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Exercise 37. - In the following sentences pick out the Verbs.
1. The clouds gather. 2. A storm threatens. 3. The clock ticks. 4. The knife cuts. 5. The tailor sews. 6. Roses bloom in June. 7. The gas burns brightly. 8. Annie arrived from Rome. 9. The cat scratched the baby. 10. The miller ground the corn. 11. Sleep is refreshing. 12. The Romans were good road makers. 13. The sailors are in a boat. 14. The butter was quite fresh. 15. The man was very old. 16. The farmer has a new plow. 17. The woman has had a letter from her son.
18. Cows have cloven hoofs. 19. Jack is having his dinner. 20. The king had three sons.
21. The birds are building in that tree. 22. The roses were scattered by the wind. 23. The carpet was beaten this morning. 24. The corn was ground by the miller. 25. The cheeses were eaten by mice. 26. That picture is much admired. 27. Snow had newly fallen. 28. Amelia is always reading. 29. Nelly had often driven the horse. 30. You could not have heard me. 31. Has Bob heard the news ? 32. Is William coming to-day? 33. Were the goods sent home? 34. Must you go so soon ? 35. When shall you return home? 36. How do
37. A fox jumped up on a moonlight night;
The stars were shining and all things were bright. 38. When the rock was hid by the surge's swell
The mariners heard the warning bell.
39. Three wise men of Gotham
Went to sea in a bowl;
40. Such a thing I could never have dreamed of. 41. Do you suppose John could have done this? 42. When shall we three be sitting here again ? 43. I am told that the water has lately been getting muddier. 44. Had you thought the birds might have eaten the corn ? 45. Might you not come, too?
WORDS USED BOTH AS NOUNS AND AS VERBS - 44. Some words may be both Nouns and Verbs. To decide what one of these words is in any given case, consider how it is used.
(1) If it is the name of anything, it is a Noun.
(2) If it says something about or to any person or thing, it is a Verb.
The winds blow.
He gave the mule a hard
blow. The boy is bringing water. He has known want.
The girls water the flowers.
Exercise 38. — Say whether each of the words printed in italics is a Noun or a Verb, and give the reason.
1. There was inuch waste. 2. You waste the flour. 3. Dogs bite. 4. The bark of some dogs is worse than their bite. 5. The girls had a pleasant ride. 6. The girls ride well. 7. The walk was very enjoyable. 8. Old men walk slowly. 9. The laundress irons the shirt. 10. The sailor was put in irons. 11. William has too many irons in the fire. 12. Birds fy. 13. A fly is on the window. 14. Cruel drivers whip horses. 15. The driver has a new whip.
Exercise 39. — Put each of the following words into two sentences, using it as a Noun in the first sentence, and as a Verb in the second.
Work. Name. Harm. Wrong. Right. Salt. Blind. Steel. Hit. Pinch. Run. Love. Milk. Crowd. Shoe. Cover. Drink. Sleep. Guide. Call. Judge. Beat. Doubt. Dream. End. Report. Part. Leave. Stroke. Hate. Guard. Change. Stone. Act. Tread. Retreat. Look. Sup. Mur. der. Mark. Place. Plant. Hurt. Wish. Fear. Hope. Spray. Dance. Fire. Ruin. Sail. Paper. Butter.
KINDS OF SENTENCES
Read again paragraph 2. 45. When we speak or write sentences, our purpose is 1. To tell or state something, as, “ Apples are good.” 2. Or to ask a question, as, “ Are you ready?”
3. Or to express a command or a request, as, “ Come here."
46. A sentence that makes a statement or assertion is called a declarative sentence. The sentence “ John is coming” makes a statement.
Read again paragraphs 4 and 5.
47. There must always be a Verb in the Predicate of a sentence. In many sentences the Predicate is a Verb alone, but usually there are other words in the Predicate besides the Verb, perhaps an Object or an Attribute (see paragraphs 22 and 25).
Exercise 40. — Pick out thus the Subjects and the Predicates of the sentences given in Exercises 20, 22, 23, 26, 30, 32, and 34.
48. The sentence “ Is John coming ?” asks a question. It is called, therefore, a questioning or interrogative sentence.
Notice the difference between the two sentences in each of the following pairs :
Stating or Declarative Sentence.
Questioning or Interrogative Sen
Rain is falling
Is rain falling ?
Has Fred arrived ?
Should Frances wait?
Did Baby fall ?
Can some birds sing ? Exercise 41.—(a) Turn into interrogative sentences the declarative sentences given in Exercise 3, and the following.
1. The knife is sharp. 2. Uncle has come. 3. School has begun. 4. Monkeys climb trees. 5. Richard came. 6. The man stood up. 7. The ink was spilt. 8. The rain has ceased. 9. The wheels can turn. 10. The fire might scorch it.
(6) Turn the following interrogative sentences into declarative sentences.
1. Is uncle here? 2. Did Mrs. Brown call ? 3. Will father wait ? 4. Did snow fall ? 5. Did Jane hear ? 6. Should scholars learn ? 7. Must I buy the book ? 8. Can he walk yet? 9. May Henry go with us?
10. Shall we have time?
49. In order to find the Subject and the Predicate of an interrogative sentence, turn it into a declarative sentence; thus:
Question. - Is Fred expected ?
Exercise 42. — Pick out the Subjects and the Predicates of the sentences in Exercise 41, b, and the following.
1. Are you coming ? 2. Did John hear? 3. Was he sleeping? 4. Is she pleased ? 5. Had night begun ? 6. Has spring come? 7. Is mother returning ? 8. Was Susan knitting? 9. Will Mr. Robinson sing? 10. Has the fire gone out?
Exercise 43. — Tell whether the following sentences are declarative or interrogative, and pick out the Subjects and the Predicates.
1. The watch has been broken. 2. Will the watch go ? 3. Are these apples good ? 4. Did you do this to-day ? 5. The paste has become dry. 6. I am writing with black ink. 7. Can you play tennis ? 8. I have just bought a new pencil. 9. The oranges have already been sold. 10. Will you have a seat?
50. In telling or asking a person to do a thing, we do not often mention his name; we say, for instance, “ Come,” 6. Do come.” We
" " Do you come, but the you is left out, or understood.
Sometimes in poetry and in old English the understood word is thou, or ye.
51. A sentence expressing a command or a request is called an imperative sentence. We state the Subject and the Predicate of an imperative sentence thus:
You is put in brackets to show that it is understood.