dollars; he has just paid him one dollar.

ORDER

260. Before parsing or analyzing a sentence see that the words are in the usual order.

Read again paragraph 79, b, and in Exercise 67, b, pick out the Adjectives which are placed after Nouns.

261. Compare the sentences in the first column with those in the second. Inverted Order.

Usual Order. Great is Diana of the Ephe Diana of the Ephesians is sians.

great. In the beginning was the The Word was in the beginWord.

ning Great is the Lord and of The Lord is great and [He great power.

is] of great power. Then burst his mighty heart. His mighty heart burst then.

Whom ye ignorantly wor I declare unto you Him ship, Him declare I unto you. whom ye worship ignorantly.

Mine head with oil thou Thou didst not anoint mine didst not anoint.

head with oil. Comes a vapor from the A vapor, blackening over margin blackening over heath heath and holt, comes from and holt.

the margin.

Exercise 169.- Arrange in the usual order the words of the following sentences.

1. Sweet are the uses of adversity. 2. Great is your reward in heaven. 3. In vain they begged for mercy. 4. Great and marvelous are Thy works. 5. Of his early life few particulars have reached us. 6. Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield. 7. In my Father's house are many mansions. 8. Into the valley of death rode the six hundred. 9. Uprose the King of men with speed. 10. Some pious drops the closing eye requires. 11. Wide is the gate and broad is the way. 12. Then shrieked the timid and stood still the brave. 13. Not as the world giveth give I unto you. 14. Me he restored unto mine office and him he hanged. 15. For this did Servius give us laws ? for this did Lucrece bleed ?

PREPARATORY THERE AND IT

262. The Adverb there is used before the Verb be and some other Verbs, so that the Subject may come after the Verb; as, “ There is a God” [= A God is]; “There was a man” [= A man was]; “ There came a messenger unto the king”; “ There seemed to be a whole army”; “Once upon a time there lived three brothers.”

263. In such sentences there is to be parsed as a Preparatory Adverb. It is not an Adverb of Place.

Exercise 170. Rearrange the following sentences, omitting the Preparatory Adverb there.

1. There was once a wizard. 2. There came a voice from heaven. 3. There was not a tree to be seen. 4. There was a crooked man. 5. There seems no end to his tricks. 6. There came a man of God to Eli. 7. There came a lion and a bear. 8. Behold there appeared a chariot of fire. 9. There appeared to them Moses and Elias. 10. There is no time like the present

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