« AnteriorContinuar »
diation is particularly beneficial, from the THE UNIFORMITY OF NATURE. deposition of moisture which it determines upon the foilage; and it is only to tender We are now in the frequent receipt of Papers plants artificially trained to resist the ri- from America, and other foreign parts, containing gors of an unnatural situation, that this ex
extracts from OUR JOURNAL; and we take this tra degree of cold proves injurious." It may
opportunity of thanking the senders. One of be observed, also, that trees of lofty growth
them, connected with the New York “ Christian
Advocate," has called our attention to an article frequently escape being injured by frost,
in the last named paper, and wishes to see it when plants nearer the ground are quite de
transferred to Our Own. We give it a ready stroyed.
insertion. It is entitled the “Uniformity of
Nature :" -
The lark now carols the same song, and in the
same key, as when Adam first turned his enPOETRY is the language of the imagination and raptured ear to catch the moral. The owl first the passions. It relates to whatever gives imme- hooted in B flat; it still loves the key, and screams diate pleasure or pain to the human mind. It through no other octaves. In the same key has comes home to the bosoms and businesses of ever ticked the death-watch; while all the three men: for nothing but what so comes home to noted chirps of the cricket have ever been in B them in the most general and intelligible shape
ave since Tubal-Cain first heard them in his smithy, can be a subject for poetry.
or the Israelites in their ash-ovens. Poetry is the universal language which the
I Never has the buzz of the gnat risen above the heart holds with nature and itself. He who has second A; nor that of the house-fly's wing sunk a contempt for poetry cannot have much respect
below the first F. Sound had at first the same for himself, or for anything else. It is not a connection with color as it has now, and the right mere frivolous accomplishment (as some persons
angle of light's incidence might as easily produce have been lcd to imagine), the trifling amusement a sound on the first turrets of Cain's city, as it of a few idle readers. or leisure hours-it has is now said to do on one of the pyramids. The been the study and delight of mankind in all tulip, in its first bloom in Noah's garden, emitted ages. Many people suppose that poetry is heat, four and a half degrees above the atmossomething to be found only in books, contained / phere, as it does at the present day. The stormy in lines of ten syllables, with like endings; but petrel as much delighted to sport amongst the first wherever there is a sense of beauty, or power, or
power, or billows which the Indian Ocean ever raised, as it
wows which the Indian Ocean ever raised, is harmony, as in the motion of a wave of the sea,
does now. in the growth of a flower that "spreads its sweet
In the first migration of birds, they passed from leaves to the air, and dedicates its beauty to the
north to south, and fled over the narrowest part sun,"—there is pootry, in its birth.
of the seas, as they will this autumn. The cuckoo Fear is poetry, hope is poetry, love is poetry,
and the nightingale first began their song together, hatred is poetry; contempt, jealousy, remorse,
analogous to the beginning of our April, in the admiration, wonder, pity, despair, or madness,
days of Nimrod. Birds that lived on flies laid are all poetry, Poetry is that fine particle within
blueish eggs in the days of Joseph, as they will us that expands, rarifies, refines, raises our two thousand years hence-if the sun should not whole being; without it, « man's life is poor as fall from his throne, or the earth not break her beasts." Man is a poetical animal : and those of harness from the planetary car. The first bird us who do not study the principles of poetry, act
that was caged, oftener sung in adagio than in upon them all our lives, like Moliére's Bourgeois
the natural spirit. Gentilhomme, who had always spoken prose with
| Corals have ever grown edgeways to the ocean out knowing it.
stream. Eight millions, two hundred and eighty The child is a poet, when he first plays at
thousand animalcule, could as well live in a drop hide-and-seek, or repeats the story of Jack the
of water in the days of Seth as now. Flying Giant-killer; the shepherd boy is a poet, when he
insects had on their coats of mail in the days of first crowns his mistress with a garland of flow. Japheth ; over which they have ever waved plumes ers; the countryman, when he stops to look at of more gaudy feathers than the peacock ever the rainbow: the city-apprentice. when he goes dropped. The bees that afforded Eve her first after the Lord Mayor's show; the miser, when | honey made their combs hexagonal ; and the first he hugs his gold; the courtier, who builds his house-fly produced twenty millions, eighty-three hopes upon a smile; the savage, who paints his
hundred and twenty eggs, in one year, as she does idol with blood; the slave, who worships a tyrant,
at present. The first jump of the first flea was or the tyrant, who fancies himself a god; the
two hundred times its own length, as it was the vain, the ambitious, the proud, the choleric man,
last summer, the hero and, the coward, the beggar and
There was iron enough in the blood of the first the king, the rich and the poor, the young
forty-two men to make a ploughshare, as there is and the old--all live in a world of their own
to-day, from whatever country you collect them. making; and the poet does no more than dė.
The lungs of Abel contained a coil of vital matter scribe what all others think and act.- Hazlitt.
one hundred and fifty-nine feet square, as mine ; and the first inspiration of Adam consumed seven
teen cubic inches of air, as do those of every adult FUTURITY.— Truly and beautifully has it been reader. The cat and the robin followed the footsaid, that the veil which covers futurity has been steps of Noab, as they do ours. woven by the hand of mercy,
arrest; and presently it will scarcely be disON DISTEMPER IN THE DOG.
tinguishable from mild catarrh. HAVING, MR. EDITOR, FROM TIME TO
These facts shew us what a protean malady TIME OBSERVED IN “OUR OWN JOURNAL,” |
JovAwe have to grapple with, and how it is that enquiries from various correspondents as to remedies which are of the greatest service at the best mode of treating DISTEMPER IN THE
one time, and in one case, may be perfectly DOG - I have been induced to collect the
useless at another. Consequently, that there following information (from one of the best can be no such thing as a specific for this authorities we have), both as to the nature
disease; and I shall now show why many per of the disease, its symptoms, and the proper
the proper sons are apt to be deceived, and led to supmode of treatment. Should you deem it pose that they possess a never-failing remedy. worthy a place in “ Our Journal,” it may
The disease varies much with different breeds. perhaps prove both useful and interesting to
The Shepherd's Dog generally cares little
about it. The Cur is not often seriously many of its Readers.
affected. The Terrier has it more severely ; NATURE OF THE DISEASE.-The distemper especially the white Terrier. The Hound is a disease of the mucous surfaces, and was comes next; and after him, the Setter. With imported from France about one hundred the small Spaniel it is more dangerous, and years since. The French veterinary surgeons still more so with the Pointer. Next in order called it “ la maladie des chiens,"—the dis- of fatality comes the Pug; and it is most fatal ease or distemper in Dogs.
of all with the Newfoundland dog. Not only Dogs of all ages are subject to its attacks. does it thus differ in different species of dogs. Many, nine and ten years old, have died of but in different breeds of the same species. * I pure distemper, as well as puppies of only have known," says Youatt, "several gentlethree weeks; but it most frequently appears men who have labored in vain for many years, between the sixth and twelfth month of the to rear particular and valuable breeds of animal's life. It generally proves fatal when Pointers and Greyhounds. The Distemper it occurs very early; or when the dog is more would uniformly carry off five out of six. than four years old. It is highly contagious, Other sportsmen laugh at the supposed danand yet it is frequently generated.
ger of distemper, and declare that they selHowever keepers, or even men of educa- dom lose a dog. This hereditary disposition tion may boast of their specifics, the disorder to certain kinds of disease cannot be denied, is sadly fatal, and destroys fully one-third of and is not sufficiently attended to. When á the canine race. One attack of the disease, peculiar fatality has often followed a certain and even a severe one, is no absolute security breed, the owner should cross it from another against its return, although it confers on the kennel; and especially from the kennel of dog a certain degree of immunity; or if he one who boasts of his success in the treatis attacked again, the disease is usually of a ment of distemper. This has occasionally milder form. Youatt says, he has known it succeeded far beyond expectation." He conoccur three times in the same animal, and at tinues,—“One thing is clear,--that for a dislast destroy him.
case which assumes such a variety of forms, Violent catarrh will often end in distem- there can be no specific; and yet there is not per ; and low and insufficient feeding will pro. a keeper who is not in possession of some tract it. It frequently follows mange ;-and supposed infallible remedy. Nothing can be whatever debilitates the constitution, predis- more absurd. The faith in these boasted poses it for the reception of distemper. specifics is principally founded on two cir
Inoculation used to be recommended as cumstances,-atmospheric influences, and pecuproducing a milder and less fatal disease ; liarity of breed. There are some seasons but by those most experienced, the contrary when we can scarcely save a dog. There are is now believed to be the result. Distemper others, when we must almost wisfully destroy is epidemic, and it occurs more frequently him in order to lose him! There are some in the spring and autumn than in the sum- breeds in which, generation after generation, mer and winter. Sometimes it rages all five out of six die of Distemper; while there over the country; at others it is endemic, are others in which not one out of a dozen and confined to some particular district. dies.” Not only is the disease itself epidemic and This I think is sufficiently explanatory. It endemic, but the form which it assumes / is highly important to beware of confounding is so. In one season, almost every dog with cases which would recover spontaneously, distemper has violent fits; at another, in the with those which are cured. majority of cases, there will be considerable chest affection, running on to inflammation of SYMPTOMS.-As may be supposed from the lungs. A few months afterwards, a great what has been said of the nature of this disportion of the distempered dogs will be worn ease, there is no one symptom which will indown by diarrhoea, which no medicine can variably characterise it. "To show what are
the most frequent and most strongly marked, but when it becomes dark, bloody, and of.. is all that can be done.
fensive, death will ensue. Early symptoms are, gradual loss of appe
The duration of distemper is uncertain. It tite, spirits, and condition—the dog is less
may run its course in five or six days; or it obedient to his master, and takes less notice
may linger on two or three months. When of him. The eyes appear weak and watery,
the emaciation is rapid, extreme, and continuand there is a slight limpid discharge from
ous, the dog will die,-- but let him gain flesh, the nose. In the morning, there will per
even though the purging be violent, and the haps be a slight indurated mucus at the
discharge from the nose copious, and we may corner of the eye. This state of things may
nevertheless confidentally predict his recontinue two or three weeks, without the
covery. In the Pointer, Hound, and Greydog becoming seriously ill. Then a peculiar
hound, there sometimes appears in the whole husky cough is heard-an apparent attempt
of the chest and belly a pustular eruption, to get something from the throat. The dis
which peels off in large scales. The result charge from the eyes and nose will increase;
is usually unfavorable. In these dogs, an and the eyelids will be closed in the morn
intense yellowness often suddenly appears ing. The conjunctiva (i. e. the membrane
| all over them. They fall away more in which lines the inside of the eyelids, and is
twenty-fours than would be thought possible; reflected on to the globe of the eye), will
their bowels being obstinately constipated. be considerably injected,--not intensely red,
They will neither eat nor move; and in two but the vessels will be large, turgid, and fre
or three days death closes their eyes for quently of a darkish hue. Occasionally,
ever. however, the membrane will be vividly red, and the eye impatient of light. Permanent
TREATMENT.--In Distemper in any form, blindness, however, is rarely the consequence
an emetic is the first thing to be given. of Distemper.
Common salt will do, when nothing else is at
hand ; but the best emetic consists of equal At this stage of the disease, the dog will be parts of calomel and tartar emetic, from half evidently feverish. He will shiver and creep
Ta grain to one grain and a half of each for a to the fire, and will more rapidly and evi
dose. Place it upon the back of the tongue. dently lose flesh. The discharge from the
Then, if the cough is urgent, and there is nose will become thicker, stick about the
heaving at the flanks, and the nose is hot, nostrils, plug them up and obstruct the breath
take a moderate quantity of blood, (from ing, and the huskiness will become more fre
three to twelve ounces); and if there has quent and troublesome. The progress of the
been previous constipation, follow this up
with from two to six drachms of Epsom come on. One fit is serious,-if another oc
salts. curs within a day or two, the chances of cure
1 In slight cases this will often cure; but if are diminished, and if they rapidly succeed
the dog still droops, and there is much huseach other, the dog is almost always lost.
kiness, take from half a grain to one grain Fits seldom appear without a warning; and
“ digitalis powder," from two to five grains if watched for, they may possibly be pre
" James's Powder;" and from twenty to sixty vented. Though the dog may previously
grains of " nitre." Let this be made into a have lost his appetite, it returns when the
ball, with a little palm oil and linseed meal; fits are at hand, and he becomes absolutely and give one such twice or.
and give one such twice or three times daily. voracions. Nearly all the mucus disap
(The dose must be proportioned to the size pears from the eyes; and for an hour or
of the animal.)
If on the third or fourth day more before the fit, there is a champing of
the huskiness is not quite removed, repeat the lower jaw, frothing at the mouth, and
the emetic. discharge of saliva. The champing of the Worms are frequently a considerable source jaw is seen twelve hours before the first of irritation in young dogs. If speedily got fit, and a little while before every other. rid of, Distemper will often rapidly disapThere are also usually twitchings of the mouth, pear; but if suffered to remain, diarrhea or cheek, or eyelid. The inflammation of the mem- fits are apt to supervene. From thirty to brane of the nose and fauces, sometimes extends 60 grains of powdered glass should be added along that of the windpipe; and the dog ex- to each ball, as above. hibits decided symptoms of intlammation of Should the huskiness still continue, and the lungs. At other times the bowels become with fever, it is now, if ever, that inflammaaffected, and a violent purging comes on. tion of the lungs will be perceived. The When mingled blood and mucus appear, the quick and laborious breathing, inability to lie case is almost hopeless. While the discharge down, elevated position of the head, and profrom the nose remains white, and free from jected muzzle, will clearly mark it. More smell, and the animal is not so much ema- blood must be taken. The bowels must be ciated, the termination may be favorable ; opened with Epsom salts; and the digitalis,
nitre, and James's powder given more fre- of chalk, ten grains of catechu, five grains of quently, and in larger doses than before. The ginger, and a quarter of a grain of opium,pulse of the dog may be felt at the side. If made into a ball with palm oil; and this, for the digitalis produces an intermittent pulse, a middle sized dog, twice a-day. which it should do, it should be given more When the “Twitchings” appear, a seton is cautiously, and in smaller quantities. necessary, and some stimulating embroca
If the inflammation is conquered, or ittion,-such as the tincture of cantharides, should happen that there is none of any mo- may be rubbed along the whole course of ment, and the huskiness still continues; if the spine. Castor oil, syrup of buckthorn, the discharge from the nose increases, and and syrup of poppies, (in the proportion of the aniinal loses flesh, and is becoming weak, three parts of the first, two of the second, and -the treatment must be changed. Half the one of the last,) should be given morning quantity only of the sedative and diuretic and night, and a tonic ball at noon; but medicine must be given, and some tonic, as if the spasms spread over the animal, accomgentian, from ten to twenty grains; and gin-panied by a moaning, that increases to a cry, ger from five to ten grains, for a dose; be humanity demands that we should put an end added. An emetic must be given occasion to that which cannot be cured. ally, and the bowels must be kept open, but In the treatment of Chorea, (St. Vitus's not purged. The dog must be urged to eat; | dance) which is an occasional sequel of Disand if he obstinately refuse, he must be forced temper, a seton is the first thing. The with strong beef-jelly. If, notwithstanding bowels should be kept moderately open, and this, the strength of the animal continues to the nitrate of silver, (in doses of one-eighth decline, and the discharge from the nose be of a grain, increased to one quarter of a grain, comes purulent and offensive, the fever medi- and made into a pill, with linseed meal) cine must be omitted, and the tonic balls, with should be given morning and night. from thirty to sixty grains of carbonate of Herein is comprised the best method of iron in each, be given. If the dog begins to treatment for that fatal disease,--Distemper. recover, the tonic balls may be continued. All your correspondents will doubtless without the iron; giving now and then an be glad to hear of a medicine which is emetic if the huskiness threatens to return. often successful in Chorea. Youatt says,-Wholesome food and good country air, how “ nitrate of silver will be the sheet-anchor ever, are the best tonics.
of the practitioner in this disease; and if When the discharge from the nose is very used early, will seldom deceive him." We offensive, the lips swelled and ulcerated, and must never make too sure of the recovery of the breath fætid, half an ounce of yeast may a distempered dog. It is a treacherous be given every noon, and the tonics morning disease, and the medicines should be conand night. The mouth should be often washed tinued for a month at least after every sympwith a solution of the chloride of lime. When tom has disappeared. Palsy is sometimes fits appear early, give a strong emetic. Then the termination of Distemper,---- it is usually bleed, and open the bowels with five or six accompanied by Chorea; and is then, in the grains of calomel, and a quarter of a grain of majority of cases, hopeless. opium, and commence the tonic balls. If
ZIG-ZAG. they occur at a later period, all that can be done is to give a strong emetic; open the
BIRDS OF SONG.* bowels with castor oil; and give the tonic balls, with a quarter of a grain of opium in
THE BLACKBIRD. each.
In the treatment of the yellow disease, we THIS BEING the time of year when most shall seldom succeed. One large bleeding, birds are silent, or partially so, from the opening the bowels with Epsom salts, and cold, we propose to introduce to our readers' then giving one-grain doses of calomel twice notice such of the choristers as usually take daily in a tonic ball, sometimes produces a the earliest part in the harmony of the good effect.
season. Every successive week will now be Let it be remembered, that while costive-lightful.
telling of something new, something deness must be obviated, there is nothing more! We are just entering upon a month, in to be dreaded in every stage of Distemper which there is little observable, day by day, than Diarrhoea. The purging of Distemper will often bid defiance to the most powerful astringent medicines. This shows the folly
* Under this head (See our First and Second
| VOLUMES), all our most popular Birds of Song are of giving (as is often done) violent cathartics
being treated of in turn. There has been a very in Distemper. It is of the utmost con
great demand for the separate Treatises ; but it is sequence that, when purging arises, it should not our present intention to publish them otherwise be spee lily checked. First, give a good than in the columns of Our Own JOURNAL.-dose of Epsom salts, then twenty grains | En. K. J..
towards the return of spring. Yet do we remark, en passant, that as this bird is very already mark among the thrushes and the prolific, it is just possible Nature might have blackbirds an increased activity; and certain given it a limited instinct, with a view to an peculiarities in their approaches towards excess of numbers being thereby prevented. each other, and in their “delicate attentions,” | It is quite certain, that if these birds were which convince us they will all “mate" at not thinned in some way, their race would a very early day.
multiply to an alarming extent. They suffer We were busy musing at the remote end greatly during the winter by the “rough of our garden, a few days since, immediately practice" of the " cockney sportsman," who under the shade of some lofty firs—and in the contrives to wound many hundreds, whilst close proximity of the holly and the laurel, perhaps he kills only one; and that, by the when some "well-known sounds" saluted merest accident. our ear, which we recognised as the notes With all the slaughter, however, dealt out of dalliance. Several pairs of thrushes and amongst them during the winter months, we several pairs of blackbirds were busily always find plenty of survivors left to greet agitating the brushwood, and fitting rest us from the top of the highest tree, at the lessly along the whole length of a holly- earliest dawn of spring. We can already hedge; pursuing each other, as these birds do, number in our own immediate precincts at even at this early season of the year. All least a dozen; and twice that number of this gives the note of preparation for early thrushes_with wrens, robins, and tit-mice, incubation.
ad libitum. Sacred is our rural dwelling to We have observed, too, certain incipient the happiness and perfect enjoyment of these signs of approaching familiarity between melodious rogues. Secure from pursuit, cock-robin and his intended associate. The snug in the bosom of their affectionate courtship of these birds is completely sui families, and in the midst of plenty, with us generis. They meet en avance, and as quickly all the feathered tribes are in safeguard. retire en derrière; repeating these preparatory Woe be to him who levels a hollow tube, interviews from morning till night. They “big with mischief," at any of the settlers then separate altogether. They go through on our ground, who come to share the rites the same observances on the morrow, and of our hospitality--we mean if we should the day following; and when their flirtations catch him in the act! Once or twice lately, are completely over, the “ proposal" is made, we have heard a neighbor's gun in active the "offer" considered, and the happy red-“ discharge ” of its enjoined duties; but we breast made a worthy husband for the trust that, after this i notice," it will be put season. His trammels are then thrown off - by for the season. “Cruelty” is indefensible a divorce is mutually agreed upon, and both under any plea. parties once more retire to “Liberty Hall.” | We note these little episodes as we go on;
Whilst the blackbird is busily rehearsing for the innocence of birds, and their winning
ego ; his vernal songs, just let us take a “peep" ways, cannot be too closely scrutinised and
at the construction of his nest. The materials
used are-fibrous roots, green moss, and adinired. The robins and the blackbirds are among
similar matters; the inside being plastered, the very first of the feathered tribe to bestir
or cased, with damp mould, and subsequently
lined with dry grass. The site chosen is themselves for the provision of a family. Ere the trees have any clothing, you may
amy: sometimes a thick bush, sometimes a laurel,
you may and occasionally it is placed on the side of a see, in a private garden, nidification com- |
bank. The number of eggs laid seldom mencing at the very beginning of February.
exceeds five. These are covered with brown The blackbird of last year arrives at spots at the larger end. The period of inmaturity in the following spring ; assuming, cubation is fourteen days. with the change of season, a jet-black, glossy Whilst we now write, the blackbirds in livery, and a bill as yellow as gold. The our immediate neighborhood are full of life orbs of the eye, too, become bright yellow; and energy; and we can ever and anon catch and the whole figure bold and dauntless. the harmony (still low) of their sweet voices. The hen is of a dusky, dark browu color, Their love is already declared, their suit has and her eyes less brilliant than those of the been pressed, their « acceptance" made sure, male.
their “ happiness" perfected. With such a The instinct of the blackbird is by no mutual compact formed-how faithfully and means remarkable. There are very few birds religiously will it be kept! We may speedily indeed so palpably obtuse ; for they build expect the vernal melody to commence in their nests in situations which, for the most earnest. part, expose them to certain robbery by idle. There is much diversity of opinion about boys and iron-hearted men. Hence the the cause of birds singing. Why there should quantities of young birds exposed for sale | be more than one opinion, we know not. at the commencement of March. We would Birds sing, as we sing—because they are