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and consecrated man or woman should rise upon it, at nine o'clock in the
Dr. J. M. Gregory. Mr. President, and Ladies and Gentlemen: The address to which we have listened has scarcely left a word to be said. It has exhausted the whole topic. As the artist —for I can scarcely call him otherwise — the artist as well as orator, was painting his picture, I did hope he would leave, if not some prominent feature, at least one little finger for some body to add to it; but he has left me nothing. All I can possibly do will be to step to the picture and put a little varnish over it; not to adorn it, but to preserve it, for ever, if possible, from fading out of our memories. (Applause.) It has been full of points, but none which come in my direction, and with which I could take issue.
If I could make the ideas presented bear the mark of the school-room, so that you shall, each and every one of you, take and apply them there, I should have done better service than I ever did in my lifetime before in the way of advocating moral education.
It is true, as has been so justly indicated, that without the moral element in the education of the citizenship of this country, in the common schools, there is no just claim on which our school system can be maintained as a public school system. For, unless these schools do make better citizens, citizens who can be
trusted, whose patriotism and whose integrity will stand by all public and private duty — whatever else we may teach, and however we may cultivate the intellect to help men earn their living, we can scarcely justify these schools, which tax the states more than all other public taxes taken together. I know that intelligence fits men to take care of themselves; and I know that, inasmuch as virtue is logical and vice illogical, intelligence will tend to make men virtuous, and ignorance the contrary. SOCRATES was right in this; but I know that if nothing but intelligence is relied upon to give the moral character that shall make good citizens, we trust to a rope of sand, or a broken reed that shall pierce us in our time of trial.
The history of nations has over and over again demostrated the fact that simple intellectual culture, or simple increase of knowledge, will not, in and of itself, make a people moral and upright. The power of self-love is stronger than the love of others, and the power of a present passion more pressing than any abstract knowledge of right. Nay, further, in proportion as you push the intellectual culture of any people, and thus cultivate their sensibilities, you deliver them over to the temptations that gather around them, unless you give a corresponding moral culture. It did not need heavy flanges on the car-wheels when the rate of speed was only ten miles an hour; but when the trains run forty miles the hour, then they need every mechanical protection that it is possible to give them to prevent their running from the track. And if you add vigor and strength to the public life, if you increase the rush of daily events, you must add also a restraining moral power, or you will reap ruin where you looked for beneficent success.
Another point: Some kind of moral education is inevitable. It is impossible to send the intellect of a child to school and keep the heart at home. You can not send one part of the nature without sending the whole. Nay, more: you can not touch one cord in our curious nature and the others do not vibrate. You can not increase the strength and reach of the intellect, so that it shall look with a larger scope over life, without bringing a thousand new objects to tempt the appetite, a thousand possibilities of immoral indulgence. It is, therefore, a matter of stern necessity with us not to adjourn this moral education. One might as well expect to keep life in the body without the flow of blood.
I remember my first visit to the schools of Boston; I remember how there came that day the rousing, thrilling, terrible report that the Lawrence Mill had fallen, and that hundreds were in the ruins. What was the trouble with the Lawrence Mill? It was said afterward, I do not know how true it was, that upon examination it was found that one of the iron pillars by which the several stories had been supported had been so badly cast that the core was not concentric with the rest. It was fair to the view, apparently all sound iron, with no break or crack in it. But there came a moment when some sudden shock revealed the fatal defect, and, the supporting column being crushed, the immense edifice fell, and buried beneath its ruins those who had trusted to it for safety. So, we are casting in the school-rooms the pillars of the state, young souls on whom the future of the republic must rest. Let us make the core concentric. Let us put the heart into education in due place and measure. If we do not, then let us be certain there will come a time when the history of the crumbling state will record that the founders did not do their duty, that the columns of character were cast one-sided and weak.
But if we can do our work properly, we can bid defiance to every danger. We need not fear any thing that may come. We shall have put within the hearts of the children of the republic a guaranty for its safety, a palladium of its future existence, its perpetuity, its progress and power. Write the principles of republican liberty, write the doctrines of the fathers, upon the heart of each single American child, boy or girl, and then will the dissolution of the Union be impossible.
Hon. Joseph White, Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education. When, three years ago, I think it was, in reply to some poor remarks of mine, at the annual meeting of this Association at Trenton, on this topic, a distinguished gentleman, not now living, uttered this sentiment, the Public School for intellectual education, and the Church for moral and spiritual education, and that great educational meeting clapped their hands, sank down with a feeling of despondency and depression,—not because my poor speech was derided, but because I felt there was a heresy in the minds of the teachers which must be rooted out, if we would preserve our American public schools. I thank God that I am permitted to live these three years and to listen to-night to the doctrines of the address presented by our eloquent friend from Cincinnati, whose words, as given to us to-night and as he has published them before, will live as long as the English language is taught to our children. I believe that if such ideas, with such a spirit, control the American teacher, the republic is safe; without them, notwithstanding all our glorious history, we shall die the death of the people who have gone before us. My creed is a brief one, and it is not mine, but that of a leading mind now gone to his rest (Hon. Josiah QUINCY): “There can be no freedom without morality; there can be no morality without religion; there can be no religion without the Bible.”
My friend has explained this beautifully, and has given us the truth, which has been growing on my mind for the last twelve years, in the service of education, that the only true teacher is the teacher of morals; and I may go further, and say that the only true teacher of the intellect is a thoroughly-informed man or woman. It is the man or the woman that makes the impression, and not the marks upon the blackboard; it is the living, breathing words of man or woman, whether it be of the morals or the intellect. Who made Rugby School? Thomas ARNOLD. Who made Lady JANE GREY? ROGER ASCHIAM. Whatever the American character has in it to-day, that is worth any thing, is from the character of a man. Is America in advance in diplomacy to-day; is America generous to her enemies to-day; is American citizenship self-sacrificing to-day; where but in the mind of the model man, the great and good WASHINGTON, do you find that which has conducted her up to that point?
There is a cry abroad, which is heard also in England, no where more so, than our systems of public instruction are a failure, and the people are setting themselves to devise new methods. Our legislative halls are besieged for more aid to industrial schools. It is not by teaching arithmetic or any thing of that kind that we are to make the republic; it is by making character. This done, and the Christian civilization of the nineteenth will be in advance of that of the tenth century, and that of the twentieth will be in advance of the nineteenth. This failing, our civilization will turn backward upon itself, and God will select other people and other nations to carry on the great work of elevating this world.
The following-named gentlemen and ladies were appointed a committee to V nominate officers for the coming year: WARREN Johnson, Maine.
J. Hodgson, Alabama. J. H. FRENCH, Vermont.
W. N. HAILMAN, Kentucky. D. B. HAGAR, Massachusetts.
Miss H. E. HASSLOCK, Tennessee. J. C. GREENOUGII, Rhode Island. W. D. HENKLE, Ohio. Mrs. M. A. STONE, Connecticut.
J. NEWBY, Indiana. N. A. CALKINS, New York.
J. ESTA BROOK, Michigan. ADOLPH DOUAI, New Jersey.
E. C. HEWETT, Illinois.
H. B. Wilson, Minnesota.
G. P. BEARD, Missouri.
N. P. GATES, Arkansas. WM. H. BAKER, Georgia.
John Swett, California. The Association then adjourned.
SECOND DAY'S PROCEEDINGS.
MORNING SESSION.—WEDNESDAY, AUG. 7.
The Association was called to order by the President. Prayer was offered by Rev. D. A. WALLACE, of Illinois. A committee consisting of Miss H. A. CUMMINGS, Missouri; Mrs. M. A. STONE, Connecticut; H. D. PIERCE, New Jersey; D. N. CAMP, Connecticut; and A. P. MARBLE, Massachusetts, was appointed for the purpose of bringing together teachers seeking positions and parties desiring to employ teachers.
Messrs. Z. RICHARDS, D.C.; N. A. Calkins, New York; C. C. Rounds, Maine; J. B. Merwin, Missouri; I. N. CARLTON, Connecticut; J. W. Hoyt, Wisconsin; and N. T. LUPTON, Alabama, were appointed a Committee on Resolutions.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology extended to the Association an invitation to visit its rooms. The invitation was accepted and a vote of thanks was returned.
A communication was received from the Committee of Arrangements for the Pennsylvania State Teachers' Association, inviting this Association to meet that body at its session in Philadelphia, on the 20th, 21st and 22d inst.
Dr. J. W. Hoyt, of Wisconsin, Chairman of the Committee on a National University, presented a verbal report on the action of that committee during the past year.
The Committee on “The System of Normal Training Schools best adapted to the wants of our people” presented the following report, through its chairman, Prof. Wm. F. PHELPS, of Minnesota.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NORMAL TRAINING SCHOOLS.
It is one of the most cheering signs of the times that the subject of the Professional Training of Teachers occupies so liberal a share of attention in the deliberations of this body.
Your committee regard this fact as an indication that a question so vital to the interests of universal education is beginning to be appreciated at its true value, not only by the representative educators of the country, but also by the masses of our people, upon whose cordial support, after all, the success of every measure affecting their interests must largely depend.
At a meeting of the Association held at Cleveland in 1870, a report was presented by a duly-authorized committee on “A Course of Study for Normal Schools.” This report will be found at length in the volume of proceedings, and also in that of the United States Commissioner of Education for the same year. It discussed somewhat at length the deficiencies and the pressing needs of elementary education in this country, and took strong ground in favor of a gradation of Teachers' Seminaries corresponding, to some extent, with the grades in our systems of public instruction. It also urged that an increase of these institutions must take place commensurate with the vast proportions which the common school system of the country has assumed. It closed by submitting an outline of such a course of study and training as seemed suitable for what was styled an elementary normal school. It deferred to a future time the consideration of a curriculum and plan of organization for a higher normal school, an agency which the report claimed was needed for the special preparation of those teachers who are destined to occupy the more advanced positions in our public school system, such as teachers of high schools, superintendents of schools, and the like.
At the same session, an able paper was read by Mr. WHITE, of Illinois, on “The Means of Providing the mass of Teachers with Professional Instruction," the aim of which was to show, as it did show most conclusively, that our normal schools, as at present existing, are totally inadequate in number to supply the needs of the people for trained skill in the education of their children. It urged that in some way the system must be expanded to an extent sufficient to meet this urgent and rapidly-growing public want. Mr. WHITE's paper was also published in the two volumes to which reference has already been made. These documents excited the deepest interest, and led to a prolonged and earnest discussion. The committee refer to them here in order to avoid the seeming necessity for a rediscussion of many topics germane to our present purpose, as well as to present a connected history of this body during the past two years upon the important subject under consideration.
At the meeting held in Saint Louis last year, the necessity for a greater expansion of the means for the professional training of teachers was urged in a paper entitled “The Normal School Problem,” by Mr. PhilBRICK, of Boston; and still another was announced, but not read, by Mr. VERRILL, of Pennsylva