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For the tax

Against the tax 5. Representative Emanuel Celler, New York (p. 104).

6. William Rhea Blake, National Cotton Council of America (p. 151).

7. Lewis G. Hines, American Federation of Labor (p. 173).

8. Mrs. Rena Cohen, National League of Women Shoppers (p. 185).

9. Mrs. Florence Geiger, National Council of Jewish Women (p. 188).

10. Margaret F. Stone, National Women's Trade Union League of America (p. 190). 11. Mrs. Dennis E. Jackson, Consum

Conference, Greater Cincinnati, Ohio (p. 194).

12. Mrs. Gertrude Parks, District of Columbia Federation of Women's Clubs (p. 199).

13. Senator Burnet R. Maybank, South Carolina (p. 201).

14. Ella H. McNaughton, American Home Economics Association (p. 205).

15. Sylvia B. Gottleib, Communications Workers of America (p. 206).

16. Harvey W. Brown, International Association of Machinists (p. 215).

17. American Association of University Women, Washington, D. C. (p. 486).

18. American Association of Univer

sity Women, Wisconsin division (p. 490). Oleomargarine is a good source of Fortified oleomargarine has high nufood, but it is not as good as butter- tritional value

1. Wilson F. Douglas, Cudahy Pack- 1. Representative E. A. Mitchell, Ining Co. (p. 304).

diana (p. 119). “Scientific research shows that butter 2. J. D. Henderson, American Assocontains essential nutritional properties ciation of Small Business (p. 123). superior to those of substitute prod- 3. Miss Jean L. Whitehill, Consumers ucts

Union (p. 158). 1. R. C. Beezley, from resolution of 4. Mrs. E. G. Chamberlain, National the Kansas State Board of Agriculture Federation of Settlements (p. 191). (p. 483).

5. John N. Hatfield, American Hos“The first thing a doctor does when pital Association (p. 203). ulcers are diagnosed is to insist that the 6. J. Roy Jones, Southern Association patient cease using foods cooked in veg- of Commissioners of Agriculture (p. etable fats. This is for the simple rea- 208). son that vegetable fats do not dissolve at 7. Mrs. J. Fichtmueller, Jr., League of body temperature. A normally healthy Women Votors of City of New York (p. person can digest vegetable fats, but 487). many of us cannot. Animal fats, such as butter, will dissolve at body temperature.”

1. Representative Charles R. Robertson, North Dakota (p. 485).

"Mother Nature put something into “There are several so-called unsatmilk in the way of fatty acids that are urated or essential fatty acids which not found in vegetable oils and which cannot be manufactured in the body and the scientists have not been able to which must be taken along with the duplicate as yet and probably never will food * * Margarine is an equally be. These animal fats, naturally pres- good source of such unsaturated fatty ent in butterfat, contain a certain un- acids as is butter.” identified growth-promoting factor not 1. Dr. H. J. Deuel, Jr., School of present in natural or fortified vegetable Medicine, University of Southern Calioil products. This growth-promoting fornia (p. 49). factor in butterfat, which is not found “Cow's butterfat is not necessarily esin vegetable oils, is essential in the diets sential for children

because of infants and growing children.” the composition of such butterfat is en

*

*

For the tax

Against the tax 1. Mr. J. C. Mohler, Kansas State tirely different from the fat obtained Board of Agriculture (p. 225), from from human milk. 'Human milk fat in statement submitted by Mr. Charles W. regard to its component acids has more Holman.

resemblance to a typical margarine fat blend than to butterfat.'

Dr. Deuel, quoting Hilditch and Meara from the British Biochemical

Journal (p. 51). “The Leichenger, Eisenberg, and “The results conclusively establish Carlson study is based on records rang- that growing children experience normal ing from 6 months to 24 months. Loose growth in height and weight when their reference has been made, and is made diets contain only fortified margarine in the conclusions of that study, refer- as table fat, as shown by a comparison ring to it as a 2-year study, but there with children fed on similar diets with is nothing to indicate how many or how butter as the source of table fat and by few records actually ran to 2 years. In comparison with standard height and any case the duration is only a small weight tables*

There is no evifraction of a generation time, or for that dence that there is any growth factor matter, only a small fraction of the present in butter which is not present human growth period. The article is in margarine.”

uninformative as to the com- 1. Dr. Anton J. Carlson (Drs. Leichenplete diet.”

ger and Eisenberg), University of Chi1. Hugo H. Sommer, professor of cago (pp. 470–471). dairy industry, University of Wisconsin (p. 402).

2. Statement by Ancel Keys, director of Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene, University of Minnesota, submitted by Hugo H. Sommer (p. 404).

*

PROTECTION OF CONSUMER

Colored oleomargarine cannot easily Oleomargarine taxes limit or remove be distinguished from butter, and is not consumers' freedom of choice by penaliza substitute but an imitation.

ing the sale of artificially colored oleo1. Representative Clifford R. Hope, margarine and not the sale of artificially Kansas (p. 15).

colored butter. 2. Representative Reid Murray, Wis- 1. Representative W. R. Poage, Texas consin (p. 34).

(p. 27). 3. J. C. Mohler, secretary, Kansas 2. Representative Orville ZimmerState Board of Agriculture, statement man, Missouri (p. 18). submitted by Charles W. Holman, sec- 3. Representative L. Mendel Rivers, retary, National Cooperative Milk Pro- South Carolina (p. 38). ducers Federation (p. 225).

4. Representative Robert J. Corbett, 4. H. W. Curtiss, Illinois Agricul- Pennsylvania (p. 109). tural Association (p. 421).

5. C. P. Key, master, South Carolina 5. A. B. Tarwater, Plainview (Tex.) State Grange (p. 220). Cooperative, Inc. (p. 424).

6. Miss Anna Lord Strauss, League of 6. “Oleo and Soybeans," Hoard's Women Voters (p. 155). Dairyman, March 10, 1948, submitted by

7. Miss Jean L. Whitehill, Consumers Charles W. Holman (p. 344).

Union (pp. 156–157). 7. Statement by Representative John 8. Mr. Tyre Taylor, National AssociaByrnes, Wisconsin, submitted by Repre- tion of Retail Grocers (p. 162). sentative Reid F. Murray, Wisconsin (p.

9. Mr. Lewis G. Hines, American Fed346).

eration of Labor (p. 172).

10. Mr. Donald Montgomery, Congress of Industrial Organizations (p. 179).

11. Mrs. Rena Cohen, National League of Women Shoppers (p. 185).

12. Representative Robert Nodar, Jr., New York (p. 200).

13. Ella H. McNaughton, American

Home Economics Association (p. 205). The Food and Drug Administration Public health is safeguarded by purefinds itself powerless to enforce oleo- food laws and punitive oleomargarine margarine regulations where the prod- taxes are not necessary for this purpose.

For the tax

Against the tax uct is produced, distributed, and con- 1. Representative W. R. Poage, Texas sumed within the borders of any one (pp. 29, 31). State.

2. Representative Thomas G. Aber1. Charles W. Holman, secretary, Na- nethy, Mississippi (pp. 19-20). tional Cooperative Milk Producers Fed- 3. A. Lee M. Wiggins, Under Secreeration (p. 299).

tary of the Treasury (p. 20). 2. Representative Charles R. Robert- 4. Shoreline Times, as quoted by Repson, North Dakota (p. 485).

resentative Ellsworth B. Foote, Connecticut (p. 106).

5. Representative Brooks Hays, Arkansas (p. 107).

6. Mr. Edgar 0. Corry, Jr., American Veterans of World War II (p. 153).

7. C. P. Key, master, South Carolina State Grange (p. 220).

8. Miss Anna Lord Strauss, League of Women Voters (p. 155).

9. Miss Jean L. Whitehill, Consumers Union (pp. 156–157).

10. Mr. Tyre Taylor, National Association of Retail Grocers (p. 164).

11. Mr. Lewis G. Hines, American Federation of Labor (p. 170).

12. Mrs. Rena Cohen, National League of Women Shoppers (p. 186).

13. Mrs. Gertrude Parks, District of Columbia Federation of Women's Clubs (p. 199).

14. Mr. J. Roy Jones, Commissioner of Agriculture, South Carolina (p. 209).

15. Mr. Clifford Patton, National Association of Consumers (p. 212).

16. N. B. Betzold, Durkee Famous Foods (p. 435).

17. Representative John L. McMillan,

South Carolina (p. 382). A new package for oleomargarine Coloring of oleomargarine in the now used by eight manufacturers facili- home results in waste of time, effort, tates coloring the product and elimi- and of the product itself. nates greasy hands and utensils, elimi- 1. Representative W. R. Poage, Texas nates wasted product, and colors with- (p. 31). out any streaks in 2 or 3 minutes.

2. Representative Robert J. Corbett, 1. Leo Peters developed the package Pennsylvania (p. 112). referred to (pp. 412 413).

3. Representative Ellsworth B. Buck, New York (p. 117).

4. Representative Omar Burleson, Texas (p. 104).

5. Mr. Edgar C. Corry, Jr., American Veterans of World War II (p. 153).

6. Mr. Lewis G. Hines, American Federation of Labor (p. 171).

7. Mrs. Rena Cohen, National League of Women Shoppers (p. 185).

8. Mrs. E. G. Chamberlain, National Federation of Settlements (p. 192).

9. Mrs. Dennis E. Jackson, Consumers Conference of Greater Cincinnati, Ohio (p. 194).

10. Mrs. Gertrude Parks, District of Columbia Federation of Women's Clubs (p. 197).

11. Representative Robert Nodar, Jr., New York (p. 200).

12. Ella H. McNaughton, American Home Economics Association (p. 205).

For the tax

Against the tax 13. Sylvia Gottlieb, Communications Workers of America (p. 207).

14. Mr. Clifford Patton, National Association of Consumers (p. 211).

15. Mr. Joseph A. Clorety, Jr., American Veterans Committee (p. 215).

EFFECT OF TAX ON PRICES

Oleomargarine taxes interfere with most efficient utilization of national resources.

1. A. Lee M. Wiggins, Under Secretary of the Treasury (p. 8).

2. Representative Emanuel Celler, New York (p. 104).

3. Publication by the Department of Commerce of Oleomargarine Studies Initiated by Paul T. Truitt, submitted by Charles W. Holman, secretary, National Cooperative Milk Producers Fed

eration (p. 333). Weakening or repealing the Federal Oleomargarine taxes raise the price tax on the sale of colored oleomargarine of the product to the consumer, an imwould result in great damage to dairy portant item when the cost of living is farmers and in increasing the cost of so high. oleomargarine to consumers.

1. Representative Brooks Hays, Ar1. Charles W. Holman, secretary, Na- kansas (p. 107). tional Cooperative Milk Producers Fed- 2. Mr. William Rhea Blake, National eration (pp. 293, 301).

Cotton Council of America (p. 150). 2. Statement by Representative John 3. Mr. Edgar C. Corry, Jr., American Byrnes, Wisconsin, submitted by Repre Veterans of World War II (p. 153). sentative Reid F. Murray, Wisconsin 4. Miss Anna Lord Strauss, League of (p. 348).

Women Voters (p. 155). “The saving to the American house- 5. Miss Jean L. Whitehill, Consumers wife by the elimination of that small tax Union (pp. 156–157). (44 cent per pound) would be immeas- 6. Mr. Tyre Taylor, National Associurably small. In fact, the taxes paid ation of Retail Grocers (p. 162). on all oleomargarines cut a small figure 7. Mr. Lewis G. Hines, American in the cost of living."

Federation of Labor (p. 170). 1. Merlin Hull (p. 431).

8. Mr. John H. Hayes, American HosThere will be a shortage of skim milk pital Association (p. 183). for the manufacture of oleomargarine 9. Mrs. Rena Cohen, National League if the tax is removed.

of Women Shoppers (p. 185). 1. Representative John Byrnes, Wis- 10. Mrs. E. G. Chamberlain, National consin (p. 347).

Federation of Settlements (p. 191). 2. Representative Charles R. Robert- 11. Mrs. Dennis E. Jackson, Conson, North Dakota (p. 485).

sumers Conference of Greater Cincinnati, Ohio (p. 193).

12. Mrs. Gertrude Parks, District of Columbia Federation of Women's Clubs (p. 197).

13. Representative Robert Nodar, Jr., New York (p. 200).

14. Mr. John N. Hatfield, American Hospital Association (p. 203).

15. Ella H. McNaughton, American Home Economics Association (p. 204).

16. Mrs. Lillian W. Crum, New York City branch, American Association of University Women (p. 205).

17. H. Frances Boyer, National Education Association (p. 210).

18. Mr. Clifford Patton, National Association of Consumers (p. 211).

For the tax

Against the tax 19. Mr. Harvey W. Brown, International Association of Machinists (p 217).

20. Representative Emanuel Celler, New York (p. 104).

21. Representative Olin E. Teague, Texas (p. 482).

22. Mrs. J. Fichtmueller, Jr., League of Women Voters, city of New York (p. 487).

23. Woman's Club of Chevy Chase, Maryland, Inc. (p 488).

EFFECT OF TAX ON PRICES

"If the 10-cent tax on the coloring Repeal of the excise taxes on both process were abolished so that oleo could colored and uncolored margarine made be packaged, handled, and in every exclusively from fats and oils of doother way resemble butter, it is cer- mestic origin probably would result in tain that this reduction in the cost of a price for the colored product about placing colored oleomargarine on the the same as for the uncolored. market would not be reflected in the 1. Charles F. Brannan, Acting Secreprice that the consumer pays for the tary, Department of Agriculture (p. 2). product.”

If Federal laws were changed to re1. A. B. Tarwater, Plainview (Tex.) move the 10-cents-per-pound tax which Cooperative, Inc. (p. 424).

now exists on colored margarine, we 2. Hugo H. Sommer, professor of would sell colored margarine at the dairy industry, University of Wisconsin same price as uncolored. (p. 406).

1. Kraft Foods Co., Chicago, Ill. (p. 505).

2. Capital City Products Co, Columbus, Ohio (p. 506).

3. Friedman Manufacturing Co., Chicago, Ill. (p. 506).

4. Kent Products, Inc., Kansas City, Mo. (p. 507).

5. Shedd-Bartush Foods, Inc., Detroit, Mich (p. 509).

6. Durkee Famous Foods, Cleveland, Ohio (p 514).

Any reduction in taxes accruing from the abolition of margarine taxes will be passed on to the consumer.

1. Miami Margarine Co., Cincinnati, Ohio (p. 506).

2. Churngold Corp., Cincinnati, Ohio (p. 508).

3. Wilson & Co., Inc., Chicago, Ill. (p. 509).

4 Mrs. Tucker's Foods, Inc., Sherman, Tex. (p. 510).

5. Vegetable Oil Products Co., Inc., Wilmington, Calif. (p. 511).

6. Standard Brands, Inc., New York,

N. Y. (p. 514). “If the color tax is repealed, the white "You need have no concern regarding or uncolored product will practically the possibility of margarine manufacdisappear from the market. When this turers trying to make exorbitant profits happens, it is only reasonable to assume if the taxes were removed This is a that oleomargarine can and would be highly competitive business; profit marpriced only enough under legitimate gins have always been very low, and butter to give it a price appeal.”

competition will definitely keep them 1. Hassil E. Schenck, Indiana Farm low regardless of any change in the Bureau, Inc. (p. 504).

laws."

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