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SUBJECT CONTAINING ADJUNCTS

Read again paragraphs 84, 86, 107, 131-133, 135, 210.

271. The Subject Noun, Pronoun, etc. (paragraph 267), may have Adjuncts. When the Subject of a sentence contains Adjuncts we must, in analyzing, separate the Adjuncts from the Subject Noun, Pronoun, etc.

Exercise 174. - Pick out the Subject Nouns, Pronouns, etc., and say what Adjuncts they have.

1. His name is John. 2. The truly polite are always kind. 3. A little ship was on the sea. 4. Peters the baker makes bread. 5. Robinson the tailor sells cloths. 6. Tom's sister is Kate's aunt. 7. The ship, being strong, withstood the storm. 8. The woman, being in great trouble, was weeping. 9. The house on the hill is Mr. Bosworth’s. 10. To teach lazy children is hard work. 11. The path of duty is the way to glory. 12. Every turf beneath their feet shall be a soldier's sepulcher. 13. The really good are few. 14. To play the piano was his delight. 15. To read in bed is bad for the eyes. 16. To be thought an original writer was his chief desire. 17. To eat rapidly is unwise. 18. To read good books is instructive. 19. A wish to please is the root of politeness. 20. Blessed are the pure in heart. 21. To be studious is the

way to learn.

272. The working of Exercise 174 shows:

(a) If the Subject word is a Noun or a Pronoun, its Adjuncts must be Adjective Elements.

(6) If the Subject word is an Adjective used as a Noun, or if it is an Infinitive, it may have Adverbial Adjuncts.

(c) An Infinitive used as a Subject may have an Object or an Attribute.

PREDICATE CONTAINING ADJUNCTS 273. The Predicate without Adjuncts, or the Simple Predicate, is always of one of the four forms described in paragraph 268. Since the Predicate of a sentence always contains a Verb, and since it may contain an Object or an Attribute, it may have

(1) Adjuncts to the Verb,
(2) Adjuncts to the Object,
(3) Adjuncts to the Attribute.

274. As the Adjuncts of the Verb' are either Adverbs or words that do the work of Adverbs, they can be divided into classes as Adverbs can, and they are Adverbial Elements.

Read again paragraphs 109–114.

Exercise 175. Pick out the Adjuncts of the Verb, and state whether they show time, place, manner, or cause.

(a) 1. I shall return in a week. 2. We were up before sunrise. 3. His mercy endureth forever. 4. We lost our dog one afternoon last month. 5. I cannot stay till Saturday.

(6) 6. The travelers met their friends in Louisville. 7. We shall wait for them here at the garden gate. 8. We rowed from Boston to Cambridge. 9. This umbrella was bought in New Orleans.

(c) 10. The boy read carefully. 11. You acted like a baby. 12. The Assyrian came down like a wolf on the fold. 13. We sent the letter by a special messenger.

14. The regiment charged with the bayonet.

(d) 15. They ran to catch the train. 16. We do not live to eat. 17. The poor man could not speak for joy. 18. I did it for your sake. 19. He worked hard to win the prize.

(e) 20. Move slowly here now. 21. I read the letter with. out difficulty. 22. I am sewing this together for my cousin.

23. Through the windowpanes on floor and panel streamed the red autumn sun.

24. Under the walls of Monterey

At day break the bugles began to play. Read again paragraph 272.

275. Whatever may be an Adjunct of the Subject word may also be an Adjunct of the Object; and the Attribute may have various kinds of Adjuncts.

Exercise 176. — Pick out the Objects and the Adjuncts of the Objects, and say what they are.

1. I will take those three books. 2. The girl lost her gloves. 3. Who found Thomas's top? 4. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day. 5. I wield the flail of the lashing hail. 6. I bring fresh showers for thirsty flowers. 7. We met our cousin the architect. 8. We admired Edward the Black Prince. 9. I climbed the dark brow of the mighty Helvellyn. 10. We learn to paint pictures. 11. Have you a friend to swear by? 12. Let us try to climb by this path. 13. They help the very poor. 14. I reached the top of the ladder. 15. Have you read Dickens's novel, “David Copperfield"?

Exercise 177. Say what the Attribute is in each sentence, and pick out and describe the Adjuncts.

1. They are American citizens. 2. They seem unusually pleasant neighbors. 3. He is a man of great ability. 4. We are sure to be pleased by the view. 5. He is generally thought an industrious man. 6. Mr. Williams is considered a fairly good judge. 7. Are you already of age? 8. Did he look ill at ease ? 9. His fault is to keep too quiet. 10. The sick man is rapidly growing worse. 11. One of the woman's peculiarities is to appear so old and feeble. 12. One of the arts of life is to grow old gracefully.

Read again paragraphs 26 and 161.

Exercise 178. — (a) Say whether the words printed in italics are Objects or Attributes.

1. Seeds become plants. 2. Your hat becomes you. 3. The man felt hurt. 4. The man felt his head. 5. The gardener grows apples. 6. The gardener grows old. 7. The preacher continued his sermon. 8. The preacher continued popular. 9. The host tasted the wine. 10. The wine tasted sour.

(6) Say whether the words printed in italics are Attributes or Adjuncts of the Verb. (See paragraph 166.)

1. You look taller now. 2. The child looked behind the door. 3. We feel warmly on that matter. 4. We feel warm. 5. The dog went mad. 6. The dog went madly down the street. 7. The lady appeared faint.

8. The sun appears in the morning. 9. Did you look carefully? 10. Did she look pretty ?

COMPLETE ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE SENTENCES

Read again paragraphs 144-146.
Learn again paragraph 148.

276. Any Simple Sentence, however long, can be divided into two parts: the Complete Subject, and the Complete Predicate.

277. In analyzing a sentence we should name in a regular order the several elements :

First, the Complete Subject,
Secondly, the Complete Predicate;

Then the word elements and the phrase elements belonging to the Subject Noun or Pronoun, etc.,

The word elements and the phrase elements modifying the Verb,

The Adjuncts going with the Attribute,
And those going with the Object.

278. The Adjuncts of any Noun or Pronoun are Adjective elements; and the Adjuncts of any Verb, Adjective, or Adverb are Adverbial elements.

279. Model for Analysis.

“Something attempted, something done,

Has earned a night's repose." Analysis: This is a simple declarative sentence, with the compound subject, “Something attempted, something done,” and the predicate, “ Has earned a night's repose.”

Subject: The noun something in the first member of the subject is modified by the participle attempted, an adjective adjunct; and the noun something of the second member is likewise modified by the participle done.

Predicate: The simple predicate is has earned repose, in which has earned is the transitive verb and repose the object. Repose is modified by the adjective adjunct night's, to which is attached the article a.

Exercise 179. Analyze the following Simple Sentences.

1. The two boys gathered some wood for kindling. 2. We are tired of seeing that ugly sign. 3. The water of the ocean is very blue to-day. 4. There are three ships sailing near the island. 5. That hammock is considered a good one.

6. I see the lighthouse at Cape May distinctly. 7. We walked a mile very slowly. 8. That wall will topple over some day. 9. This invalid's chair is comfortable for a tired person. 10. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast.

11. The very heart of quietness

Is in this churchyard bound.
12. The breaking waves dashed high

On a stern and rock-bound coast.
13. Full many a gem of purest ray serene

The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear.

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