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6. The ink was spilled by the baby. 7. Two foxes were caught yesterday.

8. Jack has been kicked by the horse. 9. The letter has been written by Tom. 10. The bear has been killed. 11. Five of the boys have been stung by wasps. 12. The trees had been blown down. 13. The thief has been forgiven. 14. The books have been brought by William. 15. The paper has been torn to pieces.

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33. The same thought may often be stated in two ways, thus:

With a Verb telling what a
person or thing does.

With a Verb telling what is done to a person or thing.

Marsh Brothers made this This coat was made by Marsh coat. Brothers.

Mrs. Williams invites Jack to Jack is invited to dinner by dinner. Mrs. Williams.

The expressman brought the The trunks were brought by the trunks. expressman.

The doctor has dressed the The wound has been dressed by wound. the doctor.

The children have strung the The beac have been strung by


the children.

Exercise 32. Change the form of statement in the following sentences.

a. 1. Uncle bought the wagon. 2. The mowers are cutting hay. 3. The masons have built a wall. 4. The cat has scratched the little girl. 5. The dog worried the cat. 6. The rat has eaten the malt. 7. The pigs ate the cabbages.

b. 8. The watch has been mended by the jeweler. 9. The boat was broken by the waves. 10. Light is given by the sun. 11. The pavements have been washed by the rain. 12. Silk and cloth are sold by merchants. 13. America was discovered by Columbus. 14. The medicine was prepared by the doctor. 15. The boys were overtaken by the carriage.


34. Shall, should, will, and would are used in helping other Verbs; as, "I1 shall see my father to-morrow"; "We1 should return next week"; "The postman will come soon"; "The flowers would wither in the sun."

35. Be and have (either as helping words or as principal Verbs) may also be used with these helping words, thus:

Be and have as helping words.

I1 shall be traveling to-morrow. These chairs will be sold at the auction.

Be and have as principal Verbs.

I shall be in New York.
We should be early.

They should have left Chicago They will have a treat then. to-night.

Sarah will have found her doll The boy would have a dollar. by that time.

Exercise 33. Pick out the Verbs in the following sentences.

a. 1. Mary will read the letter. 2. We shall buy that book. 3. I should eat the apple. 4. The landlord will sell two farms. 5. The mowers will finish by sunset. 6. We shall stay at Chicago. 7. Fred would like this book.

b. 8. Mrs. Harris will have been with her daughter a year. 9. The children would have been too early. 10. We should have been late. 11. This gardener will have some cherries. 12. I should be glad. 13. We shall have fine days now. 14. Tom will have a new coat to-morrow. 15. You should have a new hat.

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c. 16. They should have gone yesterday. 17. I shall have finished the book by that time. 18. You will have learned your lesson. 19. They would have been too early. 20. We shall have had it a week.

1 I and we and other words of the same kind will be taken up later. They are used like Nouns with Verbs.

36. Do and did, may and might, can and could, and must are used in helping other Verbs; as, "You may go now"; "I could read this all morning"; "We must go home."

Exercise 34.

37. Be and have may also be used with these helping words; as, "Do be quiet"; "I must have a book"; "It may have been my father"; "The work could have been finished by this time."

Pick out the Verbs in the following sen


1. You may tell that story. 2. Perhaps the farmer might lend his horse. 3. The roar of the sea might be heard five miles away. 4. Charles, you may bring me that apple. 5. He can sing very well. 6. This game can be played by three persons. 7. You must be ready at six o'clock. 8. I say I did return the money.

9. It may have been a robber. 10. These chairs should have been mended. 11. You must have talked too loudly. 12. This work could be completed to-morrow. 13. He must have been thought a crazy man. 14. You may have been thinking of what I had said. 15. Thou dost prefer the upright heart and pure. 16. I could have bought a new pencil. 17. John may have been going to your house.

38. Verbs that are used in helping other Verbs are called Auxiliary Verbs. An Auxiliary Verb, together with its principal Verb, is regarded as making simply one Verb.

39. The following are the Auxiliary Verbs: be, have, do, shall, will, may, can, must (and their parts).

40. Do, like be and have, may be used as a principal Verb; as, "I do all the work"; "He did good all his life "; "I have done that exercise"; "I assure you I did do it.”

41. It often happens that when a Verb consists of two or more words the words do not follow one another immediately. Thus :


The bell is not ringing.
Rain was already falling.
The carpenter was badly hurt.

Is ringing.
Was falling.

Was hurt.

Have landed.

The fishermen have just landed.
My father has recently been in Wash-

Has been.

The boys have just been playing foot

Have been playing.


The lawn can be quickly watered.

Can be watered.

Exercise 35.1-Pick out the Verbs in the following



1. Henry will soon arrive. 2. We shall never meet again. 3. Our name is no more heard there. 4. The foe was sullenly firing. 5. The man will certainly come again. 6. John has often written to us. 7. The girls were then playing indoors. 8. The porter was seriously injured. 9. The rider has very quickly returned. 10. Every jolly Jack will soon be coming back. 11. The sea is clearly seen from here. 12. The story was not believed. 13. Her friend has of late been much from home. 14. The birds were merrily singing. 15. The work was nearly finished. 16. The tired child is soundly sleeping now. 17. The wind was softly sighing. 18. The storm is fiercely raging. 19. The captain is greatly loved by his men. 20. The prisoner was cruelly treated. 21. The mother was very much pleased with the news. 22. The weather has lately been wet. 23. I can scarcely hear you. 24. I did not believe it. 25. You must certainly go.

42. When a question is asked, the words forming a Verb are often separated. Thus:

1 See "Notes for Teachers," p. 164, Note 5.


Has Will had his breakfast?
Have the cows been milked?
Did you find my knife?


Has had.

Have been milked.
Did find.

Exercise 36.- Pick out the Verbs.

1. Is the horse getting well? 2. Has the baker been here? 3. Are the other people coming? 4. Were the pigs sold? 5. Have the men been digging potatoes? 6. Were those roses cut to-day? 7. Had the gentleman lost his hat? 8. Was the thief caught? 9. Is the water boiling? 10. Have the girls learned their poetry? 11. Has the window been broken? 12. Was the ship wrecked? 13. Can you stay for dinner? 14. Will those men be arrested? 15. Has the paper been lost? 16. Must the work be finished to-day? 17. Why should that schoolhouse not be built? 18. How could any one have known that? 19. When may the children be dismissed? 20. Will your father still be working to-morrow? .

The Verb be may

43. We have seen that, whether it tells of doing or of being, the Verb is always the word that makes the assertion or says something to or about the person or thing. A Verb of doing may say —

(1) What a person or thing does. (See Exercises 20 and 22.)

(2) What is done to a person or thing. (See paragraphs 31 and 33.)

(1) Say that a person or thing exists. (See paragraph 23, Note.)

(2) Help1 to say something about a person or thing. (See paragraphs 23, 27, 31.)

1 See "Notes for Teachers," p. 164, Note 6.

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