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5. Exercise 35 should be worked more than once, and when similar sentences occur in the reading lesson the children should be asked to pick out the Verbs.

6. Young teachers should avoid the common error of saying that the Verb be tells what a thing is. In the sentence “ Sugar is sweet," is certainly does not say what sugar is. In logic, sweet is the Predicate and is the Copula.

7. The system of diagraming developed in this book has the advantages of accuracy and clearness. A diagram is a graphic representation of the relations of the parts of a sentence, and it should show unmistakably the nature and use of every element. Such graphic representation is economical of time and space, and it is, if not overdone, an excellent means of showing complete grammatical grasp of a sentence. It conduces to the better understanding, and therefore to the better use, of written English.

8. These sentences may prove rather confusing to children, but they will become quite clear if the teacher will make two pupils stand out and personate Mr. Smith and Mr. Brown.

9. The definition of a Pronoun given in paragraph 66 would not satisfy a logician, but a definition which would satisfy a logician would not satisfy a teacher of young children, for it would be unintelligible to them.

10. The method of elementary parsing shown in the text is taken with a slight alteration) from "How to tell the Parts of Speech.” Dr. Abbott strongly (and no doubt rightly) maintains that a child should first be taught to see what a word does and thence infer what it is.

11. The word article is from the Latin articulus, a small joint. Dr. Abbott (" How to Parse," p. xix.) defines Article as "A


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rer be fa] ha

(a) Correctly given by the Greeks to their Article, because

it served as a joint uniting several words together.
(6) Then loosely applied by the Latins (as was natural,

seeing they had no Article) to any short word,

whether Verb, Conjunction, or Pronoun.
(C) Foolishly introduced into English and once used to

denote the and a.

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12. “The words yes, yea, aye, no are called Adverbs and seem to have an Adverbial force. . Many [other Adverbs] may be detached in the same way from the sentence that they qualify; for example, certainly, surely, indeed, etc. The Adverb then stands alone by an obvious ellipsis.” — BAIN: “A Higher English Grammar,” p. 73.

13. Children should not be taught to trust to mechanical rules for determining what part of speech a word is, but the peculiarities mentioned in the text are worth noting.

14. The classification of the words mentioned in paragraph 234 bristles with difficulties. The chief merit of the method given for dealing with these words is its simplicity; that should commend it to teachers, though grammarians may find fault with it.

15. The method of dealing with Relative Pronouns adopted in the text was suggested by Dr. Abbott's “How to tell the Parts of Speech.”

16. “The author is utterly at a loss to conceive on what principle the introduction of faulty sentences for correction can be objected to. Specimens of bad spelling for correction are injurious, because, in English, spelling is not reducible to fixed rules, but is for the most part a matter of simple recollection, and if the eye gets accustomed to the look of ill-spelt words, it is often difficult to recollect the correct mode of spelling them. Syntactical errors are of a totally different kind. They admit of being corrected on fixed principles; and as the learner is pretty sure to meet with numerous examples of faulty sentences, both in conversation and in reading, it seems desirable that he should have some practice in the correction of those mistakes which are of most frequent occur

Those who object to exercises of this kind should, to be consistent, exclude from books on logic all specimens of fallacies given for the purpose of correction. Yet those who have studied and taught logic are aware that few exercises are more beneficial.” — Mason: “ English Grammar,” ed. 1861,


p. 173.


[The numbers in this Index refer to pages.]

Active voice 82

comparative degree 51
additive conjunctions 72

comparison of adjectives 50–52
address, nominative of, 107

comparison of adverbs 60
adjective attributes 45, 86, 87

compound personal pronouns 120
adjective phrases 67

compound predicate 73
adjective pronouns 123

compound sentences 75, 152
adjectives 42-54

compound subject, object, etc. 74
defined 49

conjunctions 72–76
comparison of, 50-52

copulative conjunctions 72
misused as adverbs 87, 157

copulative verbs 85–87, 107, 109
used as nouns 54

participles of, 91
adjuncts 49, 69, 96, 97, 99, 110, 112,

Declarative sentences 26
adverbial phrases 68

definite article 45
adverbs 55–61, 87

degrees of comparison 50
comparison of, 60, 61

demonstrative adjectives 44
kinds of, 58, 59

descriptive adjectives 44
agreement of pronouns 119, 125, 156 diagraming 32, 49, 62, 70, 74, 76, 97,
agreement of verbs 130-132, 156
analysis of sentences 31, 49, 61, 70, 76, disjunctive conjunctions 72

do 21
antecedent 119, 125
apostrophe, uses of, 161

Elements 31, 151
apposition 110, 111

exclamatory sentences 29, 149
articles 44, 164

Feminine gender 104
attribute 14, 45, 69, 85, 86, 91, 95, 107,

Gender 104-106
auxiliary verbs 16-21

Have 16-18, 20, 39
Be 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 31, 39, 107, 131 hyphen 162


as 127

Capital letters, rules for, 159

Imperative sentences 28, 149
case of pronouns 120, 125, 127, 155, indefinite article 45

indirect object 135, 136
cases of nouns 106,112, 115, 116, 155 infinitive phrases 97
classification of noms 163

infinitives 94-100
colon 161

without to 98
comma 160

subjects of, 96, 110
common gender 104

interjections 78
common nouns 7-9

interrogative adverbs 59

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Parsing 53, 61, 71, 100, 108, 112, 129, There, preparatory, 138

this and that 123, 156
participial adjectives 92

transitive verbs 83
participles 88–93
parts of speech 40, 78, 80

Understood words 134, 135
parts of verbs 12, 131

uses of infinitives 95, 96
passive voice 82

uses of phrases 67-71
perfect participles 91
person 118, 130

Verbals 88-100
personal pronouns 37, 117–121

verbs 10–23, 82–87, 130–132
phrases 3, 67–71, 97

definition 13
plural number 101-103

kinds of, 82–87
position of adjectives 46

used as nouns 25
positive degree 50

voice of verbs 82, 83
possessive case 111, 112, 117
predicate 2, 26, 30, 85, 142, 145

What 126-129
prepositions 63–71

who 122, 126
used as adverbs 65, 66

words understood 134, 135

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