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(b) Two or more Objects; as, “ I saw William and his sister;" or

(c) Two or more Attributes; as, “I am neither tall nor short;

“ John is of the same height but of less weight.In such cases the Verb is said to have a Compound Subject or a Compound Object or a Compound Attribute.

146. Two or more phrases, joined by Conjunctions, may be Adjuncts of one word; as:

He worked by day and by night.

I bought a blank-book with a poor binding but of excellent paper.

Exercise 101. - Make five sentences having a Compound Subject, five having a Compound Predicate, five having a Compound Object, and five having a Compound Attribute.

147. In diagraming sentences containing compound elements we must always place each Conjunction between the words or phrases it connects; thus:

John and I laughed.
John I laughed

and

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I like traveling neither by land nor by water.

I like traveling

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Exercise 102. -- Diagram the following sentences.

1. She is tall and straight. 2. John and I will bring it. 3. Have you and Mary been there yet? 4. I have lost both my book and my pencil. 5. The pen is old but serviceable. 6. I enjoy life both in town and in the country. 7. I enjoy the life both of town and of country. 8. I am not only weary

but ill. 9. I am ready for the journey or willing for anything. 10. I like peaches, but dislike plums. 11. I have my book, but no pencil. 12. Neither Henry nor his sister will be at home this afternoon. 13. The old man was still strong both in body and in mind. 14. Sarah has worked hard and faithfully. 15. The man was without hat or coat.

148. If a sentence has but one Subject and one Predicate, it is called a Simple Sentence. But the Subject or the Predicate of a simple sentence may be compound (see paragraphs 144, 145). All the sentences in Exercise 102 are simple sentences.

149. Conjunctions may connect not only words to words, or phrases to phrases, but statements to statements.

Thus, in the following sentences whole statements are joined together by Conjunctions:

You may go, but I will stay.
Wide is the gate and broad is the way.

Do you prefer this ink or is that ink better? 150. When two or more statements each containing a Subject and a Predicate are joined by Copulative or Disjunctive Conjunctions, 1 the sentence is called a Compound Sentence.

EXAMPLES OF COMPOUND SENTENCES
One man spoke, and three men listened.
The flowers are cut, but they are not yet dead.

EXAMPLES OF SIMPLE SENTENCES
The story was interesting.
I have read this book and that one.
William and John | are of the same height.

You and I should play and work together. 151. Remember that in a simple sentence either the Subject or the Predicate, or both, may be compound.

1 See pars. 141, 142.

But a sentence is not compound unless it consists of distinct statements (called members joined together by Copulative or Disjunctive Conjunctions.

Exercise 103. — (a) Say which are simple sentences and which are compound sentences.

1. The desk is old and shabby. 2. The books were scattered on the floor and in the closet. 3. His shoes and his clothes were in bad condition. 4. His shoes needed cleaning and his clothes should have been brushed. 5. He was tired and thirsty, but was not discouraged. 6. He was tired, but he was not discouraged. 7. The paper had been lost, but James soon found it. 8. The day is cold and dark and dreary. 9. It rains, and the wind is never weary. 10. Yesterday I was reading in an old book the story of Arthur and his Round Table.

(6) Make five simple sentences and five compound sentences.

152. The statements in a compound sentence are each analyzed and diagramed the same as a simple sentence. The use of the Conjunction must be mentioned in the analysis and shown in the diagram. Thus:

This tree is old, but it is still hardy and strong.

Analysis: This is a compound declarative sentence. The first member is this tree is old ; and the second member is it is still hardy and strong. The two members are joined by the conjunction but. In the first member the subject noun tree has the adjective adjunct this, and the predicate, is old, consists of the verb is and the attribute old. In the second member the subject is it, and the predicate, is still hardy and strong, consists of the verb is and the compound adjective attribute hardy and strong.

Is is modified by the adverb still.

Diagrams:

Either you must lead or I must. tree is — old

either you

must lead this

but
it is — hardy strong
and

must [lead]" still

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Exercise 104.—(a) Analyze the sentences in Exercise 103.

(6) Diagram the following, and mark each sentence simple or compound.

1. The umbrella is old but still whole. 2. Neither this man sinned nor his parents. 3. The workman finished his work and then went home. 4. He ran to the station but he missed the train. 5. William or his sister will be there. 6. I forget the beginning of the story but I remember the end. 7. It happened on Thursday or on Friday. 8. Troy was taken though Hector defended it.

9. Now there came both mist and snow,

And it grew wondrous cold. 10. The trees are Indian princes,

But soon they'll turn to ghosts.

1 In diagrams, words that are “ understood” are put in brackets.

INTERJECTIONS

153. Certain words which have no very clear meaning are used to show different kinds of feelings. Thus to show joy we say “Hurrah !” “Aha!”; to show sorrow we say “Ah!” “Alas!"; to call attention we say “Hey!” “ Ho!” “Hollo!” These and similar words really form no part of the sentences in which they occur.

Exercise 105. - Pick out the words which show some feeling.

1. Aha! is it you ? 2. Alas! poor Yorick. 3. Tush! never tell me that. 4. Well-a-day! it is but too true. 5. Tut, tut ! that is all nonsense. 6. Hey! come here. 7. O for a falconer's voice! 8. Hurrah ! our side has won. 9. Bravo! that was well done. 10. Fie! a soldier, and afraid! 11. Ah! the cowards. 12. Oh! what beautiful flowers.

Learn

154. An Interjection is a word thrown into a sentence to express some feeling.

Strictly speaking, the Interjection is no part of speech.

REVIEW

See also the Review on page 33.

We have now learned to know the eight kinds of words, or, as they are called, the eight parts of speech: Nouns, Verbs, Pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections.

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