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is a word used as the name of something. A Verb is a word used to tell something to or about a
person or thing. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun. An Adjective is a word used with a Noun (or a Pronoun)
to describe or to limit that which the Noun denotes. An Adverb is a word used to modify a Verb, an Adjec
tive, another Adverb, or a statement. A Preposition is a word placed before a Noun, or a Pro
noun, to show the relation between the person or thing named and what is denoted by some other word in the
sentence. A Conjunction is a word used to join a word or group of
words to another word or group of words. An Interjection is a word thrown into a sentence to ex
press some feeling Adjectives are Descriptive (showing what kind), Quantitative (showing how much or how many), or Demonstrative (showing which one or ones).
The Adjectives an, a, and the are called Articles. An or a is the Indefinite, and the the Definite Article.
The three Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives or Adverbs are the Positive, the Comparative, and the Superlative.
Adverbs are classified as of Time, Place, Manner, or Degree, Adverbs of Assertion, and Interrogative Adverbs.
A Preposition with its object (and the Adjuncts, if any) forms a phrase. A Phrase may be an Adjunct of a Noun or Pronoun,
and is then called an Adjective Phrase. A Phrase may modify a Verb, an Adjective, an Adverb,
or a statement, and is then called an Adverbial Phrase. A Phrase may be an Attribute after the Verb be.
Conjunctions may be Copulative (such as and) or Disjunctive (such as but, or).
By the aid of Conjunctions we may have compound Predicates, or Compound Subjects, Objects, Attributes, or phrases.
A Simple Sentence is one that has but one Subject and one Predicate, though either or both may be compound.
When statements, each containing a Subject and a Predicate, are joined by Copulative or Disjunctive Conjunctions the resulting sentence is called a Compound Sentence.
Parsing is telling the facts about the class and form of a word, and its relation to other words in the sentence.
Analysis is telling what the different parts (or elements) of a sentence are, and what the use of each part is, or its relation to the rest of the sentence.
Exercise 106. – Say what part of speech each word printed in italics is.
1. Farmers till the ground. 2. The miller ground the corn. 3. Stay till Sunday. 4. Look in the till. 5. Mary lives in a beautiful place. 6. Place the candle on the table. 7. The people pay taxes. 8. The king taxes the people. 9. The laborer's pay is small. 10. The laborer is worthy of his hire. 11. The farmers hire servants. 12. The weather is fine. 13. The ship can weather the storm. 14. Ring the bell. 15. Jane has a pretty ring. 16. There is a fly on the window. 17. Swallows fly very far. 18. Bob is a fast pony. 19. Bob runs fast. 20. The soldiers gave three cheers. 21. The father cheers his little boy. 22. The boy was little hurt. 23. Who can calm the stormy sea ? 24. After the storm comes a calm. 25. The day was calm.
26. No man
can still the waves. 27. The waves
28. The waves are still raging. 29. Whisky is made in a still. 30. The children made a snow
31. There is snow on the mountain. 32. The mountain
air is keen. 33. The summer sun is warm. 34. The sun is warm in summer. 35. Shepherds water their flocks.
Exercise 107.—(a) Say whether the following sentences are simple or compound.
(6) Diagram the sentences, or parse the words in them, as the teacher may direct.
1. The days are cold, and the nights are long. 2. The kitten sleeps upon the hearth. 3. My little white kitten now wants her breakfast. 4. I was very young and foolish at that time. 5. The clouds are scudding across the moon. 6. We were crowded in the cabin. 7. Up rose old Barbara Frietchie then. 8. No useless coffin inclosed his breast. 9. Slowly and sadly we laid him down. 10. The dew was falling fast. 11. Hurrah! hurrah! a single field hath turned the chance of
12. Then we kissed the little maiden. 13. Dr. Johnson disliked actors and actresses, but he treated Mrs. Siddons with great politeness. 14. She called on him, and his servant could not readily find a chair. 15. “Everywhere you are much admired; near you no seats can be had.”
VOICE, AND KINDS OF VERBS
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE
155. If Tom broke a window, there was an ACTION (breaking), Tom was the doer of the action, and a window was the Object of it; in other words, it was to a window that the action was done.
156. A Verb when it has an Object is said to be in the Active Voice.
Exercise 108. - Give the Voice of each Verb in Exercises 22 and 24.
Read again paragraphs 31 and 33.
157. In the sentence “Tom broke a window," the Noun Tom is the Subject of the Verb broke, and the Noun window is the Object of it.
In the sentence “ A window was broken by Tom,” the same fact is stated as before, but now the name of that which was the Object of the ACTION has become the Subject of the Verb, and the Verb is said to be in the Passive Voice.
Exercise 109. - Give the Voice of each Verb.
1. The grass was killed by the sun. 2. The purse was stolen yesterday. 3. All the wood has been burned. 4. The road will be mended next week. 5. The farm is well tilled. 6. The watch has just been cleaned. 7. The room has been
dusted carefully. 8. The curtain was torn by the kitten. 9. That house was built by my father; it will be sold next Monday. 10. The streets have been sprinkled to-day.
Additional sentences : Exercise 32.
158. Verbs that express an action received by some person or thing are said to be Transitive Verbs; as, “ I broke my pencil,” “ The thief was caught.”
159. If the Verb is in the Active Voice, the receiver of the action is the Object of the Verb; but if the Verb is in the Passive Voice, the Subject is the receiver of the action.
Only Transitive Verbs have Voice.
Exercise 110. — Pick out the Transitive Verbs and give the Voice of each.
1. I am using the ink. 2. Pompeii was destroyed by an earthquake. 3. Grant gained many victories. 4. The fair was opened by the President. 5. We expect a good harvest. 6. The picture has been torn by the baby. 7. The storm frightened the passengers.
8. The first grade is taught by Miss Vincent. 9. The cuckoo was heard this morning. 10. The mother carried her child upstairs. 11. The prisoner has been caught. 12. The gamekeeper shot fifteen hares. 13. The baker has sold all his loaves. 14. The general was welcomed on his return. 15. Lillian wrote a long letter. 16. The joint will be cooked tomorrow. 17. The baby tore my sister's book. 18. By whom was the ink spilled ? 19. The artist has painted a fine picture. 20. The cake is well made.
Exercise 111. — In Exercises 109 and 110 change the form of the sentences so that the Verbs in the Active Voice are made Passive, and the Verbs in the Passive Voice are made Active.