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CABBAGE.—The August-sown, which were about two inches deep (if planted in a bed), and pricked out, may now be finally planted, and the five inches apart; choose the roots for having full, vacancies of the autumn-set should be made good, prominent buds, in preference to size; choose the if not previously done.

first week in the month, if possible ; and as in Chives may be divided for increase. This their early state of growth they are extremely sus useful little plant will grow in any soil or situa- ceptible of frost, some covering should be given if tion, and does well planted as an edging to a it occur. back walk; it may be used for all purposes for Roses.—Chinese kinds, and those of robust which Onions are, early in spring, when they can growth, should now be pruned; but do not shorten not be had.

strong-growing varieties much, except those shoots Onions may now be planted for seed; draw a intended to produce wood for next season. Roses drill about three inches deep for them, and set may also be planted, and the soil for them cannot them one foot apart.

be too rich. Peas.- If not put in, sow as recommended last Thorn or Privet hedges may be cut. month, the first favorable opportunity; those sown will not be much later than the same kinds

NEW-YEAR'S-DAY. sown in November, and exceed them in point of

BY HELEN HETHERINGTON. crop. Draw the drills wido at the bottom, and spread the seed regularly, which is better than huddling them together in narrow drills; this

Hark! the bells, with merry peal, should bo particularly attended to in sowing

Hail a happy New Year's-day! Marrowfats and other branching kinds, which aro

Let our hearts respond with zeal, usually sown too thick.

Gratitude shall tune the lay. RADISHES.-Choose a dry and sheltered situa

Cheerful voices we will raise, tion for a sowing of early Radishes. They must And begin the year with Praise. be covered up from severe weather, for which

Storms have visited the earth, Fern is the best material; but any light litter

Thunder, lightning, hail, and rain ; will do. They must be uncovered at every favor

Threatening disease and dearth, able opportunity. The Scarlet Short-top is the

And shipwrecks on the mighty main. best kind to be put in now, and a few Bath or

Earthquakes, too, both far and near, Green Egyptian Cos Lettuces may be sown at Have made the mighty quail with fear. the same time.

RHUBARB AND SEA-KALE may have an increase God has shielded us from harm, of covering now, to cause their early growth. Kindly led us on our way; Rhubarb should occupy a corner in every garden,

Brought us with his powerful arm, however limited; and the cottager will find it use- To behold this “happy day;"" ful and wholesome for himself and children, from We are spared, and living still, its cooling properties. Independent of the cheap To adoro His holy will. pies and tarts which are mado of the stalks, they

Let us bless him for the past, may bo boiled and eaten with bread; by blanch. ing the stalks, which is readily done, they are not

Mercy beams on every hand;

Verily only improved in flavor and come to perfection

our lot is cast" earlier, but one-half the quantity only of sugar is

In a fair and pleasant land. required. To accomplish this, it is but necessary

Gracious favor has been shown,

Countless mercies we have known.
to exclude tho light. A large flower-pot or old
butter-firkin will do, or a few hazel-rods or rails In this season of delight
covered with fern or straw, or any similar means ; Let us think upon the poor;
as circumstances may dictate. If the crowns have Hope has made our spirits light,
been mulched during winter, they will be for- God has bless'd our little store.
warded thereby

Peace has banish'd angry strife,
FRUIT.

Mercy cheers the path of life.
If new plantations of Strawberries were not

Hark! the bells chime merrily, made in July or August, make them now. The

Joy is floating in the wind; old beds should be cleaned, and have a top-dress- May the gentle melody ing of fresh soil and dung mixed. If in rows,

Waft its influence on the mind ! they should be dug between, and a little of the Bless the hearts we love to cheer, fresh soil spread over the plants. For a small CROWN US WITH A HAPPY YEAR! garden, Keen's Seedlings and British Queens, in four-feet beds, top-dressed as above, and renewed

DIARIES AND NOTE-BOOKS. every three years, will be found the most productive. Prune and tie Raspberries, and make fresh

It is a strange thing, says Bacon, that in sea plantations.

voyages, where there is nothing to be seen but FLOWERS.

sky and sea, men should make diaries; but in In favorable weather, edging of various kind land travel, wherein so much is to be observed, for may be planted, as Box, Thrilt, Daisies, Pinks, the most part they omit it,-as if chance were Polyanthus, and London Prido. Auriculas, Car- fitter to be registered than observation ! Let dianations, and other plants, should have free expo- ries, therefore, be brought into use.—Lord Bacon's sure in mild weather. Ranunculus roots plant in advice ought to be universally adopted now; nor mild weather, in rich loamy soil; draw neat drills have we any valid excuse for not adopting it.

64

the ants ;

PHRENOLOGY FOR THE MILLION.* can disperse them? Have the headlong boar

and the powerful bull more need to lend each No. XXXIX.-PHYSIOLOGY OF THE other succour, than the timid hare, and the feeble BRAIN.

insulated quail ?

If it be social lifo which produces certain BY F. J. GALL, M.D.

faculties, how do you conceive that each of the (Continued from page 389, Vol. II.) different species of animals which live in society, LET US Now Pursue another very interesting enjoys faculties so different, so opposite? How and important inquiry :

should the mere plurality of individuals produco

80 many peculiarities, diversities of instincts, pro DoES SOCIAL LIFE GIVE RISE TO FACTITIOUS pensities, and faculties ? QUALITIES OR FACULTIES ?

Let us penetrate still farther into the mysteries Numberless works contain reveries on the of nature. Each species of animals is destined natural state of man, and on the number of good of things. As soon as a species was ordained

to fill a void, to accomplish an end in the order and bad qualities which, as some say; he has acquired, only in social life. In this hypothesis the individuals should be furnished with tho

to live in society, it became necessary that all we easily start with the supposition, that man was made for solitude ; that he has been led, con

qualities necessary to attain this end of the great trary to his nature, to unite himself with other family. Each individual must be fitted for tho

whole society. individuals, to form a family, a tribe, or nation. Chamois, and beaver, had to coincide. Accord

The qualities of each bee, and These new relations, for which he was not designed, have caused to spring up in him all ing as this general end is different, the faculties those vices and virtues, of which, in his natural is destined to form a society, are equally dif

of the individuals of whom a certain number state of insulation, he would for ever have been ferent. The establishment of sentinels among ignorant.

Let us examine, for some moments, the instinct the bustards; the direction of the herd by the of sociability in man and in animals.

leading chamois ; the common labors divided Some animals lead a solitary life, the male even

between several individuals among the bees and

the mutual aid which swine and monseparated from the female ; in other species the keys give each other; the direction of a flock of male and female remain united. In some species, wild geese, always formed in a triangle in their the parents separate from their young, as soon as these are in a state to provide for their subsistence. these animals, at the same timo as the social

flight; all these instincts have been given to In others, the parents and all the race of the year, instinct. form a little society till the return of spring, when the young ones seek to form for themselves an

It is absolutely the same with the human race. Man has been destined to live in common.

No independent establishment; and, finally, several species form flocks, and live in common. In some, As far as we can go back into history, man has

where, and at no period, has man lived alone. a single male couples with several females ; in been united in families, tribes, and nations ; and, others, each male joins for life with his particular mate. All these modes of living brave always been consequently, his qualities must have been calinvariable, and are, by no means, the result of an

culated for society. The phenomena which we arbitrary choico; an evident proof that insulated this union, than those which take place in each

witness in whole races, are no more the effect of existence, and social existence, are natural institutions for the different species of animals.

man in particular. Always, and every where, the Do not believe, what some naturalists imagine, sities and the same talents; always, and every

human race has manifested the same propenthat it is weakness and the need of mutual succour which brings together certain species in here, there have resulted the same virtues and society. While so many powerless insects bring

the same vices, the same employments and the forth and live by themselves, why do the gnats, which we cannot find a law in the Bible ;

same institutions. There exists no crime against the ants, the bees, the hornets, live together by thousands ? The fox is more feeble than the calumny,, theft, usury, incest, adultery, rapo, wolf: but we never see him, like the wolf, asso

murder, had already spread over the earth like ciated with several of his comrades: the wren, virtue, no moral precept, which has not been

a torrent. On the other hand, there exists no the mock-bird, the linnet, the nightingale, insulated in our groves, charm our

ears by their

recommended, no faculty relative to human occumelodious accents ; while the bold sparrow, and pations, which has not been more or less exerthe babbling rook, assembled by hundreds,

cised. Cain was a laborer; Abel, a shepherd ; deafen us from morning till evening. What adthe children of Jubal played on all sorts of wind vantage do the linnets, or the sheep, derive from Cain were skilful workmen in iron and copper;

and stringed instruments; the children of Tubal their union, when a single hawk, a singlo dog, Nehemiah established regulations of police, &c.

The only changes we remark in the progress Under the title of “PARENOLOGY FOR THE MILLION, of human society, consist in this, that the same we have been reprinting, in English, the Immortal Work propensities, and the same faculties, are exercised of Dr. Gall. Thirty-nine papers have already appeared. Of these, thirty-eight will be found in our first and second

on different objects, and produce modified results. volumes. The publication will be continued regularly, The manners, customs, laws, different religious until completed. We hardly need remark that the ceremonies of different nations--all rest upon the observations of Dr. Gall possess an imperishable interest, both for young and old. His ideas originate subjects believe what they regard as just and true ; every

same basis. Every where, men profess to do and inexbaustible,-all tending to the welfare of mankind. ED., K.J.

where, they profess to honor a Supreme Boing;

every where, there are objects of vanity and selves that he had the sense of hearing; for they glory, marks of honor and disgrace; every where could not in our presence render him attentive, there are masters and servants; all nations make either by calling him, nor by sounding a glass war; men and women are united in all climates, behind his ears. His mode of existence is however different their creeds, and the ceremo- tranquil; his attitude and manner of sitting are nies of their union; every where, there are decent; it is only remarked that he is constantly mournings for deceasod husbands and wives, balancing the upper part of his body and his head; children, and friends; and every where is their he salutes by inclining his body to the persons memory honored, whether they embalm their who arrive, and manifests his satisfaction when bodies, place their ashes in urns, or place over they depart. The sexual propensity does not them mounds or monuments. Sing your lines seem to be active in him. He knows a few letters, on the straw, or on the harp; dress your chiefs and even points to the objects which the letters with feathers or with purple; your women, with designate. In other respects, his favorite occuflowers or with diamonds; inhabit huts or pation is to restore to their former place any palaces; it will be still the same faculties which articles which have been displaced. Such is the lead man to act within the circle traced for him result of the hopes which were formed of him, the by his Creator.

efforts which have been made, and the patience But some think to prove that man is born and mildness which a benevolent woman has without propensities and without faculties, and shown towards him. We may pronounce, with that he acquires these faculties merely by social confidence, that these labors will never be crowned life and hy education ; by citing the example of with any better success. some individuals found astray in the woods, who, The wild man found in the forests of Lithuania, having received no education, have all the who is cited by many authors as an example of brutality of animals, and appear to be not only the powerful influence of oducation, was certainly deprived of human faculties, but even of those of a similar being. the least intelligent animals.

When M. de Tracy, in speaking of men in The objection falls, when we learn that these general, remarks that the individual who has resavages found in the forests are ordinarily miser-ceived éducation has less resemblance to him who alle creatures, of in perfect organisation, as has received none, than an egg to a chicken, or M. Roussel and de Tracy have already remarked. an acorn to an oak, he speaks truth only in The following is the organisation of these pre-relation to these unfortunate beings; but the extended savages: Their heads are found to be perience of all times has proved, that they remain either too large and affected with hydrocephalus, simple, whether they live in forests, or continue in or too small, compressed, and deformed ; almost the bosom of their family. The most immoderate always with a scrofulous constitution; the eyes panegyrist of the effects of education, Helvetius, small, sunken, slightly opened upwards, closen is obliged to acknowledge that a favorable orhorizontally; the mouth very large, the lips pen- ganisation is the primary requisite of education. dant, the tongue thick, the neck swollen, the It is difficult to believe that in our populous pace staggering and insecure. Their primitive regions a well-organised man can wander for a organisation is, therefore, defective; they are long time as a savage. Should such an indivireal idiots, who can receive no instruction, and dual be found, who has gone astray from childno education, and it is this fact which accounts hood, it is impossible that in his state of insufor their being found in woods. As they are a lation he should have acquired any knowledge charge to their families, and, as in certain dependent on instruction. But even in this countries the people of the lower classes regard situation, he certainly must have exercised the these unhappy beings as bewitched as faculties which belong to bim as a man. As soon changelings, it often happens, that they expose as such an individual finds himself in the midst them, or allow them to wander at their will of society, he will be seen to develop hunian diswithout interference. It has even been remarked, positions, not only by a prompt imitation of social in hospitals, that these deformed beings have a usages, but by his capacity for instruction. It decided propensity for living in forests, and that will not be possible to imagine, as was done in they always try to escape. They told us at the the case of the individuals referred to, that he has hospital at Haina, near Marlourg, that some of adopted the inode of living and the character the idiots whom they kept there male their of wild beasts. Example and instruction will escape, and that in pursuing them they sometimes soon change his mode of life; or if there is no found others who had escaped before, and who change, the subject is an idiot, and education and

more than fragments of clothing. circumstances can only act upon a man so far as We saw near Augsbourg an insane woman, who he possesses the necessary dispositions, and is prehad been found in a wood. At Brunswick we pared for them by his organisation. were shown a woman completely idiotic; she had Locke, to demonstrate that the qualities of the been discovered in a wood, lying on her side, with mind and soul have an accidental origin in social her eyes open, but unable to articulate.

life, adduces the case of children, who, according The savage of Aveyron, placed in the deaf and to him, still want certain propensities and talents, dumb institution at Paris, is not different from and are destitute of passions. those of whom I have just spoken. He is weak- If Locke had been for a single day a mother or minded to a great degreo; his forehead is very a nurse of children, he would have seen, in a very little enlarged laterally, and very much com- little time after their birth, the most evident marks pressed from abovo downwards ; his eyes are of their passions, or rather of their affections. “ It small and greatly sunken, his cerebellum little is useful,” says Cabanis,“ to remark all those developed. W are not able to convince our passions which succeed cach other in so rapid a

Or

hal noth

manner, and are depicted with so much simplicity that I cannot believe Phrenology will long conon the changing face of children. While the tinue to divide what is so simple into two parts. feeble muscles of their arms and legs can hardly Without the possibility of clearly distinguishing execute some uncertain movements, the muscles the separation, every phrenologist must have felt of the face already express, by distinct motions, the embarrassment occasioned by having two although composed of very complicated elements, fighting faculties (combativeness and destrucalmost the whole succession of general affections tiveness); and those who have not got used to it proper to human nature; and the attentive will the more readily give up one of them, when observer easily recognises in this picture the they find that other and more suitable employcharacteristic traits of the future man. Where ment has been found for its organ, which I will shall we seek the causes of these expressions, now attempt to do. which are composed of so many diverse elements ? Dr. Gall was in the habit of comparing the Where find the principle of these passions, which skulls of the carnivorous and the graminivorous could not have formed themselves at once? Cer- tubes of animals, and he at length came to the tainly not in the impressions of external objects, conclusion, that the most marked difference was still so new, so confused, so discordant."

in the region marked number six on the ordinary bust (destructiveness, of Spurzheim). In this I

agree with him; but I dissent entirely from the POPULAR DISCUSSIONS.

theory he formed as to its function. I think that

we might reasonably anticipate that this would be "DESTRUCTIVENESS" & "COMBATIVENESS." found to be the organ of that faculty, in the

manifestation of which these two tribes of SOME MONTHS SINCE, Mr. Editor, you published animals differed to the greatest extent. Now I somo observations of mine on the subject of Phre- contend that there is not another faculty amongst nology. I now beg leave to offer a few remarks vertebrate animals--man included-in which on the organ and faculty usually called "destruc- there is anything like such a marked difference tiveness. But first, let me say a word or two on as in that of alimentiveness. The graminivorous that of "combativeness," as it is usually called. animal has merely to bend his head to the ground,

The function of this faculty appears to me, to and eat his fill. A small and feeble propensity be that of removing or destroying whatever to eat, is sufficient to induce him to do so; whereas, causes a painful state in the other faculties, or is the carnivorous animal has often to travel many opposed to their being in a pleasant state. It miles, through many weary days, in search of food, may be called anger, or resentment. If we see a and then perhaps to contend for it with animals man cruelly ill-treating another, our benevolenco as large and powerful as himself—animals posis placed in a painful state, and our resentment sessing formidable weapons of defence, and large or anger is kindled against the wrong doer. We proponsities urging them on to the deadly use of feel a desire to injure him. If honors are about those weapons. A class of animals placed under to be conferred upon us, and some one steps in such circumstances, requires, indeed, a large and to prevent it, our anger is kindled again ; but if powerful propensity to feed; indeed their very we had no benevolence, and no love of honors, we existence is incompatible with a small and feeble should not be angry. The faculty is not spon- one. A little mongrel dog in the manger might taneously active, but requires a stimulant. That starve an ox or a horse to death, but who shall stimulant is an unpleasant state of any of the stand between the lion and his prey ? Those who other feelings. A spontaneously active faculty of have witnessed the feeding of the carnivori in the destructiveness, or combativeness, might be found Zoological Gardens, will not easily forget the in the head of a fiend, but surely not in the head natural language they express of the propensity of a human being.

to feed. Suppose that when we were hungry, some one Throughout the whole range of the animal should run away with our food; and when we run kingdom, there is no natural language at all after them they out-ran us,--our alimentiveness to compare with it. No natural language of a would be placed in a painful state, and our anger propensity to kill can be observed ; they scarcely would be kindled against the person causing that open their drowsy eyes on the approach of a state, And in this way may the anger of the human being; and should an expression of natural lion be kindled against the flying deer. The language escape them, it is merely because they lion looks on the deer as running away with his see in that human being just simply so much food. If we had to contend with a man for our food. But just show them a shin of beef, and their food, we should get angry with him for refusing whole frame becomes agitated, their to let us eat. In a similar manner does the lion a terrible, sparkling, and restless activity, their get angry with the bull or elephant, for refusing roar is fearful, and they seem to become possessed to let him eat them. A pugilist in fighting, gets with an all-levouring and intensely-impatient angry with his opponent for refusing to let him desire to get at it. And when reduced to posenjoy the sweets of victory, and for putting his session, who shall dare to touch it? It is never sensitiveness (caution) in a painful state. In- safe to touch the food of the smallest and feeblest animate objects are excitants equally with animate of dogs or cats, yet you may take the hay out ones; and even laws and customs may excite our of the mouth of an ox, or an ass, or horse, and anger towards them. If we see a law or custom tantalise them with it as long as you please. which produces misery, and thus offends our The propensity of the carnivori is not to kill, benevolence, we desire the annihilation, or rather but to cat." In point of fact, there is no necessity abolition, of that law or custom. All this appears for such a propensity, it is not at all required; to me so clearly the function of one faculty only, the only requisite is a strong and stimulating

eyes assume person.

way.

propensity to feed; the killing is the consequence The continuance of the species may be dependent of the eating. It is no more proper to say, that a on other propensities, but the individual exislion in killing and eating a sheep is actuated by tence of the animal' is dependent on this. It one propensity to kill the sheep, and by another cannot go beyond a certain time without food, and to eat the sheep, than to say that the sheep is live. Imagine that time to be nearly spentactuated by a desire to take away the life of the the animal worn away with want and fatigue, grass, and a desire to eat the grass. The life is yet wandering on in pursuit of food; and as that taken away, in both cases, in precisely the same bodily wasting away increases, so does that pro

pensity increase in energy; and when at length I repeat, there is no faculty to be found in food is seen, though that food has been endowed either man or the lower animals, in which such | by nature with instincts to preserve it from great and marked differences exist as in the pro- becoming food, though it possesses powerful pensity to feed. There are no two tribes of ani- means of flight, or deadly weapons of defence, mals differ so much in any other particular as combined with courage, sagacity, and healthdo the carnivori and herbivori in that of the yet the sight of that food is sufficient to compropensity to feed; and we shall look in vain for pensate for all that wasting away, for all that any other organ in which such a marked difference feebleness. The poor, lame, and weary brute of development is to be found. This argument becomes on a sudden possessed of strength, is, if not all-sufficient, of the utmost weight in energy, activity, indomitable courage; and he deciding the question.

rushes on to his prey, regardless of danger to Buffon appears to have seized on the voracity of life and limb, simply and singly actuated by a the carnivori as their most prominent characteristic. desire to eat. He frequently speaks of them as being gorged But it may reasonably be asked, how is it that with prey." of the tigers, he says, " They tear the most ferocious villains have so generally a the body for no other purpose than to plunge their large development of the organ in question ? head into it, and to drink large draughts of blood; My answer will be gathered from the following the sources of which are generally exhausted before remarks: I have observed that, generally, the size their thirst is appeased.” Of the lions in cap- of this organ is a fair index of the stoutness of tivity ho says,-"As his movements are impetu. the

It
appears to

that imme liately ous, and his appetite vehement, we ought not to in front of its organ is located the organ of tho presume that he can always be balanced by the perceptive faculty of taste, and that there is also improssions of education. It is dangerous, there in contact with it the organ of a faculty which fore, to allow him to want food too long, or to influences digestion; and that the members of irritate him unnecessarily.' Again—"He roars this group are generally large, or small, together, at the sight of everything that lives; every object and that when large there is a good digestion, appears to him as a fresh prey, which ho devours and an abundant supply of blood, giving great beforohand with the avidity of his eyes. He me energy to the brain, and body, and making much naces with frightful groans and the grinding of his flesh. Bold robbers and murderers exhibit in teeth, and often darts upon it without regard their daring, much energy at the timo of action. ing his chains, which only restrain, but cannot But we may trace a very intimate connection calm his fury. Of the jagur, He says—“he is betweenthis faculty and crime. Mr. Coombe says, tho tiger of the new world," and " when bis speaking of combativeness,—“When the organ stomach is full, he so entirely loses all courage is large, and excited by strong potations, an and vivacity, that he runs before a single dog. excessive tendency to quarrel and fight is tho Ho is neither nimble nor active, save when pressed consequence. Hence some individuals in whom with hunger.' Of the cougar, he says, it is great, but whose moral and intellectual facul"Though weaker, he is equally ferocious, and ties are capablo of restraining it when sober, perhaps more cruel than the jagur; ho appears appear, when inebriated, to be of a differont to be still more rapacious on his prey; for he nature, and extremely combative!" devours without tearing it in pieces. As soon as A deficiency of food has an effect similar to an ho seizes an animal, he kills, sucks, and eats it excess of intoxicating drink. Extreme hunger successively, and never quits it until he is fully has a sort of maddening effect on the faculty gorged." Of the two together, he says—“ When of anger. The fearful effects produced by a want gorged with prey, they are both equally indolent of food, and also by intoxicating drinks, are seen and cowardly." The wild hog procures his food to an awful extent in the history of the shipwith difficulty. He has to plough for a liveli- wreck of the “Medusa, " an account of which hood; or, in other words, ho has to root in the is published by Chambers, in No. 92 of the ground with his nose; and we find that his organ Miscellany, from which the following extracts of alimentiveness is intermediate between the are taken :-"Now, maddened with liquor, tho graminivorous and carnivorous tribes. Buffon folly of the Mutineers knew no bounds; and speaks of them as follows :-" Their gluttony, as they proceeded to cut the lashings that held the formerly remarked, is equally gross, as their timbers of the raft together, in order to destroy Daturo is brutal," and "though extremely glut- all at a blow.” Again, while tho combat still tonous, they never attack, or devour other raged, some of the mutineers took occasion to animals." Fenelon, in Telemachus, speaks of throw into the sea, together with her husband, the “ Numidian lion, which cruel hunger devours, the unfortunate woman who was on board" (the and which rushes into a flock of feeble sheep-hé raft). To show the severity with which those aro rends, he slays, he swims in blood."

me,

treated who under such circumstances offend Here we have ovidence of a propensity such as against alimentiveness, take the following: has no equal in the whole range of animal nature. Two soldiers were discovered drinking wino

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