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264. When there begins a sentence, of course the Subject comes later. In a similar way the Pronoun it is used to introduce sentences in which the real Subject follows the Predicate; as, —

“ It is now time to go."
“It is sad business, this caring for the wounded."

“ It is hard to live rightly.265. In such sentences it is a Preparatory Pronoun. In the sentences given it really stands for the words printed in italics. These words are the real or logical Subjects, as we see if we ask, What is sad business?” “What is hard?” etc. Parse it in such sentences as the grammatical Subject, and parse the logical Subject as in Apposition with it. (See paragraphs 210, 211.)

SENTENCES FOR PARSING [See models for parsing Adjectives, p. 53; Adverbs, p. 61; Prepositions, p. 71; Participles and Infinitives, p. 100; Nouns, pp. 108, 112; Pronouns, pp. 120, 129; Verbs, p. 132.]

[When we are writing out the parsing we may save time by using abbreviations; as sing. for singular; pl. for plural; nom. for nominative; comp. for comparative; rel. for relative; trans. for transitive; prep. for preposition; etc.]

1. The foolish and the dead never change their opinions. 2. For the rights of fair England that broadsword he draws. 3. England expects every man to do his duty. 4. Time writes no wrinkles on thine azure brow. 5. His house was known to all the vagrant train. 6. No useless coffin inclosed his breast. 7. On some fond breast the parting soul relies. 8. The mild southern breeze brought a shower from the hill. 9. Three wives sat up in the lighthouse tower. 10. The freshening breeze of eve unfurled that banner's massive fold. 11. Night sank upon the dusky beach and on the purple sea. 12. I climbed the dark brow of the mighty Helvellyn.

13. Down in a green and shady bed

A modest violet grew. 14. Some years ago, a friend into my care

Some jewels gave. 15. The signal to engage shall be

A whistle and a hollo. 16. I see the lights of the village

Gleam through the rain and the mist. 17. My father lived beside the Tyne,

A wealthy lord was he. 18. There are few who know him. 19. The tall pink foxglove bowed his head;

The violets curtsied and went to bed. 20. Past the woman so old and gray,

Hurry the children on their way. 21. Lightly and brightly breaks away

The morning from her mantle gray. 22. Beneath the crimson arching dome,

Went up the roar of mortal foes. 23. Sing the glorious day's renown,

When to battle fierce came forth

All the might of Denmark's crown. 24. No peace, no comfort could I find,

No ease within doors or without. 25. Happy must be the state

Whose ruler heedeth more

The murmurs of the poor

Than flatteries of the great. 26. The turban folded about his head

Was daintily wrought of the palm-leaf braid. 27. A barge across Loch Katrine flew,

High stood the henchman on the prow.

28. And lo! from the assembled crowd

There rose a shout prolonged and loud. 29. The stranger came with iron hand

And from our fathers reft the land.

30. And at the sound it sunk in haste away

And vanished from our sight.

31. Then my heart with pleasure fills

And dances with the daffodils.

32. His sword was in its sheath,

His fingers held the pen.
33. He did not pause to parley or dissemble,

But smote the warden hoar.
34. Like the river, swift and clear,

Flows his song.
35. The tidal wave of deeper souls

Into our inmost being rolls.
36. Sweet is the dying summer day,

And sweet the hazy after-eve.
37. Within the iron cities

One walked unknown for years. 38. Strait is the way, and few there be that find it. 39. It is of no use to try to win against such odds. 40. There was a little man who had a little

gun. Additional sentences, Exercises 167–170.

ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE SENTENCES

Read again paragraph 57.

266. The most important elements of a sentence are the Subject and the Predicate.

THE SUBJECT

267. The Subject of a sentence may be
(1) A Noun; as, “ John is working.”
(2) A Pronoun; as, “ He is working."

(3) An Adjective used as a Noun; as, The blind should be helped.”

(4) An Infinitive; as, “ To travel is pleasant.” Exercise 171. — Say of what the Subject consists.

1. Books should be handled with care; they should not be injured. 2. The virtuous are the happiest. 3. To read is easy; to think is not so easy. 4. Blessed are the meek. 5. We are expecting our aunt; she is coming from France. 6. Reading maketh a full man. 7. To wait is tiresome. 8. The poor are always with us.

THE PREDICATE

Read again paragraphs 162, 163.
268. The Predicate may be
(1) An Intransitive Verb; as, “ We were talking.

(2) A Transitive Verb in the Passive Voice; as, “The man was arrested.

(3) A Transitive Verb with its Object; as, “Horses eat hay.

(4) A Copulative Verb and the Attribute; as, “ Oaks grow tall,“ Men are animals.

269. Like the Subject, the Object may be (1) A Noun; as, “Bakers make bread.(2) A Pronoun; as, “ We love him."

(3) An Adjective used as a Noun; as, “ You should pity the poor.

(4) An Infinitive; as, “I like to read.

Exercise 172. Pick out the Object and say of what it consists.

1. The baby spilt the water. 2. Plants need sunlight. 3. The gardener sowed seeds. 4. Some one stole the horse. 5. I heard her. 6. We have just met him. 7. Mr. Mason will meet us. 8. She cut herself. 9. They are dressing themselves. 10. The child is learning to read. 11. He tries to succeed. 12. She studies painting. 13. We had begun to dance. 14. They intend to write. 15. She helps the poor.

am he.

270. The Attribute may be (1) A Noun; as,

66 Thou art the man." (2) A Pronoun; as,

· I (3) An Adjective; as, “ It is good.

(4) An Adjective used as a Noun; as, “ These are the merciful.

(5) An Infinitive; as, “The house is to be sold."

(6) A Prepositional Phrase; as, “ The horse is for sale," “ The gun seems out of order.

Exercise 173. In Exercise 115 pick out each Attribute and say of what it consists.

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