Imágenes de páginas

seeds within, like a little pomegranate with a quantity of coarse meal. The boy, with a an orange-peel husk. The beautiful Tas- pitcher of water, fetched no doubt from the manian Sassafras tree is also a dweller in neighboring pool, was ready to pour it on the some parts of our fern-tree valley, but not meal as the old man wanted it. in those we explored on the present occa- “Filthy enough were the old man, the lad, sion. The flowers are white and fragrant, the platter, and the meal; but the climax the leaves large and bright green, and the was yet to come. There was a smouldering bark has a most aromatic scent, besides fire burning in a sand hole, just by, the fuel being, in a decoction, an excellent tonic of which was principally made up of camels' medicine. The wood is hard and white, dung. When the dough was sufficiently with scarcely any visible grain, but is kneaded, the old man spread it out with his marked or shaded with light brown in irre- begrimed hands, into a large flat cake ; then gular occasional streaks. Thinking that it opening the fire, he laid the cake upon it, must partake of the pleasant fragrance of its covered it with the hot reeking ashes, and in bark, I procured some to make boxes of, a little time the savory food was baked but found it quite devoid of scent after the to the owner's satisfaction. This was the bark was removed. A block of it furnished ordinary diet of the Arabs of the caravan. Mr. Meredith with an excellent material for On festive occasions, such as I shall hereafter a beautiful toy sailing-boat, which he carved describe, a sheep or a goat is cooked in an out of it for George; and the fine, close, equally primitive way, and washed down by velvety texture of the wood, seems admirably a due proportion of puddle-water. It will be adapted for carving of any kind. The saw- easily imagined, that among people who fare yers and other bushmen familiar with the in this way, a handful of tobacco or a pot of tree, call it indiscriminately saucifax''sar. coffee is enough to make their hearts leap serfrax,' and 'satisfaction."

for joy.”



MR. BELDAM, in his " Recollections of the She sleeps amongst the pillows soft, East," gives this interesting account of his (A dove, now wearied by her flight) journey :

And all around, and all aloft,

Hang flutes and folds of virgin white. “I have already spoken of the savoir faire Her hair out-darkens the dark night, of Khalifa (an Egyptian servant, who acted Her glance out-shines the starry sky; as cook to the party). The entertainments But now her locks are hidden quite, commonly furnished us were worthy of the

And closed is her fringed eye! Palais Royal. Here is his usual bill of fare:

She sleepeth: wherefore does she start ? Breakfast-tea, coffee, hot rolls, and English

She sigheth : doth she feel no pain ? butter, cold fowls or other meat, egga, and

None, none ! the Dream is near her heart! milk. Lunch, en route-cold meat, bread,

The spirit of sleep is in her brain. English cheese, and fruit.


He cometh down like golden rain, a la Julienne, roast or boiled mutton, fowls, Without a wish, without a sound; vegetables, rice, maccaroni, pancakes of the He cheers the sleeper (ne'er in vain) most delicious kind, a variety of condiments, Like May, when earth is winter-bound. and a dessert. Tea and coffee at bed-time;

All day within some cave he lies, liqueur and stout for those who liked them;

Dethroned from his nightly sway,– abundance of Nile water, preserved in glass

Far fading when the dawning skies bottles, of which we partook plentifully at Our souls with wakening thoughts array. meals, and Latakia of the finest quality. Two Spirits of might doth man obey ; “ Throughout the journey we suffered little

By each he's taught, from each he learns : from thirst, and seldom drank during the day The one is Lord of life by day; -a circumstance which I attribute mainly to Th' other when starry Night returns. abstinence from all fermented liquors. I certainly began to think, for the first time in my life, that I should become a gourmand. As a

ENERGY AND VICTORY ! counterpart to this European diet, it


be worth while to know something of the cookery

The longer I live, the more I am certain that

the difference between men,-between the 20 jocosely recommended by the noble author feeble and the powerful, the great and the insig. whom I have already quoted (Lord Nugent). nificant, is energy--invincible determination. À My companion and I walked out this evening,

purpose once fixed ; and then,-death or victory. and witnessed the following scene :-An old That quality will do anything that can be done Arab sat on the ground, and a lad stood beside in this world ; and no talents, no circumstances, him, preparing their supper. The old Arab no opportunities, will make a two-legged creature had a large earthen pan, into which he emptied / a man without it.—Sir T. FOWELL BUXTON.

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only to see flourishing, in their native element, BY ELIZA COOK.

specimens of a great number of the fish they have

eaten, and a greater number besides they would God hath a voice that ever is heard

never think of eating. There's the fifteen-spined In the peal of the thunder, the chirp of the bird ; stickle-back. What would they think of a dish It comes in the torrent, all rapid and strong, of these for dinner? There's the spider-crab also In the streamlet's soft gush as it ripples along;

—which would hardly tempt, we think, the greatIt breathes in the zephyr, just kissing the bloom; est lover of shell-fish to take him for supper just It lives in the rush of the sweeping simoom: before retiring to bed. There's the craw-fish,” Let the hurricane whistle, or warblers rejoice, likewise, who does not look so tempting as when What do they tell thee but God hath a voice ? he appears at table in his bright military costume;

bnt is of a dirty drab color, hardly distinguishable God hath a presence, and that ye may see from the mud and stones in the midst of which In the fold of the flower, the leaf of the tree;

he is lying. It is curious to watch him scratching In the sun of the noonday, the star of the night; his shelly head, and cleaning himself with his In the storm-cloud of darkness, the rainbow of light; long claws with an action of rubbing them over In the waves of the ocean, the furrows of land; his face somewhat similar to a cat's. In the mountain of granite, the atom of sand; The animals seem quite puzzled how to meet Turn where ye may, from the sky to the sod, the gaze of so many curious eyes. Fish, usually Where can ye gaze that ye see not a God?

bold and daring, are here timid and retiring.

The great delight of a large fish seems to be THE AQUATIC VIVARIUM,

to creep under a big piece of rock, as if the sun

was too much for him, and he wanted to lie in REGENT'S PARK.

the shade and quietly philosophise all by him

self. There he will remain, absorbed in reflecTHE ZOOLOGICAL Society appear to be ever on tion for hours. The only fish that appears in the qui vive for novelty. Animals, with alarm- the least anxious to enter into communication ingly-ugly names, have been introduced from time with lis fellow-creatures, is the ugly-looking to time with great success. They have, however, pike, with his long beak of a mouth that comes had their day; and now there requires“ something to a point, not unlike a pair of grape-scissors, new.” The last novelty is called a Vivarium,” and opens and shuts exactly like one. But and it is indeed a curiosity in its way.

the other fishes, judging from the rapidity with It is a light airy building, sixty by twenty feet which they get out of the way, do not seem to in area, containing around its transparent walls relish the spirit of his communications. The fourteen six-feet tanks of plate glass. Eight tanks young fish are the most restless. They dart will, in the first instance, be devoted to living about with a kind of kittenish playfulness, as if marine animals, and of these six are ready for ex- they enjoyed the sport, and never would be tired hibition. They enclose masses of rock, sand, of swimming. gravel, corallines, sea-weed, and sea-water; and Of the wonderful forms of the different animals are abundantly stocked with crustacea, star-fish, --some so fairy-like, some so twisted and deformed sea-eggs, actinias, ascidians, shelled and shell-less -it is impossible to give a notion. Their colors, molluscs, and fish of the genera gasterosteus, and blending of colors, in endless variety, would labrus, crenilabrus, blennius, gibius, and cottus. puzzle the skill of an artist to describe. Some Thus have we the contents of a whole river under glitter in a complete suit of armor, every scale of a glass shade.

which is of gold. Others are of a light blueish What a lady does with gold fish in her draw- transparency, reminding you of the reflection of ing-room, the Society have been doing with the an amethyst with the sun playing upon it. Some entire inhabitants of a pond. You see a tiny lake look like little mother-of-pearl fishes, such as are poured-fish, stones, pebbles, moss, and all-into used for counters at a round game; whilst others a glass box no bigger than a child's cradle. You remind us of those peculiar purses that ladies look into the box-in shape not unlike an orange sometimes carry, and which are made up of difbox, only somewhat higher-and there you see ferent streaks of color-not two of them being the fishes swimming about, dancing the most alike. Fancy all these flashing and glittering tointricate quadrilles in the water, as easily as by gether, as if they were being continually shaken looking into a glass bee-hive you see the bees hard up in the cage before you. They are not, howat work making honey. More than this—the ever, all beautiful. For instance, there is one Society have dredged part of the ocean, they have little green, spotty, apoplectic monster, with gog. dived to the bottom of the sea, and brought up gle eyes, and a stomach that bulges out worse the most curious collection of sea-weeds and sea- than any officer's breast. This overgrown fellow plants--most of them alive and kicking. In a hobbles along as if he were too fat to get on without short time, the deep will no longer have any the aid of a stick. Nor are the crabs pretty, with secrets hidden from us. The Atlantic, we expect, their spiky claws, that keep opening and shutting will soon be made visible to the naked eye of man. as if they wanted to shear off some poor little fish's We shall be able to see all its treasures—to take head. Still they are amusing. the census even, if necessary, of its marine popu- Perhaps the most curious part of the exhibilation--to record their births, deaths, and mar- tion are the zoophytes and the sea-plants. They riages to be the historians of their daily babits, have been compared in harmony of color to the movements, changes, jealousies, and pitched arrangement of a skilfully-dressed flower-garden. battles!

Some have gone so far even, as to declare that Of course everybody will pay a visit here, if in the beauty of their many hues, they equal the effect of a splendid tulip-bed. This is carry- No. 14. BIRDS.-It is said that, if a bird ing the “poetical feeling” to its extremest limit. should fly into a room and out again, by an

In one of the tanks—there are eight of them, open window, it surely indicates the decease and filled (the marine portion only) with seven of some of the inmates ! tons of sea-water, which is supplied expressly

No. 15. SNAKES.--It is a common belief in from Brighton-are a private party of water tortoises , with whom is allowed to associate a young Dorset, Cornwall

, and Devon, that it is im

many parts of England, particularly Somerset, alligator, black and motionless as if he were made of India-rubber.

possible to kill a snake till sun-down (i.e. the The number of visitors who flock in to inspect setting of the sun), when it immediately the “ Vivarium," is extraordinary. Nor are we dies ! surprised at it. Old people may gain from it much No. 16. SAILORS.-Sailors sometimes make useful information, and to children it will prove a a considerable pecuniary sacrifice for the acsource of endless attraction.

quisition of a child's caul (fætus envelope of All honor be to Mr. Mitchell, the Society's the head), the retaining of which, is to inSecretary, for the admirable manner in which fallibly preserve them from drowning. he has “ got up" this new summer attraction !


considered very lucky to see one of these ZOOLOGICAL FOLK LORE.-No. II.

with its head towards you; and still more BY J. M'INTOSH, MEM. ENT. SOC., ETC. so, if it happen to be a black one ! (Continued from Page 223.)

No. 18. MOLES.-In Devonshire, it is be

lieved that moles begin to work with the flow No.10. Bees.-If stolen, bees will not thrive, of, and leave off with the ebb of, the tide. they pine away and die! They must not be The same is related of the beaver ! bought, it is better to give a sack of wheat No. 19. SPIDERS.-We are informed that, for a hive! If there are bees kept at the in the south of Ireland, spiders are enveloped house where a marriage feast is celebrated, in treacle, or preserved alive, in order to be care is taken to dress up their hives in red or swallowed as a certain cure for ague! scarlet cloth. The foolish people actually No 20. Crows.-To see a crow flying believe that the bees would forsake their alone, is a sure sign of bad luck, and an odd dwellings if they are not made to participate one perched in the path of the observer is a in the rejoicings of the owners. When a death sign of death! occurs in the family, they cover the hive with No. 21. THE OWL.- This innocent, and a black cloth! If they swarm on rotten wood, most useful bird in the destruction of rats, a death must take place in the family! They mice, &c., is still heard with alarm, and reare also said not to thrive in a quarrelsome mains with us as in Chaucer's days :household! The common humble bee also comes in for its share; for if one happens to If it should happen to change the darkness

The oule, eke that of deth the bode bringeth. enter a house, it is a sure sign of death ! If they swarnı in May,

of its ivy bush for the rays of the sun at They're worth a pound next day ;

noon-day, its presence is a sure sign of illIf they swarm in July,

luck to the unfortunate beholder! The disThey're not worth a fly.

cordant screech of the owl has probably been Again, in some counties, we have it thus :

the cause of such superstitious dread as fore

boding evil, &c., and from the circumstance A flight in May is worth a load of hay, A flight in June is worth a silver spoon,

of its being heard only in the dark or A flight in July is not worth a fly.

twilight :

The obscure bird, No. 11. WASPS.— The first one seen in the

Clamor'd the livelong night. season should always be killed. By so doing,

Macbeth. you free yourself for the year from all your so well known and established was the enemies !

character of the owl, as a bird of omen, that No. 12. A CERTAIN CURE FOR SCARLET Shakspeare uses the term metaphorically, Fever.-In certain parts of Ireland, when a applying it to inauspicious persons : person is attacked with this malady, you are

Thou ominous and fearful owl of death, drily requested to cut some of the sick man's

Our nation's terror,--and their bloody scourge! hair off, and put it down the throat of an ass!

Henry VI.-Part 1. Donkeys indeed must such people be! No. 13. WEASELS.-It is considered un

We would advise all who are ignorant enough lucky for a weasel to cross one's path. II- still to hold these birds in abhorrence, to read success is sure to follow. It is also very ill- the humane defence against their destruction luck for a hare to cross one on the highway. by that celebrated naturalist, Charles WaterNor did we meet with nimble feet,

ton, Esq., who threatened to strangle his One little fearful Lepus, –

keeper if ever he molested them.
That certain sign, as some divine,

Taunton, June 15.
Of fortune bad, to keep us.

(To be Continued.)

To be th' Inventor miss'd!



Brook says, "The tree is called niato by the GUTTA PERCHA.

Sarawak people, but they are not acquainted with

the properties of its sap. It attains a considerable Th' invention all admir'd; and each, how HE

size, even six feet diameter, and, most probably, So easy it seem'd

it is plentiful all over Borneo.' Once found, which, yet unfound, most would have thought Impossible.


A more natural apprehension of its failure, arose

from a wanton ‘kill the goose to get the egg'deEOPLE ARE NOW BECOMING culates in little, black, capillary vessels between

vastation of trees by the natives. The sap cirASHAMED OF THE IGNORANCE the bark and the body of the tree. To collect it, which has so long veiled their the native would fella magnificent specimen of a minds; and it is a subject for century's growth, the produce of which would be rejoicing that they will listen of little more than four shillings' value. There is to what is brought before them no property in the forest trees of Malacca and for their improvement. This parts in the vicinity, so that any other method

is a good sign, which nobody than “felling' would not be so immediately procan hail m re heartily than we do.

ductive. European skill will prevent the exterGutta Percha is one of the wonders of the mination system continuing long, and multiply age we live in. Most people are aware of the growth of trees by regular culture ; and also what it is--inasmuch as they see it in daily

acclimatise them in countries where they are not Whether in articles of use or orna

indigenous. ment, it meets our eye wherever we go.

The Gutta Percha Company has endeavored to But, as everybody may not be aware of the promote the method of tapping the trees. This particulars relative to its application, and from which the juice flows in the same manner

is done by making regular incisions in the trunk, mode of preparation, we propose to en- as the maple sugаr of America, or the gum of our lighten them by taking them over the Com- own plum-tree. The sap flows freely. Although pany's works, which are situate in Wharf a great supply is not so readily gained by this Road, on the banks of the Regent's Canal, means, yet the development of the tree is scarcely City Road The subjoined details are care- hindered, and it is ready be tapped again in fully abridged from an article in “ Hogg's three or four years. Before the fluid solidifies, Instructor," '-a publication we have before which it does very quickly, women work it up had occasion to speak of in high terms of into the masses to which our attention was drawn. praise:

The Portuguese, Dutch, and English nations have,

the one or the other, been in the neighborhood of The works of the Company' cannot be mis- the gutta percha tree for nearly 350 years, and taken. The tall chimney towering almost as yet it never became known to them. Its vast high as the Monument, would be conspicuous any- utility has been attested by the extreme rapidity where. Should the visit be at any time more than of the growth of the trade. In 1843, was imimaginative, the utility of thick gutta percha ported, °20,600 lbs.; five years afterwards, the

soles' will be made manifest. The locality can-amount was more than 3,000,000 lbs.; and each not well be invaded nor left without its seal, in succeeding year has increased the amount in a the material of mud, being attached to the visi- degree proportionate. tor's habiliments. Inside the yards are stacks of Chemically, the substance is a carburet of gutta percha, in the state in which it leaves its hydrogen. Its analysis is almost identical with native country; light, honeycomb masses, con- that of caoutchouc by Dr. Faraday, and it presents taining about half a cubic foot, and of the shape the anomalous phenomenon of contracting in boil. of a corpulent lapstone '-an appurtenance of ing water, directly opposed to all the laws of the 'stall' which seems in a likely way of being heat. superseded,

Dr. Montgomery has the merit of first pointing * Percha' (ch sounded as in the English word out its valuable properties, and received the gold perch) is the general name of the trees that pro- medal of the Society of Arts for this very valuable duce the 'gutta,' or gum that exudes from them. acquisition to modern discoveries. Both are Malayan words. Like the caoutchouc, modestly says, 'I may not arrogate to myself the the gutta percha belongs to the natural order actual discovery of gutta percha.' As far back as Sipotacece, or plants that give a milky juice. 1822, he knew of the existence of the tree. It is, however, not indigenous to so great an area While making inquiries at Singapore about as the India-rubber plant. While the latter caoutchouc, several fine specimens were brought flourishes in every part of the torrid zone, the to him ; one, in particular, named 'gutta girek,' former is confined to a large space indeed, but of a softer nature than gutta percha, or gutta only a portion of the East Indies, and generally tuban, as it is more properly called. The doctor amongst the islands. Fears were once entertained was recalled to the Bengal presidency, and had that limited bounds would limit the supply. Pre- no opportunity of prosecuting his inquiries for mature fears ; for with vastly increased and in- twenty years. In 1843, he drew public attention creasing demands, they have been almost forgotten. to it. Previous to its introduction then, it was Singapore is the depot of the trade, but new dis- quite unknown to Europeans, but it was known tricts are constantly being ad led to those from to a very few of the inhabitants of certain Malaywhich supplies have come. Each year, instead an forests. From the trifling uses to which it was of an augury of the last consignment, gives proof applied, it was likely enough to have remained of more exhaustless abundance. Sir James unknown, being used only occasionally for handles

He very

Vol. III.--23.

to parangs (wood-choppers) instead of wood or fact that the gutta percha does not blend with horn.

these foreign matters so as to produce a compound We shall find, at the works in the City Road, substance, but only mixes mechanically with that the workmen consider it advantageous for them. Though softened, it does not become adsomewhat similar duties. Their knives, barrows, hesive; and sometimes it is cleansed by the simple and baskets, have the handles encased in gutta operation of rolling it out to a thin sheet, and then percha. It

possesses a slight but sensible elasti- picking and brushing the surface. The shreds city, which makes it more pleasing to the touch fall into a tank of cold water, upon which they than wood or any other material.

float, and from which they are removed to be subThere is no substance which ever became ap- jected to a second boiling. When again softened, plied to so many useful purposes in so short a time it is ready for kneading, a process similar in prinas gutta percha. Novel appliances multiply every ciple to that of the same name of a more domestic day. Most of these are the design of the work- character. Machinery is brought into requisition men here. Amongst the 200 engaged, are a good here, and strong machinery too. A great roller, many clever fellows.' So says the gentleman with a surface like the grinding cylinder of a who acts as our cicerone; and visitors will not coffee-mill, only infinitely larger, moves horizondoubt it who see their dexterous manipulations. tally upon its axis in a metal compartment in the Uses increase with such rapidity, that the ques- floor. A man throws in a bushel at a time, of tion promises to be, not, "To what can it be ap- what, at little risk, might be pronounced warm plied?' but, “To what purposes can it not be chocolate-paste. While we gaze, it gradually disapplied ?'

appears. The apparatus-or masticator, as it is The works of the Gutta Percha Company com- called—monster-like, seems to have an inordinate prise an extensive series of workrooms, varied in penchant for the delicacy, and disposes of an unlitheir operations as in their appearance. We shall mited amount down its capacious throat. A enter amongst the steam-boilers and engines. If thorough mastication ' ensues inside. Every not quite distracted with the noise, with the hard particle is broken up, and a homogeneous novelty and the multifariousness of the operations, mass is formed by the rolling, and squeezing, and our atiention will first be claimed by what is called grinding it receives. It is now quite pure, and the cutting machine. A modern chaff-cutter with in a condition for any of the subsequent manipua circular wheel bears some resemblance to it; lations in which it may be called upon to take a only this is vastly more massive, and the trough part. In this stage of its manufacture it is best is made to incline. Blades corresponding to those fitted to mix with other substances. Already in the chaff-cutter are fixed into the heavy disc or very many compounds of gutta percha have been wheel, and made to extend a little towards the formed. If greater elasticity be required, it gains trough. Into the trough are put the 'blocks; it by the mixture of caoutchouc'; if hardness, and, as the wheel revolves at the rate of 200 turns combination with sulphur, or the metallic sula minute, they are sliced up, thick or thin, accord- phurets, will give it. Metallo-thianised by this ing as the cutting instruments are disposed. In- latter (a patent) process, it becomes hard as ebony, jury to the machine and annoyance to the work and can be applied to most purposes for which men not unfrequently occur, owing to tricks of wood and ivory are generally used. dishonesty which the Malays have very quickly The bulk of the gutta percha is formed into learnt. Purchases are made by weight, and, to 'sheeting,' which is accomplished by placing it, increase this, earthy matter is continually mixed while soft, upon bands of felt, and passing it bewith the gutta percha, and sometimes even a large tween two steel rollers-a process, in fact, much stone is put in the centre of a block. Unless the like to that of rolling lead. The felt bands afterstone be very large, it is not possible to detect it wards take the sheet a long journey, over and at the time of purchase. Injury to the apparatus under, up and down, for the purpose of cooling it. cannot easily be guarded against.

To aid in doing so, when the material is thick or Purification is indispensable, and fortunately, the weather warm, the surface is fanned and blown the impurities are removed without great diffi- upon in its course. The thickness of the sheet culty. Each slice presents a face full of sinuous is regulated by the distance the rollers are set markings, wbich gives it a pretty and variegated apart ; and to such nicety can this be done that aspect, but one it does not keep Hurled into a an integument is manufactured to supersede oiled tank of boiling water, the whole forms into a soft silk for bathing and hydropathic prescriptions. mass, and a good many of the impurities sink to the At the end of the journey, it is wound off, cold bottom. Two steam-engines of 50 horse power and hard, upon a drun, to a length unlimited. propel the cutting machine, besides setting in But the form of sheeting is only one of its usemotion most of the other machinery.

ful phases. Nearly the earliest use to which Those who have had the advantage of inspect- gutta percha was put, was that of " driving bands.' ing a paper-mill, will recognise several processes The French use it for little else yet. Its suitawhich gutta percha undergoes. When softened, bility for the duty has been much controverted. it is submitted to the action of a machine like the Any visitor to the company's works would think engine for rending the linen rags, and technically it fully established. There they are to be seen in called the teazer. It consists of a large cylinder every part of the building, applied in a variety of enclosed in a box. The cylinder is set with ways, and, amongst others, that of driving the jagged spikes, which work against corresponding machine which serves to cut them out. Making teeth in the box. Going at the rate of 600 or 800 bands is a simple operation. Let us pass on the revolations a-minute, the mass is torn into shreds, sheet, just now rolled upon the drum, and it will and all extraneous matter is released. The pro- reach å framework, in the top bar of which are cess of cleansing is simplified very much, from the fixed and suspended a number of knives cutting

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